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3 1833 01053 3997 






A Narrative Account of its Historical Progress, 
Its People and its Principal Interests. 


Robert Sidney Douglass, A. B., LL. B. 

Professor of History, State Normal School, Cape Girardeau, Mo. 



Publishers : 


Chicago and New York 




^ This territory of Southeast ^Missouri was 

^ first visited by De Soto about the year 1540. 

'"^ The uext white men who saw it were the 

V yadventurous voyagers from Canada who 

Veached the ^Mississippi from the north and 

passed down toward its mouth, ilarquette 

.O and Joliet and La Salle all visited this sec- 

^ tion, or at least saw it as their canoes floated 

r\' down the great stream. No attention how- 

^ ever was paid to the district until Renault, 

y^ the agent of the Company of the AVest came 

I with his miners and four hundred slaves to 

H Port Chartres with instructions to explore 

IV) the country for the precious metals. This 

V was about 1720. In his search for gold and 
♦ silver he penetrated to what is now the 

^ county of Ste. Genevieve, finding no traces 

V of gold or silver, but finding abundant de- 
\ posits of lead ore. These desposits he began 

to work. Mine a Breton was opened, Old 
;\line located. La Motte was discovered, and 
in other places attempts were made to work 
the rich deposits of lead ore, destined long 
afterward to be famous as among the great- 
est and richest deposits of lead in the world. 
These settlements for the purpose of mining 
natural]}' attracted other people, and about 
the year 1732 there was formed, in the great 
common field three miles south of the present 
site of Ste. Genevieve, the first permanent 
settlement within the limits of the state and 
one of the half dozen oldest towns in the 
Mississippi valley. This settlement known- as 


"le vieux village de Ste. Genevieve," was 
also called "Misere" because of the troubles 
its inhabitants experienced with floods of the 

Ste. Genevieve proved to be only the first 
of a number of settlements within this ter- 
ritory of Missouri. The magnificent plans of 
La Salle, long neglected by the French, at 
last began to be appreciated. France was 
arming herself for the great struggle impend- 
ing with the English and preparing to shut 
them up in the territory occupied by them 
along the Atlantic coast. And so not alone 
along the Ohio and near the Alleghany moun- 
tains, but also along the course of the great 
river itself, settlements were planned, forts 
built, the favor of the Indians courted, in or- 
der to hold the country, if possible, against 
the inevitable attempt at expansion on the 
part of the English. Besides this organized 
attempt to settle and hold the country for 
political reasons, tlie country itself invited 
settlers. Missouri, at that time as always, was 
among the most attractive parts of the great 
continent. Here were all the things to attract 
settlers, and accordingly, at St. Charles, St. 
Louis, Cape Girardeau, and New Madrid 
settlements were planted, and the wilderness 
began to be brought under the dominion of 
the white man. Forests were cleared away, 
mines were opened, towns laid out, commerce 
began to stir, grain was grown, mills built, 
religion was not forgotten and the cross was 


lifted from many an humble church spire. 
The ierritory of New France was fondly be- 
lieved to be destined to great things. 

In 1762, however, by the secret treaty of 
Fontainebleau ceded all her territory west of 
the river to Spain, and the Spanish soon en- 
tered into possession. The transfer was very 
distasteful to the French settlers here, but in 
reality the rule of the Spanish was better 
than that of the French. The Spanish gov- 
ernment undoubtedly dreamed of a great 
Spanish colonial empire west of the river, and 
gave much consideration to the task of 
building it up. Her governors here were in- 
structed to do all in their power to secure 
settlers, especially those from east of the ^Mis- 
^issippi who had had some experience in the 
life of the pioneer. The Ordinance of 1787 
which prohibited slavery in the Northwest 
Territory of the United States, turned a part 
of the tide of imigration across the river to 
the Spanish territory where no such, restric- 
tion was in force. Spain sent to this country 
some of the ablest of her colonial adminis- 
trators who gave much thought and effort to 
the task set them of building up her western 

In 1800, the territory passed again into the 
control of France, and there were again 
dreamed the dreams of a new and glorious 
France in the New "World. However it was 
a time of great stress and storm in France. 
Napoleon was engaged in his herculean strug- 
gle with the English. He needed all the re- 
sources of his vast empire to support him in 
that struggle. The command of the sea was 
denied to France. Nelson and his fleets cut 
France off from her oversea dominions. Na- 
poleon saw the inevitable consequence of try- 
ing to hold the great territory in America, 
known as Louisiana. It must fall into the 
hands of the English. To prevent this, to 

help build up a rival for England, and to 
gain money which he needed, he sold the im- 
mense territorj' of Louisiana to the United 
States for the sum of $15,000,000. And so 
on a, day in 1804 the flag of France was once 
more hauled down from her American pos- 
sessions and the banner of the republic took 
its place. 

That transaction marks an epoch not alone 
in the history of the western territory, but 
also in the history of the United States. The 
territory thus acquired from France, eon- 
tains some of the best and fairest parts of the 
vast domains of our country. Of course the 
transfer meant much to Louisiana. The re- 
strictions on trade, on religious freedom, on 
local self government which France and 
Spain had imposed on settlers within the ter- 
ritory, were at once removed and there 
poured into the new possessions a constantly 
increasing stream of inunigration from the 
older sections of the union. State after state 
was carved from the new territory. ^Missouri 
was admitted to the Union in 1820, taking her 
place at once among the great states. 

The subsequent history of the state is a 
story of marvellous growth. Its vast re- 
sources have been developed, roads and rail- 
roads built, cities and towns have everywiiere 
sprung up. the population has multiplied un- 
til now there are more than 3,000,000 people 
within the borders of ^Missouri alone. He 
who can close his eye to the present, sweep 
awa.v all that civilization has brought, and 
with the imagination call again into existence 
the country as it appeared to De Soto or La 
Salle, awake from the grave the savage In- 
dians who were once its sole population, then 
reclothe the land with its boimdless forests 
and repeople them with the wild animals that 
once swarmed in countless numbers through- 
out all this region, fill the air again with the 


coimtless wild fowl that amazed the trav- 
eler, aud then having restored the past as it 
was, can trace again the steps by which civi- 
lization came, sees before him one of the most 
stirring pages of history. It is the ever in- 
teresting story of man's conflict with the sav- 
age forces of nature, with savage man him- 
self, of his conquest of mighty forests, his 
mastery of the streams, of the expansion of 
little settlements and frontier towns to great 
cities, the change of the rude and hard coii- 
ditions of frontier life for the comforts aud 
luxuries of civilization, the building of gov- 
ernments of systems of education, the spread 
of religion — in a word, he lives again the ex- 
perience of the race in its struggle up from 
the savage conditions of the wilderness to 
the height of civilization. 

To recount this wonderful story in part is 
the purpose of this work. No one can appre- 
ciate more than the author how imperfectly 
the task has been performed. The field is 
vast, the difficulty of .sorting and selecting 
historical material great, aud the time which 
might be devoted to the task, limited. He is 
conscious of many faults of omission, and 
doubts not that many of connuission are 

The sources of material are varied. For 
the early period the monumental work of 

Ilouck, The History of Missouri, must for 
many years be indispensable to the historian 
of .Missouri. It is a rich mine of information. 
Goodspeed's History of Southeast Missouri 
is also valuable. The period of the Civil war 
is adequately covered as yet only by the of- 
ficial reports in War of the Rebellion Records 
published by the government. Conard's En- 
cyclopaedia of the History of ilissouri has 
been freely used. Where possible actual re- 
search work has been relied upon. 

The author's thanks are due and are hereby 
tendered to Hon. Louis Houck of Cape Gir- 
ardeau, for encouragement and assistance ; to 
Rev. J. C. Maple, D. D., whose long acquaint- 
ance with Southeast ^Missouri and scholarly 
attainments render him peculiarly fitted for 
assistance in preparing its history; to Rev. 
Geo. W. Harlan of Farmington, for permis- 
sion to use his unpublished History of the 
Presbytery of Potosi ; to Dr. J. S. Dalton of 
New iladrid; to H. W. Watson of :Memphis, 
for permission to print the account prepared 
by his grandfather. Judge Goah Watson. 

It remains to be said that none of these, 
here named, are in anyway responsible for 
the errors in the work. For them the author 
is solel.y responsible and toward them he begs 
the kindly indulgence of the reader. 


The term, Southeast Missouri, like most 
terms made up from geographical expres- 
sions, is of indefinite application, being used 
in quite different ways by different people 
and at different times. In its widest signifi- 
cance it designates the east half of that part 
of the state south of the Missouri river, 
which contains somewhat more than a quarter 
of the entire area of the state. Sometimes 
its use is restricted to the counties lying in 
the alluvial plains of the Mississippi river, 
frequently called the swamps. Other mean- 
ings are given to the term also, but all of 
them have a vagueness of application which 
can be avoided only by arbitrary definition. 
As here used the term includes the counties 
of Jefferson, "Washington, Iron, St. Francois, 
Madison, Ste. Genevieve, Perjy, Reynolds, 
Wayne. Bollinger, Stoddard, Scott, Cape 
Girardeau, Carter, Riplej', Butler. Missis- 
sippi, New Jladrid, Pemiscot, and Dunklin. 
These counties have an area of twelve thou- 
sand square miles and in 1910 their popula- 
tion was 362,453. 

As the term is here used it is of course 
an arbitrary one, but definiteness in its use 
may not be secured without arbitrary limits 
being set. There are, however, certain con- 
siderations which led to the restriction of the 
term in the manner here proposed. In the 
first place the area chosen is practically that 
included within the three districts of Ste. 
Genevieve, Cape Girardeau, and New Ma- 

drid as laid out by the French and Spanish; 
with but few exceptions all the counties men- 
tioned were settled before the transfer of the 
territory to the United States ; and the larger 
number of the early settlements within the 
state are contained within Southeast Mis- 
souri as the term is here defined. 

Another consideration which led to the se- 
lection of these limits is the fact that not- 
withstanding many striking differences in 
topography the section of the state here 
chosen for discussion has had a fairly uni- 
form development. The causes which led to 
the settlements in one part of the section 
are substantially the same which led to set- 
tlements in other parts, and the general char- 
acter of the settlements and the life of the 
people do not exhibit any great diversities. 

Southeast Missouri, as here defined, con- 
sists of two sections differing widely in phy- 
sical features. The line dividing the two sec- 
tions runs from the Mississippi river at Cape 
Girardeau, southwest through Cape Girar- 
deau, Stoddard, Butler, and Ripley counties 
dividing the latter two into almost equal 
parts; and reaches the state line about half 
wa.v between the east and west lines of Rip- 
ley county. This line is marked throughout 
most of its course by bluffs averaging from 
seventy to one hundred feet in height and 
known as the Mississippi escarpment. East 
and south of this line of bluffs are the allu- 
vial bottoms of the IMississippi, the St. Fran- 


eois, and Little rivers ; west and north of tlie 
lin e is the Ozark plateau. In the alluvial 
bottoms are the counties of Seott. Mississippi, 
New Madrid, Pemiscot, and Dunklin to- 
gether with parts of Cape Girardeau, Stod- 
dard, Butler, and Ripley, In the Ozark up- 
lift are Washington, Jefferson, Iron, Madi- 
son, Ste. Genevieve, Perry, Carter, Wayne. 
Bollinger, Reynolds and St. Francois coun- 
ties and the remaining parts of Cape Girar- 
deau, Stoddard, Butler, and Ripley. The 

a part of the plateau in southern Missoui i 
and Arkansas and to apply different names 
to other parts. In this discussion the term 
Ozark plateau is most frequently used as 
being the most appropriate name by which to 
designate such an elevated region as that we 
are here considering. 

Tliis plateau extends from the Mississippi 
river at St. Louis to the southwest and 
reaches into Arkansas, its eastern and south- 
ern boundarv in ^Missouri is marked bv a dis- 

Capaha Bluffs, Rock Levee Dkive, C.vpe Girardeau 

former section includes about 3,800 square 
miles, the latter about 8,200 square miles. 

The latter of these two sections, which has 
more than twice the area of the former, is a 
high land region being a part of an elevated 
plateau extending through ^Missouri and Ar- 
kansas and sending oft' ridges into other 
states. This plateau has been variously des- 
ignated as the Ozark mountains, the Ozark 
upland, the Ozark uplift, and the Ozark pla- 
teau. Of late years there has been a tend- 
ency to restrict the term Ozark mountains to 

tiuct escarpment or line of elevated, often 
precipitous bluff's. From St. Louis to Cape 
Girardeau, this escarpment is found on or 
near the bank of the ^Mississippi river, but 
south of Cape Girardeau the escarpment turns 
to the southwest and leaves the river. This 
elevated plateau or plain resembles in its gen- 
eral outline, an elevated dome; by some it 
has been compared to an upturned canoe, its 
central axis stretching from the northeast to 
the southwest. The plain is about five hun- 
dred miles in length and two hundred miles in 


width, and has a total area of about seveuty- 
tive thousand square miles. 

The central part of this plain does not re- 
semble a mountainous country, most of it be- 
ing free from any great differences of elf 
ration. It is simplj' an elevated plateau. At 
its edges, however, the plain bears consider- 
able resemblance to mountains, due to the ac- 
tion of the streams which have worn down 
their valleys at the edge of the plateau, 
leaving the land between the valleys to stand 
np as elevated and distinct hills or moun- 
tains. Through the central part of the 
plateau the fall of the streams is not very 
great, and consequently their action of wear- 
ing down their valleys has been slow. At the 
edge of the plateau, however, the slope is 
great, the average descent from the plateau to 
the Mississippi plain being about one hun- 
dred feet at the present time. Formerly it 
vpas more than this, and the streams of the 
plateau have carved their valleys rapidly thus 
making great differences of level between their 
beds and the vintouehed soil between them. 

The average elevation of the Ozark plateau 
is about one thousand feet though there are 
places where the elevation is greater than 
this. From this central elevated part the 
slope extends to the northeast to the south- 
east and to the west. 

Breaking away from this elevated dome- 
like region are a number of ridges extending 
in several directions. One of these ridges ex- 
tends across the Mississippi river at Grand 
Tower and another at Thebes. Some other of 
the ridges extend to the south and cross into 
Arkansas, while others strike off to the south- 
west into Kansas and Oklahoma. 

The ridge which is broken by the river at 
Grand Tower is called the Shawnee hills. Tt 
extends through Illinois and crosses the Ohio 

river into Kentucky where it gradually fades 
away into the other physical features of the 
state. It received the name Shawnee hills 
from the early explorers in Missouri and Illi- 
nois, who found the Shawnee Indians living 
along the hills. The Indians at that time 
were called Oshawando and this name was 
given at first to the hills. The point where 
the iMississippi river breaks through this 
ridge, now known as Grand Tower, is one of 
the most interesting places within the Mis- 
sissippi valley. Even a casual examination 
of the spot discloses the fact that within com- 
paratively recent times the Jlississippi river 
flowed considerably east of its present chan- 
nel. On the Illinois side above the town of 
Grand Tower is a great isolated rocky hill 
known as Fountain Bluff, which rises to a 
height of 635 feet above the ordinary level 
of the river. The channel of the river was 
evidently at one time to the north and east 
of this great bluff. One of the remarkable 
things connected with the formation at this 
place is the fact that the strata in Fountain 
Bluff dip are in an opposite direction from 
those found in the rock known as Grand 
Tower and the other rocks on the west side of 
the river. The strata are the same in general 
character indicating, that the formation was 
once continuous from Fountain Bluff" to the 
hills on the west side, but the fact of the 
changed direction of the dip of the strata to- 
gether with the narrowness of the channel and 
its precipitous sides, indicate that the break 
in the hills was formed by some violent up- 

Another of these ridges extends across the 
Mississippi river at Commerce, evidently 
having been broken here within compara- 
tively recent times as the bed of the river is 
still formed of rocks and boulders, not hav- 
ing been worn away by the action of the 


stream noi- covered with sediment as wovild 
have been the case if this part of the stream 
bed were as old as most of it. A part of this 
ridge extends into the alluvial section and is 
known as the Scott county hills. Other 
ridges make off from the central dome of the 
upland to the southwest extending into Ar- 
kansas and Oklahoma. 

Within recent years the name St. Fran- 
cois mountains has been applied to the hills 
in St. Francois, Iron. Wayne, and Washing- 

was l)uilt. have been thrust up in the forma- 
tion of these mountains until they are now 
at the surface: Iron ilountain, Shepherd 
^lountain, Pilot Knob, and others in their 
vicinity are some of the best known of these 
St. Francois mountains. The hill just west of 
Knob Lick in St. Francois county in the vicin- 
ity of the granite quarries known as Syenite, 
is a good example of these mountains formed 
by uplift. The name St. Francois mountains is 
peculiarly appropriate to them since most of 

Elephant Rocks, Graxiteville 

ton counties. These hills are not only among 
the highest in the Ozark region of ^Missouri, 
but they are perhaps the only true moun- 
tains found within the state. They seem to 
have been formed not by the wearing down 
of the plain as is the case with most of the 
Ozark hills, but to have been thrust up from 
beneath by forces within the earth and thus 
are true mountains in their origin. In these 
mountains are exposed the only Azoic rocks 
in Missouri. The granites which form the 
primordial base on which this Ozark region 

them are found in St. ' Francois county and 
since also they form the source of the St. Fran- 
cois river. The name because it is appropriate 
and describes a distinct formation will prob- 
ably come into general acceptation and use. 
The upthrust which created these mountains 
brought the hard granite and basalt to the 
surface or near it in many places, and in 
places dikes of these rocks were formed cross- 
wise of the ridges previously existing. The 
streams of the section occur for the most part 
in the folds in the ridges formed within the 


material lying' ahovf the Azoic foniuitioii ; 
the action of these streams has worn down 
their bed until in some eases they have come 
to the dikes of hard rock lying transversely 
across the stream bed. Tlie hardness of the 
granite has prevented its wearing away as 
rapidly as the other portions of the xalley 
and this fact has given rise to rather pecu- 
liar formations. The stream has ordinarily 
carved this wall of rock thrust across its 
course, but cai'ved it iiincli nini'c slowlv tlian 

Southeast ^Missouri are Shepherd ^lountain 
having an elevation of twelve hundred feet. 
Pilot Knob with an elevation of 1,118 feet 
covering an area of three hundred and sixty 
acres and Iron Mountain which rises 228 feet 
above the plain and covering an average of 
five hundred acres. 

This Ozark region contains one of the 
greatest mineral regions in all the world. 
Judged by the variety of minerals as well 
as by the immense quantities of some of them. 

Scene at the Shut-In Neae Arcadia 

the remaining parts of its stream bed so that 
it is hemmed into close quarters at these 
places. They are locally called "shut-ins." 
One of them is to be seen on Stout's creek 
in the vicinity of Arcadia and there are many 
others in the same region. 

The Ozark region of Missouri has its high- 
est elevation along the line extending from 
Jefferson county to the southwest through 
Iron and into Barry and White counties; 
east and west of this line the elevation grad- 
ually becomes less. The highest points in 

the area deserves to take first place among 
mineral sections. The precious metals are 
not found in paying quantities, but a large 
number of other minerals are so found. The 
mineral which exists in this region in great- 
est abundance is lead which has attracted the 
attention of miners from the very earliest 
times; perhaps the greatest deposits of lead 
ore to be found in the entire world are in 
this section. Lead, however, is not the only 
mineral which is produced in paying quanti- 
ties, iron is found in a number of these coun- 


stream nor covered with sediment as would 
have been the case if this part of the stream 
bed were as old as most of it. A part of this 
ridge extends into the alluvial section and is 
known as the Scott county hills. Other 
ridges make off from the central dome of the 
upland to the southwest extending into Ar- 
kansas and Oklahoma. 

"Within recent years the name St. Fran- 
cois mountains has been applied to the hills 
in St. Francois, Iron, Wayne, and Washing- 

was built, have been thrust up in the forma- 
tion of these mountains until they are now 
at the surface : Iron Mountain, Shepherd 
JMountain, Pilot Knob, and others in their 
vicinity are some of the best known of these 
St. Francois mountains. The hill just west of 
Knob Lick in St. Francois county in the vicin- 
ity of the granite quarries known as Syenite, 
is a good example of these mountains formed 
by uplift. The name St. Francois mountains is 
peculiarly appropriate to them since most of 


Elephant Rocks, Graniteville 

ton counties. These hills are not only among 
the highest in the Ozark region of Missouri, 
but they are perhaps the only true moun- 
tains found within the state. They seem to 
have been formed not by the wearing down 
of the plain as is the case with most of the 
Ozark hills, but to have been thrust up from 
beneath by forces within the earth and thus 
are true mountains in their origin. In these 
mountains are exposed the only Azoic rocks 
in Missouri. The granites which form the 
primordial base on which this Ozark region 

them are found in St. Francois county and 
since also they form the source of the St. Fran- 
cois river. The name because it is appropriate 
and describes a distinct formation will prob- 
ably come into general acceptation and use. 
The upthrust which created these mountains 
brought the hard granite and basalt to the 
surface or near it in many places, and in 
places dikes of these rocks were formed cross- 
wise of the ridges previously existing. The 
streams of the section occur for the most part 
in the folds in the ridges formed within the 


material lying ahovo the Azoic formation: 
the action of these streams has worn down 
their bed until in some cases they have come 
to the dikes of hard rock lying transversely 
across the stream lied. The hardness of the 
granite has prevented its wearing away as 
rapidly as the other portions of the valley 
and this fact has given rise to rather pecu- 
liar formations. The stream has ordinarily 
carved this wall of rock thrust across its 
course, hut carved it iiiuch more slovvlv than 

Southeast ilissouri are Shepherd ^Mountain 
having an elevation of twelve hundred feet. 
Pilot Knob with an elevation of 1,118 feet 
covering an area of three hundred and sixty 
acres and Iron ]\Iountain which rises 228 feet 
above the plain and covering an average of 
five hundred acres. 

This Ozark region contains one of the 
greatest mineral regions in all the world. 
Judged by the variety of minerals as well 
as by the immense quantities of some of them. 

Scene at the Shut-In Near Arcadia 

the reuiaiuiug parts of its stream lied so that 
it is hemmed into close quarters at these 
places. They are locally called "shut-ins." 
One of them is to be seen on Stout's creek 
in the vicinity of Arcadia and there are many 
others in the same region. 

The Ozark region of Jlissouri has its high- 
est elevation along the line extending from 
Jefferson county to the southwest through 
Iron and into Barry and White counties: 
east and west of this line the elevation grad- 
ually becomes less. The highest points in 

the area deserves to take first place among 
mineral sections. The precious metals are' 
not found in paying quantities, but a large 
number of other minerals are so found. The 
mineral which exists in this region in great- 
est abundance is lead which has attracted the 
attention of miners from the very earliest 
times; perhaps the greatest deposits of lead 
ore to be found in the entire world are in 
this section. Lead, however, is not the only 
mineral which is produced in paying quanti- 
ties, iron is found in a number of these coun- 


ties, notably Irou, St. Francois and Wayne. 
Copper and zinc are also taken in connection 
with lead and other minerals are mined on a 
smaller scale. 

There exist great quantities of tine clays 
and some of the largest deposits of sand tit 
for glass making in the United States. Be- 
sides these there are immense quantities of 
valuable building stone both lime stone and 
granite and also consideralile quantities of 
a good quality of sand stone. 

The north part of this district is drained 
largely by the Maramec river which has its 
source in Maramec springs in Dent county 
and flows north and east emptying into the 
Mississippi on the line dividing Jefferson 
county from St. Louis county. It is a pic- 
turesque and beaiitiful stream and with it are 
connected some of the earliest events in the 
history of the state. It receives a number of 
small tributaries from both north and south. 
The principal tributary of the Maramec on 
the south is Big river which rises in Wash- 
ington county, flows north through Washing- 
ton and Jefferson counties and empties into 
the Maramec in Jefferson county. It is not 
navigable but is a very beautiful stream and 
has considerable water-power yet undevel- 
oped. All the eastern part of the district is 
drained by streams which flow to the east and 
empty into the Mississippi. South of the 
Maramec are Saline creek, Aux Vases, Cin- 
quehomme, Apple Creek and Cape LaCroix 
creek; these streams with other smaller ones 
have their source within the Ozark upland 
and flow down its eastern border into the 

The rest of this district is drained princi- 
pally by streams flowing to the south, the 
easternmost of these are Ca.stor and White- 
water both of which have their origin in St. 

Francois county flowing toward the south and 
uniting to form Little river in New Madrid 
county. The St. Francois river also rises in 
St. Francois county and flows in a general 
southerly direction receiving the waters of 
Little river in Arkansas and finally flowing 
into the Mississippi. West of the St. Fran- 
cois river are Black river and Little Black; 
these streams rise in Reynolds and Irou coun- 
ties, flowing to the south into Arkansas and 
finally uniting with White river. The most 
westerly of the streams of the district is Cur- 
rent river, perhaps the most beautiful stream 
in the entire state, its general direction is 
south and east, it is a tributary of Black 

South and east of the line which we have 
indicated, from Cape Girardeau to the Ar- 
kansas line, is found the alluvial bottoms of 
the Mississippi, Little River, the St. Francois, 
and Black River. With the exception of two 
areas, this section is practically level and all 
alluvial soil. These two areas are the Scott 
count.y hills and Crowley's ridge. The Scott 
county hills lie .iust south of what is called 
the Big swamp south of Cape Girardeau and 
extend a distance of about 15 miles from the 
neighborhood of Gray's Point to near ]\Iorley 
in Scott county. These hills are a part of the 
Paleozoic uplift and were doubtless connected 
with the ridge in Illinois at the time when the 
JMississippi river flowed to the southwest from 
Cape Girardeau. They are essentially the 
same in structure and geologic origin with 
the Ozark plateau. 

The other elevated land in this part of 
Southeast Missouri is Crowley's ridge, ex- 
tending from a point in Scott county not far 
from Bell City in a southwesterly direction, 
crossing the state line near Campbell, and 
ending at the Mississippi river near the mouth 


of tlie St. Francois. This ridge varies in 
width, being about ten miles wide in the cen- 
tral part of Stoddard county and becoming 
very narrow between Dexter and Maiden. It 
is broken in two places, in the north by Castor 
and further south by the St. Francois river 
which crosses it just west of Campbell in 
Dunklin county. This ridge is geologically 
unlike the Ozark upland and most certainly 
had a different origin. It is composed prin- 
cipally of clay and seems the remains of allu- 
vial soil which had been thrust up from below 
and sculptured down again by the action of 
the rivers, leaving this ridge. The ridge it- 
self slopes from east to west having its great- 
est height on the eastern edge, where it is 
about one hundred feet in elevation. 

The remainder of the land in Southeast 
ilissouri is practically level but falls into a 
number of divisions. The first of these from 
east to west is the low country bordering 
along the Mississippi river. There is extend- 
ing south from below the Scott county hills a 
sand ridge called the Sikeston ridge which 
reaches the river at New ]\Iadrid and extends 
almost to the south line of New ^Madrid 
eount.v. This ridge is elevated some 10 or 15 
feet above the level of the bottom lands and 
its soil is principally sandy loam. East of it 
in the neighborhood of Charleston, there are 
two other similar ridges of sandy loam. 

West of the Sikeston ridge extending to 
Crowley's ridge in the north part and to the 
sand.y ridge of Stoddard and Dunklin coun- 
ties in the southern part, is the low bottom 
of Little River, which lies from 15 to twenty 
feet below the level of the sand ridges and is a 
heavily timbered section with a great deal of 
humus and exceedingly productive. 

West of this bottom of Little River is an- 
other sand ridge which extends from just 
south of Dexter to the state line near Hor- 

nersville in Dunklin county. On this ridge 
are situated the towns of Bernie. Maiden. 
Clarkton, and Kennett. The ridge is from 
5 to 10 miles in width, is from 10 to 15 feet 
higher than the bottoms of Little river, and 
has a very rich and productive sandy loam 

West of this ridge lying between it and 
Crowley's ridge in the north part is what is 
known as West swamp, while in the south 
in Dunklin county the St. Francois river is 
between the sand ridge and Crowley's ridge. 
The bottom of St. Francois river is not un- 
like that of Little river. 

West of Crowley's ridge in Stoddard 
county is the valley of the St. Francois river 
and Black river. These are heavih^ timbered 
regions with a soil considerably heavier than 
the sand ridges above mentioned. 

The drainage in this alluvial section of 
Southeast Missouri is principally from north 
to south. Of course on its eastern edge it is 
drained by the ^Mississippi which forms its 
eastern boundarj'. The Scott county hills are 
the source of two creeks, Ramsey creek which 
flows north emptying into the Mississippi, 
and Caney creek which flows to the north 
and then West and is a tributary of Little 
river. Mississippi county and the eastern 
part of New Madrid county are drained in 
part by St. James and St. John's bayous. The 
other streams of the alluvial section are prin- 
cipally those which have their origin in the 
Ozark upland and enter the alluvial district 
at its northern limit. In the neighborhood of 
Allenville, Crooked creek and Whitewater 
river combine and the stream thus formed is 
called Whitewater until it receives the waters 
of Caney creek and the East Fork after which 
it takes the name of Little river. This stream 
flows to the soiitheast and then to the south- 


west and crosses the state liue into Arkansas 
finally pouring its watera into the St. Fran- 

West of Crooked creek a number of other 
smaller streams flow into the alluvial district. 
The first of these of importance is Castor river 
which enters the alluvial district near Zalma 
in Bollinger county. Castor flows south and 
southeast through parts of Stoddard and New 
Madrid counties and finally empties into Lit- 
tle river. 

Two other streams of importance having 
their source in the Ozarks make their way 
through the alluvial district. The eastern- 
most of these, the St. Francois river, leaves 
the hills in the edge of Wayne county and 
flows directly through Stoddard and forms 
the state ■ line between Dunklin county and 
Arkansas. West of St. Francois river, Black 
river enters the alluvial district at Poplar 
Bluff. It, together with a number of smaller 
tributary streams, most of them rising in the 
hills, cross the state line into Arkansas from 
Bollinger county. 

Besides these more important streams there 
are several other smaller ones such as Varner 
river, Buffalo creek, Taylor slough, and Chil- 
letecaux in Dunklin county, Pemiscot bayou 
in Pemiscot' county and Portage bay and Open 
bay in New ]\Iadrid and Pemiscot counties. 

With the exception of part of the sand 
ridges in Scott, New Madrid, and Dunklin 
counties this entire alluvial section was for- 
merly heavily timbered, the entire country 
being covered with a heavy growth of oak, 
gum, Cottonwood, hickory, ash and other 
varieties of trees in the higher portions, and 
with cypress in those parts of the bottoms 
where water stood. There are still vast quan- 
tities of timber in this section, but it is fast 
being denuded of its timber. 

This alluvial region presents an interesting 
geological problem. Those who have studied 
the region are not in agreement as to how the 
vast Alississippi embayment was formed. It 
has been suggested by some students that this 
great plain stretching from the mouth of the 
ilississippi to Cape Girardeau and varying in 
width from five to forty miles, is a coastal 
plain formed by the action of the waves 
against the land surface. No doubt a plain 
so formed would bear some resemblance to the 
alluvial plain of the Mississippi valley, but it 
is difficult to believe that such a plain as this 
could have been formed by wave action ; the 
resulting debris from the destruction of the 
land surface must have retarded the action 
of the waves long before they sculptured a 
plain extending so far into the land. 

Without attempting to go into minute de- 
tails the probabilities are that the alluvial sec- 
tion as it now exists is a river valley. Early 
in geologic times the head of the Gulf of 
i\Iexico was near the site of Cape Girardeau 
and there was thus thrust into the heart of 
the North American continent a great trian- 
gular gulf. This gulf has been filled with al- 
luvial soil from Cape Girardeau to the pres- 
ent southern limit of the delta. It is not pos- 
sible to determine how deep the alluvial de- 
posits are since there have been made no bor- 
ings deep enough to find the bed of rock. 
Certain borings made for artesian wells and 
at New IMadrid for the purpose of finding 
support for a bridge, indicate that the allu- 
vial soil is more than two hundred feet in 
depth though there is very good reason to be- 
lieve that it is very much deeper than this. A 
boring made at Cairo, Illinois, extended to a 
depth of 1,200 feet without striking bed rock. 

It is plainly evident that the amount of al- 
luvial material deposited in this gulf is en- 


ormous. It was brought down doubtless in 
large part by the great rivers which occupied 
the present position of the Mississippi and 
Ohio, perhaps at one time much larger than 
the present streams. 

The soil now found in the alluvial section 
is not, however, the original deposits. There 
seems good reason for believing that the clay 
ridge known as Crowley's ridge is a remnant 
of the original deposit in the valley. This 
first deposit was raised up by the action of 
the forces beneath the surface and was then 
sculptured down by the action of the stream. 
This action has been going on for many thou- 
sands of years doubtless and the original de- 
posits have been removed in large part except 
Crowley's ridge. Not only has the river 
sculptured the original deposits, it seems to 
have meandered back and forth across this 
great valley now washing the bluffs along the 
eastern side and now those along the western 
side, alternately sculpturing awa.y deposits of 
alluvium and reforming them in other places. 

The alluvial plains as they now exist then 
represent two separate cycles of stream ac- 
tion. The first consisted in filling in the arm 
of the Gulf of ilexieo with alluvial deposits. 
This was separated from the second cycle of 
the stream action by the uplift of the 
deposited material above their former level; 
in the second cycle they are wearing down 
and redistributing this uplifted material 
into its pre.sent position. There seems no 
reason to doubt that within a comparatively 
short geologic time Crowley's ridge will en- 
tirely disappear under the action of the forces 
now at work upon it. 

It is evident that there exists a complete 
contrast in physical characteristics between 
these two sections of Southeast ^lissouri. The 

most obvious of these differences is the fact 
that there are no hills in the alluvial section, 
while the whole Ozark uplift is dotted with 
them. There is also a marked difference in 
the streams ; those of the plateau having their 
origin in springs of clear limpid water, flow 
between banks which are sometimes steep and 
even rugged in appearance. They have a 
swift current, are narrow and deep, but such 
of them like Castor, Whitewater, and the 
St. Francois which pass from the uplift to the 
alluvial plains undergo a complete change of 
character. They are no longer deep, narrow, 
and swift of current, with well marked banks, 
but they become wide an^ shallow and spread 
out over many miles. 

The soils, too, are different. In the upland 
are the clays. They follow the outline of the 
hills on which they were deposited. The 
characteristic soil of the plains is a sandy 
loam, while gravels, clays and marl are to be 
found in places. The distinct characteristic 
soil is that which makes the great ridges on 
which are situated the flourishing towns of the 

In minerals, also, the contrast between the 
sections is striking. No other section of 
equal size in the world contains a greater 
variety and wealth of minerals than the 
Ozark plateau. Here are to be found the great 
deposits of copper, zinc, lead, iron, and others. 
The alluvial plains on the other hand have no 
minerals except bog ore. The materials of 
which the plains are formed are the loose 
elastics. "While the plains are lacking in min- 
eral wealth, they possess great supplies of 
timber. The hills are covered in many places 
with timber, but the valuable trees in great- 
est numbers are to be found in the rich soil 
of the low lands. Here flourish the cotton 
wood, oak, gum, cypress, and hickory in great 


abundance. No other part of the United 
States possesses more valuable timbers than 
the low lands in Southeast Missouri. 

This contrast between sections is also to be 
seen in their climate. Spring visits the low- 
lands at least two weeks earlier than it does 
the uplands. The winters, too, are not so cold 
on the plains, and the rain-fall is considerably 
greater. In fact the line marking forty inches 
of annual precipitation coincides quite closely 

with the escarpment which separates the pla- 
teau from the plain. These differences of cli- 
mate and soil have resulted in certain differ- 
ences in the crops cultivated in the two sec- 
tions. The great staple crops, wheat and 
corn, are extensively grown in both sections, 
but in addition to these the alluvial soil 
produces large crops of cotton and melons 
which cannot be grown successfully in the 





Mounds in Southeast Missouri — Great Numbers Known to Exist — Distribution of 
Mounds — Size of Mounds — Shape — Arrangement — Various ^Iounds Described — An 
Ancient Wharf — Contents op Mounds — Who Built the Mounds — The Mound Builder 
Theory — The Work op the Indians — Probable Origin — Collections op Relics — Beck- 
with's Great Collection — Plates Found Near Malden — Other Remarkable Pieces. 3 



Is Made Governor of Florida — Lands in Florida — Discovers the Mississippi — Place of 
Crossing — Direction op jMarch — The Casquins — Religious Service — Attack on Cap- 
AHAS — Search for Salt — Probable Situation op Capaha Camp — Return to the South 
— Quigate — Location of Caligoa — Further Travels and Death — Interest Concerning 
Exact Route. 13 



Why Spaniards Did not Take and Hold the Country — Vague Ideas of the West — News 
op the ]\Iississippi — Radisson and Groseilliers — JoLiET and Marquette — Discovery of 
the Mississippi — Extent of Their Voyage — The Return — Illness of Marquette — 
Why Joliet Was Not Given Credit for Expedition — Early Voyage op La Salle — • 
French Ideas of the New World — Views of the English — La Salle's Purpose — 
Friendship With Frontenac — Visit to France — Start of the Expedition — Loss of 
the Griffon — Creve Coeur — He Reaches the Mississippi — Passes to its jNIouth — The 
Colony at Starved Rock — Goes to France — Colony on the Gulf — Death op Lasalle 
— Estimate op His Character. 22 




Importance of Induns in Our History — Indian Trade — Indians in Southeast Missouri 
"When DeSoto Came — The Capahas — The Siouan Family and its Branches — The 
OsAGEs — Their Homes — Their Farms — Osage Houses — Furniture and Clothing — 
Polygamy — Weapons — Peculiar Customs of the Osages — Painting of the Body — 
Their Government — ^Wars With Other Indians — Defeated by Sacs and Foxes — Their 
Removal From the State — Delawares and Shaw^nees — Their History Outside Mis- 
souri — Why the Spanl4.rds Brought Them to Missouri — Character — Their Villages — 
Tecumseh's Sister — Chilletecaux — Witchcraft Delusion — The Mashcoux Tribe — 
Treaties With the Indians — Indian Education. 33 




The Name Louisiana — The Illinois — The French and Spanish Districts With Their 
Limits — The Appearance and Character of the Country — Ste. Genevieve — Probable 
Date of First Settlement — "The Old Village of Ste. Genevieve" — Original Set- 
tlers — Officials and Legal Proceedings — Occupations — The "Big Field" — Indian 
Troubles — Life of the French Pioneers — Population — Pittman's Account — Visit of 
Paul Allioy — As Peck saw the Town— Impressions of Flag — Ferdinand Rozier — 
John James Audubon — John Smith T. — Henry Dodge — John Rice Jones — New Bour- 
bon — New Tennessee — Table of Settlements — First Settlers in Iron County — The 
Cook and Murphy Settlements — St. Michael's — Old Mines — First Settlers in Jef- 
ferson County — Perry County Settlements — Long's Account. 49 



Its Limits — Life of Lorimier — First Settlement at Cape . Girardeau — Influence With 
THE Indians — Grants of Authority and Land — Lorimier's Tomb — Name of Cape Gir- 
ardeau — Cousin — Early Settlers — The Town Laid off — Some of the Early Build- 
ings — First Incorporation, 1808 — Early Settlers Within the District — The Ramsays 
— The Giboneys — Other Early Families — Settlements in Various Parts of the 
District. ' 67 



Its Boundaries — "L'Anse a la Graise" — The LeSieurs — Situation of New Madrid^ 
Colonel George Morgan — Grant to Morgan — His Expectation of Profit — His De- 
scription OF THE Site — The Survey op the Town — Opposition of Wilkinson and Mmo 
— ^New Madrid Falls into Hands of Miro — Letter of La Forge — The Commandants 


OF THE Post — Emigrants Who Came "With Morgan — The LeSieur Family — The La 
Forges — Joseph JIichel — Kobert MoCor — Richard Jones Waters — Tardiveau — Other 
Settlers — Robert Goaii Watson — ^Iilitary Companies — Other Settlements in New 
Madrid County — Little Prairie — Settlements in Scott County — Town Near Sikeston 
— Benton — Joseph Hunter — Tywappity Bottoms — Mississippi County Settlements — 
Spanish Land Grants — The King's Highway. 81 



Louisiana Under La Salle — The Province of Louisiana — Capitals and Governors — Ces- 
sion TO Spain — Providence of Upper Louisiana — Lieutenant Governors op Upper 
Louisiana — Districts and Commandants— Syntjics— Authority of Officials — French 
Law Retained — Character of Government — The Cabildo at New Orleans — Organiza- 
tion op Militia — "L' Annee du Coup" Attack on St. Louis — Treachery of Governor 
Leyba — Action of the Ste. Genevieve Company — Expedition to New Madrid — Punish- 
ment of Indians — Orders Concerning Taverns and Sale op Liquor to Indians. Ill 



Population in 1804 — Settlements — Occupations. — Differences Between French and 
America Settlements — Houses of the French — Stockades — Food and Cooking — Dif- 
ferences IN the French Produced by Residence in This Country — Social Life — Dress 
— Amusements — La Guignolee — Contented Character of the French — Trade — Amer- 
ican Settlers — Characteristic Life — Houses — Clothing — Food — Law-Abiding Char- 
acters — German Settlers — Absence of Spanish Settlers — JIerchants — Prices — Prod- 
ucts — Travel — Roads — River Trave.l — Kbel-Boats — Religious Conditions — First Ser- 
vices — Restrictive Laws of Spain — Records of the Catholic Church in Ste. Gene- 
vieve — Father Meurin — Father Gibault — James Maxwell — First Church Buildings 
— Support of Priests — Bishop Dubourg — De Andreis — Founding of St. Mary's Sem- 
inary — Danger op Misunderstanding the Character of the People. 117 



Feeling op the French Settlers — Settlements Founded Under the Rule of France — 
Emigration from the Western States — ^Why Spain Fostered the Mo\t:ment op Ameri- 
cans Across the River — Question Over the Navigation op the Mississippi — Restric- 
tions ON Commerce — Treaty of Ildefonso — Negotiations for Purchase of New Or- 
leans — Offer of all Louisiana — ]\Iotives of Napoleon in Selling Louisiana — Cere- 
monies Attending the Actual Transfer — Captain Amos Stoddard .\nd His Authority — 
Significance of the Transfer. 139 





Louisiana — First Governor — Courts op Common Pleas — Officers at the Various 
Posts — Causes op Dissatisfaction With the Government of the United States — ^Me- 
morial of Grievances — The Territory of Louisiana — Confirmation of Land Grants — 
Courts— Wilkinson as Governor — Lewis — Clark — The Territory of jMissouri — Pow- 
ers of the Governor — Meetings op the Territorial Legislature — Various Laws — Rich- 
ard S. Thomas — John Scott — Johnson Ranney — General Watkins — Greer W. Davis 
— Alexander Buckner — Other Prominent ]\Ien — The Byrd Family — Circuit Courts 
— Officers in Ste. Genevieve — Cape Girardeau District and County — New Madrid Dis- 
trict ANT) County — Creation of New Counties — Lawrence — Wayne — Madison — 
Jefferson — Washington — Perry — ^Iilitary History. • 147 



Population — Character of Immigrants — Settlements in Various Parts of the Section 
— Early Settlers — Industries — Farming — ^Mining — Merchandising — Prevailing 
High Prices — Manufacturing — Hunting — Transportation — Steamboats — Social 
Life — Lawlessness — Gambling — .Dueling — Some Famous Dl-els — Hospitality — 
Postoffices and Rates of Postage — Newspapers — Schools — Libraries — Dress. 175 



Visits op Protestant INIinisters — John Clark — Josiah Dodge — Thomas Johnson — An- 
drew Wilson — Religious Condition of the Settlers — MoTn-ES Which Brought Them 
to Louisiana — The Work op the Baptists — David Greene — Bethel Church Near 
Jackson — Its Early Members — The First Meeting House — Relics of old Bethel 
Church — ^Memorial SERncEs in 1906 — Growth of the Church — Other Churches Or- 
ganized BY Members of Bethel — Early Ministers of the Church — Wilson Thompson 
— Thomas Stephens — Thomas P. Greene — The First ^Missionary Collection — The For- 
mation OF AN Association of Churches in Missouri — John M. Peck — The Work of the 
Methodist Chutrch — First Preachers — John Travis — Org.vnization of McKendree — 
Early Members — First Meeting House — Jesse Walker — The First Circuits — First 
Sermon in Cape Girardeau — Campmeeting at McKendree in 1810 — Harbison — New 
Circuits Formed — Organization of the Missouri Conference — Rucker Tants'er — The 
First Conference Held in Missouri — The Work of the Presbyterians — Hempstead's 
Letter — A Church Organized in Washington County, 1816 — Organization of the 
Presbytery of Missouri — Early Ministers — Timothy Flint — The Columbian Bible 
Society — Flint's Writings — Disciples of Christ — William McJIurtry — First Organ- 
ization IN Missouri, 1822 — Difficulties Under Which Early ^Ministers Labored — 
Progress IMade — Peck's Description — Debt Owed to Pioneer JIinisters. 196 



Time and Area — Unique Among Earthquakes — Contemporary Accounts Mentioned — 
The Scene Described — Direction op the Shocks — Size of Affected Area — Character 
OF Disturbances — Small Loss op Life Explained — A Death from Fright — Persons 
Drowned — Appearance of the Air — Vapors — Lights and Glows — Earth Changes — 
Fissures — Lignite — Areas op Surface Raised — Sunk-Lands — Observations Made by 
Lyell — Distribution op Sunk-Lands — Effect on Timber — Expulsion op Materi.\l 
from the Earth — Water-Sand — Sand Blows — Sand-Sloughs — Sinks — Suggested 
Causes — Contemporary Accounts — Mrs. Eliza Bryan — Long — Bradbury — Flint — 
Faux — LeSieur — Col. John Shaw — Letter op an Unknown Writer — Long — Nuttall 
— Flagg — Former Drainage as Described by LeSieur — Government Assistance to Suf- 
ferers — The New Madrid Claims — DeLisle vs. State of SIissouri — Loss of Popula- 
tion. 212 


Petition for Organization as a State — Bill to Organize a State Government — The 
Sl.wery Controversy — The Tallmadge Amendment — Debate Over the Amendment — 
Deadlock of the Two Houses — The Missouri Compromise — Feeling in the State — 
The Constitutional Convention — Members from the Southeast — The Constitution in 
Congress — Further Opposition to Admission — The Debate — Clay's Compromise — 
The Solemn Public Act — The President's Proclamation Admitting the State — Pe- 
culiarities OF TPiE Transaction — State Boundaries — Missouri — Arkansas — Wolf 
Island. 234 




Analysis op Population, 1820-1830 — Comparative Census Table, 1820-1860 — French 

and German Elements — Period op Town Growth. 247 


Shipping Center of Mineral Region — Ste. Genevieve-Iron Mountain Plank Road — 
150th Anniversary Celebrated — U. S. Senators prom Ste. Genevieve — Ste. Gene- 
vieve op Today — St. Makys. 251 


Cape Girardeau a Steamboat Town — Incorporated as a City — Prosperity After the War 
— State Normal School Located — Stage of Stagnation — Really Remarkable Progress 
— Founding of Jackson — First Institutions and Persons — Civil Government — Pres- 
ent County Seat — Burfordville — Appleton — Pocahontas and Oak Ridge. 256 




Blows to New Madrid — Incorporated as a City — Long the County Seat — Point Pleasant 




PoTOsi Laid Out and Incorporated — Old Mines — Caledonia — Perryville — Longtown — 
Altenburg. 269 



Greenville, Early and Late — Piedmont — Patterson — DbSoto — Crystal City — Her- 




Present-Day Bismarck — Libertyv^lle — Farmington — Marble Hill — Lutesville — Gay- 
oso — Caruthersville. 277 



Old-Time Kennett — Modern Town Dates prom Railroad — Clarkton — Hornersville — • 
Mississippi County Seat — Charleston op the Present — Belmont. 284 



Commerce Incorporated — Benton, Scott County Seat — Sikeston — Doniphan, County 
Seat op Ripley — Poplar Bluff, Butler County's Seat of Justice — Bloomfield, Stod- 
dard County — Ironton, County Seat of Ironton — Arcadia — Lesterville — Smaller 
Settlements. 290 



The First State Election — Contest for the Sen.a.torship — The Eight Counties — Courts 
in Each County— Organization of New Counties— Southeast Missouri in the Mex- 
ican War. 299 




St. Francois County — Scott County — Organization and Settlement of Stoddard 
County — Ripley County — Pioneers of Dunklin County — Reynolds, Butler and Bol- 
linger Counties — Pemiscot County — St. Francois Levee District — Courts of the 
County and Prominent Citizens — Iron and Carter Counties — Founders of the Eight 
Old Counties. 302 



POSITION' of the State — Number of Soldiers Furnished — Appointment of a Major-Gen- 
eral OF the State Guards — General S. "Watkins — General Thompson — Skirmishes in 
August, 1861 — General Grant — Fortifications at Cape Girardeau — Martial Law — 
Thompson's Raid into Jefferson County — Situation in November, 1861 — Battle of Bel- 
mont — Early Months of 1862 — Capture of New Madrid and Island Ten — Skirmishes 
AND Raids op 1863 — Marmaduke's Invasion — Capture op General Jeff Thompson — 
Price's Raid Conditions After the War. 327 



Union Troops Organized— Home Guards and State JIilitia— Third, Fifth, Sixty-Fourth, 
Sixty-eighth, Seventy-eighth, Seventy-ninth, Second, Twenty-ninth, Thirtieth and 
Forty-seventh Infantry — Sixth and Tenth Missouri Cavalry— Engineer Regiment, 
West Missouri Volunteers — T-^-enty-third and Twenty-ninth Regiments of Enrolled 
Militia— Other Commands of State Guards — Ninth and Second Infantry— Noted 
Confederate Organizations. 341 




Railroad Building— Drainage— Wealth — Manufacturing — Mining — Transportation- 
Resources— School^; AND Churches — Local Option — Population — Organizations — 
Spanish-American War. ^^' 




Marquand — Glenallen — Zalma — Bessville — NEELEn'a,LE — FisK — Harviel — 
Van Buren — Ellsinore — Grandin — Hunter — Pocahontas — Allenville — ^White- 
BELL • — Gibson — Holcomb — Senath — ^Whiteoak — Glennonville — Cardwell — 
Caruth — Cottonplant — Des Arc — Sabula — Belle\tew — Annapolis — Festus 
— House's Spring — Morse Mill • — Pevelet — Victoria — IMine LaMotte — Corn- 
wall — Diehlstadt — East Prairie — Bertrand — Marston — Gideon — Parma — 


— Calrytille — Lithium — Wittenberg — Longtown — Schumer Springs — Bunker 
^ Ellington — Natlor — Flat River — Desloge — Leadwood — Elvins — Bonne 
Terre — Bismarck — DeLassus — Knob Lick — Liberttville — Doe Run — Oran — 
Fornfelt — Illmo — Crowder — Kelso — Blodgett — Morley — Chaffee — Vandu- 
SER — Dexter — Advance — Bernie — Puxico — Irondale — Mineral Point — Rich- 
woods — Chaonia — Leeper — Mills Ring — Williamsville. 371 




Work of the Subscription Schools — Academies at Ste. Gexevie\t:, Jackson, Potosi, 
New Madrid, Perryville, Point Pleasant, Cape Girardeau, Bloomfield, Poplar Bluff 
and Charleston. 397 



Foundation of Public System — The State Commission — Sale of Lands — Laws op 1853 — 
Provisions of 1874 — Growth of the System — Southeast Missouri Teachers' Associa- 
tion — First Schools in Various Counties. 404 



St. Mary's Seminary — St. Vincent's College — Will IMayfield College — Elmwood Sem- 
inary — Farmington College — JIarvin Collegiate Institute — Carleton College — Ar- 
cadia College — The State Normal School at Cape Girardeau. 412 





Isolation op Many Communities — Deprivations Suffered — Houses — Food — Dress — 
Household Implements — Schools and Churches — Amusements — Unity of Feeling — 
Treatment of Disease — Versatility op the Pioneer — Development op Character — 
Farming — Mining — Manufacturing. 439 



Catholics — Methodists : Quarterly Meetings, Circuits and Districts — Baptists : As- 
sociations — Evangelical Lutherans — Protestant Episcopal Churches — Congregation- 
ALisTS — German Evangelical and German Methodist Churches— New School Presby- 
terians — Cumberland Presbyterian Churches — Christians (Disciples of Christ) — 
Southeast Missouri Presbyterian Churches — Presbyterianism in 1854-64 — 1864-1874 — 
Division in Presbytery — Decade from 1884 to 1894 — History Since 1894. 448 



Beginning op Railroad Agitation — Companies Formed — The First Railroad — St. Louis, 
Iron Mountain & Southern — :Cairo & Fulton — Present Condition of the Iron Moun- 
tain — The Cape Girardeau, Pilot Knob & Belmont — The Houck Lines — The 'Frisco 
System — the St. Louis Southwestern — The Illinois & Missouri Bridge Company — Mis- 
sissippi River & Bonne Terre Railroad Company — The Williamsville, Greenville & 
St. Louis Railroad Company — St. Louis, Kennett & Southeastern — The St. Louis & 
Missouri Southern — The Paragould Southeastern — The Illinois Southern — The 
Missouri Southern — The Paragould & Memphis — The Butler County Railroad — The 
St. Francois County Interurban. 496 



Location — Area — Topography — Timber — Industries — Transportation — Towns 
— Population — Schools — Wealth — Bollinger — Butler — Cape Girardeau — Car- 
ter — Dunklin — Iron — Jefferson — Madison — Mississippi — New Madrid — Pemi- 
scot — Perry ■ — Reynolds — Ripley — St. Francois — Ste. Genevieve — Scott — 
Stoddard — Washington — Wayne. 510 




Cape Girardeau — The First Paper — Bollinger — Butler — Carter — Dunklin — 
Iron — Jefferson — Madison — ^Mississippi — New Madrid — Pemiscot — Perry — 
' Reynolds — Ripley — St. Francois ■ — Ste. Gen'evieve — Scott — Stoddard — Wash- 
ington — Wayne — The Great Work of Newspapers. 529 



Louis Houck — Lownes H. Davis — Robert H. Whitelaw — William B. Wilson — Judge 
John W. Emerson — Samuel S. Hildebrand — Samuel Byrns — B. B. Cahoon — James D. 
Fox — J. J. Russell — H. J. Deal — Absaloji JIcElmurry — William Dawson — Joseph 
Hunter — John A. JIott — Robert A. Hatcher — Eliza A. Carleton — Willlam Carter 
— Placide DeLassus — James R. McCormack — JIilton P. Cayce — Gustavus St. Gem- — 
Charles S. Heetich — M. L. Clardy — jMarshall Arnold — James P. Walker — N. B. 
Henry — F. P. Graves — Firmin Desloge. 54S 


Abbey, Daniel, 291, 342 

Abel, Ezekiel, 74, 75, 257 

Abel, Wilson, 290 

Abernathy, Albert G., 402 

Abernathy, Clayton D., 270 

Able, Wilson, 171 

Abshier, Claude E., 821 

Academies, 400 

Adams, Benjamin H., 530 

Adams, J. W., 912 

Adams, James T., 293 

Adams, Jefferson D., 1279 

Adams, Joel, 1094 

Adelphi Literary Society, 430 

Advance, 391 

"Advance Guard," 544 

' ' Advertiser, ' ' 532 

Ake, Eli D., 534 

Akers, Alfred H., 618 

Albert, H. L., 431 

Albert, J., 256 

Albert, John, 262 

Albert, Leon J., 433, 588 

Albert, R., 267 

Albert, S., 256 

Albright, George W., 753 

Alderson, James, 410 

Alexander, Harry E., 695 

Alexander, John H., 282 

Alexander, William, 302 

Alford, George G., 265 

Algonquins, 34 

Allen, Albert O., 537, 1052 

Allen, B. B., 411 

Allen, Benjamin F., 976 

Allen, Edward, 913 

Allen, Eussell L., 1163 

Allen, Samuel, 265 

Allen, Thomas, 497 

Allen, Thomas C., 1149 

Allen, William E., Jr., 821 

Allenville, 373. 374 

Alleys Mines, 177 

Allstun, Hiram B., 1117 

Ally, John, 63 

Altenburg, 271 

Altenberg Evangelical Lutheran Church. 479 

Alvey, William T., 923 

Amoreaux, Michael, 164 

Amusements, 122 

Anderson, Benjamin F., 1224 

Anderson, Ed, 901 

Anderson, Henry, 949 

Anderson, I. E., 478 

Anderson, M. S., 1251 

Andrew, Lyman B., 402 

Andrews, John, 302 

Andrews, L. H., 402 

Annapolis, 378 

Anthony, Benjamin, 171 

Anthony, Edward D., 576 

Anthony, John, 249 

Anthony, Eobert A., 650 

Antioeh Christian Church, 494 

Appleberry, Daly, 780 

Appleberry, Eeuben, 780 

Apple Creek, xii 

Apple Creek, 66 

Apple Creek First Presbyterian Church, 489 

Apple Creek German M. E. Church, 483 

Applegate, H. A., 308 

Appleton, 264 

Arcadia, 297 

Arcadia College, 420 

Arcadia College and Ursuline Seminary, 842 

Arcadia Congregational Church, 482 

' ' Arcadia Prospect, ' ' 534 

"Arcadia Valley Enterprise," 534 

Arent, Cornelius, 79 

Arenz, Oscar, 1283 

' ' Argus, ' ' 530 

Arion Literary Society, 430 

Arkansas Eiver, 26 

Armour, David, 194, 262 

Armstrong, John, 262 

Arnold, J. L.. 1050 

Arnold, Marshall, 556 ■ 

Arthur, William C, 960 

Asa, A. Frank, 1186 

Ashabranuer, 183 

Asherbramer, Daniel, 80 

Ashley, John, 1078 

Ashley, John L., 1090 

Ashley, W. H., 257 

Ashley, William H.. 162. 261. 402 

Audubon. John James, 60, 213 

Austin, 181 

Austin, A. C, 308 


Austin, James, IGU, 3U1', 402 

Austin, .Moses, 64, 159, 169, 183, 269, 402 

Austin, Stephen F., 154, 155 

Aux Vases, xii 

Averill, Harvey E., 538 

Azar (Breton), Francois, 182 

Azoic Bocks, x 

Bagby, Robert J., 756 

Bage, Samuel E., 985 

Bailey, J. A., 1136 

Bailey, Ealpli E., 1240 

Baird, Ely D., 985 

Baird, Francis il., 1072 

Baird, James M., 893 

Baird, Martin V., 473, 1067 

Baker, E., 678 

Baker, Eiislia, 62 

Baker, Henry, 178 

Baker, James, 307 

Baker, Moses, 290 

Baker, Peter, 178 

Baker, Rebecca, 63 

Baker, W. L., 957 

Baldwin, Hartwell, 291 

Baldwin, Joseph, 421 

Baldwin, J. W., 403 

Baldwin, Paul, 560 

Baldwin, T. E., 285 

Baldwin, Thomas E., 559 

Ball, J. Morgan, 1192 

Ballard, James M., 929 

Ballew, James, 161 

Ballon, (Mrs.) Agnes, 197 

Bancroft, C. B., 307 ^j 

Bancroft, Thomas S., 402 s. 

Baptists, 198, 207, 463 

"Baptist Headlight," 530 

' ' Baptist Journal, ' ' 534 

Barber, Moses B., 703 

Barham, William H., 1068 

Barkley, Richard, 402 

Barley, Absolom, 295 

Barnard, James Underwood, 426 

Barnard, W. P., 287 

Barnes, C. M., 1035 

Barnes, Goah S., 1046 

Barnes, John N., 1033 

Barnes, William A., 1270 

Barnett, Silas Y., 1108 

Barnhart, Adam, 307 

Barren Church, 201 

"Barrens, The," (ili, 177 

Barrett, A. M., 742 

Barrett, William L., o66 

Barrow, Abner, 674 

Barsaloux, Jean Baptiste, 107 

Barsaloux, John B., 115 

Barsaloux, John Bapt's-le, 66 

Barth, Phillip H., 1017 

Bartlett. G. T., 403, 531 

Bartlett, Orson, 295, 296, 403 

Bartlett, Thomas, 291 

Barton, David, 63, 169, 23S, 299 

Bateaus (pirogues), 131 

Bates, Elijah, 169 

Bates, Moses, 402 

Battery F, Second Illinois Light Artillerv, 347 

Battle of Belmont, 332 

Kaiimblatt, C. F., S94 

Baxter, Francois, 282 

Bayou Portage, 230 

Bayou, St. John, 6 

Beattie, George M., 262 

Beauvais, Jean, 52 

Beauvais, J. S. J., 150 

Beauvais, St. Gem, 52 

Beck, Arnold, 341 

Beckwith, Newman, 303 

Bedford, A. M., 288, 295, 498 

Bedford, H. H., 350 

Bedford, Henry Hale, 305 

Belchamber, James, 794 

Bell City, 391 

Bell, Huey F., 7S9 

Bell Telephone Co., 261 

Belleview, 378 

Bellevue Collegiate Institute, 461 

Bellevue Presbyterian Church, 488 

Bellevue Settlement, 207 

Bellevue Vallev, 64, 178 

Bellon, Tolbert E., 1U58 

Belmont, 289 

Belmont Branch, The, 497 

Belt, Harry B., 1029 

Beverly, Nathaniel, 168 

Benedict, Horace D., 613 

Bennett, Carroll P., 676 

Bennett, Joseph, 267 

Bennett, L. D., 476 

Benton, 290, 449 

' ' Benton Express, ' ' 542 

' ' Benton Express Record, ' ' 542 

Benton-Lucas Duels, 190 

Benton Presbyterian Church, 484 

' ' Benton Record, ' ' 542 

Benton, Thomas H., 190, 299 

Bequette, Joseph, 52 

Bergmanu, William C, 660 

Bergmann, William F., 637 

Bernie, 391 

"Bernie Star," 544 

Berry, J. A., 371, 784 

Berrvman, Jerome C, 461, 725 

Berthaume, Marie, 73 

Hertling, Daniel, 480 

B?rtrand, 379 

Bessville, 372 

Bethel Association of the Baptist Church. 4(i; 

Bethel Baptist Association, 475 

Bethel Baptist Church, 162 

Bethel Church, 198 

Bethel Church Monument, 200 

Bethlehem Baptist Church, 476 

Bettis, Elijah. 238 

Bettis, Overton, 167 

Bidewell, Charles F., 643 

Bidewell, George, 662 

BifiSe, A. L., 1193 

Big Creek Baptist Church, 477 

"Big Field," 7. 119 

Bigham, William, 282 

Big River, xii 

Big River, 331 

Big River Mills, 63 

Big Swamp. 76 

Bird, Abraham, 109, 179 

Bird's Point, 109, 179, 379 


Bii-a, Tliompson. 28S 

Bishop, Pleasant, 267 

Bismark, 277, 386 

"Bjsmark Gazette." 541 

Bismark Presbyterian Church, 491 

Bisplinghaff, George H., 694 

Blaek. .Tohn, 314 

Black River, xii, xiv 

Black River Baptist Association, 469 

Black River Baptist Church, 469 

"Black River Country," 531 

"Black River News,''' 531 

Blackwell, 331 

Blake, Ross, 871 

Blakemore, A. F., 1076 

Blakeniore, .J. B., 285, 507 

Blaine, Albert, 733 

Blair, Governor. 243 

Blair, Robert, 74 

Blair, Thomas, 204 

Blanton. .7. Thompson, 605 

Blanton Plank-Road, 265 

Blanton, William H., 724 

Blaylock. Richard D., 848 

Blavlock, W. M.. 865 

Bledsoe, .John H., 966 

Bledsoe, .1. S., 288 

Bledsoe, Richard, 254 

Bledsoe, William B., 953 

Block, Hiram, 402 

Block, Levi, 270 

Blodgett, 388 

Bloom, Peter, 62 

Bloomtield. 295, 335, 337, 453. 454, 462, 526 

' ' Bloomtield Argus, ' ' 543 

Bloomtield Baptist Church, 473 

Bloomtield Educational Society, 403 

"Bloomtield Herald." 295, .543 

Bloomtield ilission. 454 

"Bloomtield Vindicator." 296. 545 

Blount. .Tacob C, 293. 311 

Boaz, Herbert L.. 1210 

Bocarie. Phyllis, 65 

Bogliolo, Etienne, 97 

Bogliolo, JIatteo', 265 

Bogy, .Toseph, 154 

Bogy, Leon, 344 

Bogy, Lewis V.. 253 

Boise Brule Bottom, 66 

Bolduc, Louis, 56 

Boli, E. M., 273 

Boli, .Tohn, 65 

Boli, William, 125 

Boli, Williams, 65 

Bollinger County, 79, 313, 510, 531 

Bollinger, Charles F., 770 

Bollinger, Frederick. 150 

Bollinger. George Frederick. 79. 153. 154. 155. 

Bollinger. H. A., 1220 
Bollinger. Henry E., 827 
Bollinger. Henry F., 1005 
Bollinger, Ma.ior. 128 
Bollinger, Phillip, 80 
Bollinger, Solomon, 167 
Bollinger, Walter A., 1183 
Bollinger, William, SO, 1183 
Bond, George, 344 
Bond, George H., 741 

Bone, William M., 965 

Bonne Terre, 385, 450 

Bonne Terre Congregational Church, 482 

"Bonne Terre Register," 541 

' ' Bonne Terre Star, ' ' .541 

Booker, Charles O., 1273 

Boon, Pinkney E., 1288 

Booth, James. 1133 

Boutin, Samuel, 671 

Bowen, .Tohn S., 351 

Bowers. .Tames M.. 997 

Bowman, Arthur C, 564 

Bowman, B. L., 477 

Boyce, William, 66 

Boyden, Charles, 1179 

Boyden, John R., 1179 

Boyer, Barton IL, 857 

Boyer, Jaques, 52 

Brackenridge, William T.. 913 

Bradbury. John, 213 

Bradley, James, 307 

Bradley, James A., 1092 

Bradley. John H., 655 

Bragg, W. G., 285 

Bragg, William G., 813 

Bramblet, Clarence R., 794 

Brand, Eli T.. 841 

Brandon. .Tames D., 915 

Brandt, John, 413 

Branhani. Adolphus, 1041 

Branum. Lizzie, 306 

Branum, Tecumseh, 306 

Branum, Victorine, 306 

Brasher, J. JI., 314 

Brasher, Joseph M.. 641 

Bray, William, 715 

Bray, William G., 907 

Brayton, Rev., 468 

Brazeau Presbyterian Church, 488 

Bi-eckenkamp, August H., 747 

Bredensteiner, William, 917 

Breid, David W., 661 

Breton. Francois. 269 

Brevard. A. H., 262 

Brevard. A. J., 263 

Brewer, Robert il., 343 

Briekey, Franklin W.. 730 

Brickey, John S., 169 

Bridgeman, .Tohn. 270 

Bridges, A. D., 307 

Bridges, Ambrose D.. 918 

Bridges, J. H.. 288 

Bridges. L. L.. 761 

Bridges, William, 977 

Bringier, L.. 213 

Brissenden. Ralph. 1271 

Brooks. Elmer O., 895 

Brooks, Harry T.. 1026 

Brooks. .Tames A., 410 

Brooks, Thomas T.. 964 

Brown, Allen C. 969 

Brown. B. Gratz, 329 

Brown, .Tames, 317 

Brown, .Tohn, 290 

Brown, .Tohn L., 1077 

Brown, .Tohn W.. 473 

Brown, Robert T., 170. 270 

Brown, R. T., 238 

Brown. Thomas J.. 1046 


Browne, David S., 7S2 

Browne, Joseph, 151 

Browne, Lionel, 154, IStO, 4i)2 

Browne, Wilson, 78 

Brownell, John W., i!(;0 

Brownwood, 391 

Brunke, Abraham, 4(ii! 

Bryan, (Mrs.) Eliza, :^]3 

Bryant, Bert P., 841 

Bryant, P. P., 877 

Brydon, Doe, 1126 

Buck, Charles, 1093 

Buck, James B., 1141 

Buck, John L., 295, 1141 

Buckner, Alexander, 157, :;3S, 242 

Buckner, Eobert, 171 

Buehrman, Otto, 249 

Buenger, E. E., 271 

Buerkle, John C, 727 

Buffalo Creek, xiy 

BufoM, John, 317 

Bull, Thomas, 162, 19S, 199 

Bullett, George, 153 

Bullock, James R., 1048 

Bunker, 383 

Bunte, Theodore L., Jr., 674 

Bunyard. E. J., 476 

Burchitt, J. G., 863 

Burdette. John, 267 

Burford, D. W., 1032 

Burfordville, 264, 374 

Burger, iloritz, 479 

Burgess, William J., 990 

Burke, Edward, 291 

Burlisou, Ed., 839 

Burnham, B. P., 587 

Burns, Eobert E., 1056 

Burnside, DeWitt L., 1232 

Burris, Levi, 1252 

Burrough, Jacob H., 422 

Burrow, John W., 1195 

Burrow, William A., 1088 

Burton, C. E., 561 

Butler County, 179, 248, 311. 511, 531 

Butler County Educational Society, 403 

Butler County Railroad Company, 508 

Butler, Elishk C, 682 

Butler, Frederick C, 402 

Butler, John, 816 

Butler, Mann, 193 

Butler, W. A., 312 

"Buzz-Saw," 546 

Byrd, Abraham, 78, 162 

Byrd, Amos, 78 

Byrd, A. E., 410 

Byrd Family, 78, 158 

Byrd, John,' 78, 161, 498 

Byrd Settlement, 77 

Byrd, Spencer, 153 

Byrd, Stephen, 78. 150, 154, 238 

Byrd's Creek, 78, 178 

Byrns, Sam, 759 

Byrns, Samuel, 551 

Cabildo (Council), 114 

Cahoon, Benjamin Benson, 551 

Cain, Jesse, 161 

Cairo & Fulton Railroad, 287, 498 

Caldwell, Isaac W., 991 

Caldwell, James, 80, 154, 299 

Caldwell, Thomas, 154 

Caldwell, William C, 1109 

Caledonia. 64, 270 

Caledonia Presbyterian Church, 270 

Callaway, John, 63 

Calvin, i^ula, 1191 

Calvin, Robert L., 1190 

Cameron, Donald H., 635 

Campbell, 375 

"Campbell Citizen," 533 

Campbell, Alexander, 310 

Campbell, C. C, 311 

Campbell, J. P., 539 

Campbell, John M., 1017 

Camp Eowdy, 254 

Camren, .James T., 1215 

Canaan Cumberland Presbyterian Church, 494 

Canada, 27, 28 

Canada, Mark, 56 

Canalou, 381 

Cane Creek, 179, 312 

Cane Creek Baptist Association, 470, 477 

Caneer. W. T., Jr.. 667 

Caney Creek, xiii 

"Capaha Arrow," 431 

Capaha Bluffs. Eoek Levee Drive, Cape Girardeau 
(view), viii 

Capahas, 16, 34, 35 

Cape Girardeau, 21, 34, 51. 71, 73. 74. 1.39, 140, 152, 
161, 162, 164, 176, 177, 178, 186, 192, 249, 261, 
318, 329, 409, 420, 453, 455, 460, 504 

Cape Girardeau — A steamboat town, 256; incorpo- 
rated as a city, 257; prosperity after tlie war, 
258; State Normal School located, 259; remark- 
able progress, 260 

Cape Girardeau Association of Baptists, 464 

' ' Cape Girardeau Censor. ' ' 530 

Cape Girardeau Circuit, 455 

Cape Girardeau County, 178, 511 

' ' Cape Girardeau Courier, ' ' 530 

' ' Cape Girardeau Democrat, ' ' 530 

Jape Girardeau District, 49, 117, 125, 197, 207— 
First settlement within, 67 ; water mills on Cape 
La Croix and Hubble creeks, 72;' origin of name, 
73; limits of the town, 75 

Cape Girardeau German M. E. Church, 483 

' ' Cape Girardeau Herald, ' ' 531 

' ' Cape Girardeau News, ' ' 531 

"Cape Girardeau Patriot," 530 

Cape Girardeau Presbyterian Church, 489, 484 

' ' Cape Girardeau Progress, ' ' 531 

Cape Girardeau, Pilot Knob & Belmont Eailroad 
Company, 501 

Cape Girardeau & Jackson Interurbau Company. 509 

Cape Girardeau & Thebes Bridge Terminal Eailway 
Company, 503 

Cape Girardeau & State Line Railroad Company, 

Cape Le-Croix Creek, xii 

Cape La Crux Creek, 77 

"Capote," 122 

Capuchin, 133 

Cardwell, 376 

Carleton College. 420 

Carleton, Eliza A., 553 

Carleton, (Miss) E. A., 420 

Carleton, George W., 282, 315 

Carleton, G. W., 314 


Carleton, ilajor, 315 

Carondelet, Baron, 62 

Carr, William C, 159 

Carrington, W. T., 410 

Carroll, William L., 1287 

Carter County, 248, 306, 317, 409, ol2 

Carter Family, 554 

Carter, Francis M., 827 

Carter, William, 554, 88(i 

Carter, Zimri, 180 

Carter, Zimri A., 317 

Cartobona, Don Francisco, 114 

Carty, Moses, 311 

Caru'th, 377 

Carutliers, Edgar P., 625 

Canithers, E. P., 533, 53.3 

Canithers, Sam, 282 

Canithers, Samuel, 322 

Caruthersville, 282 

"Caruthersville Eepublican, " 538 

Case, Theodore, 313 

Cashion, Arthur V., 583 

Cashion, Charles E.. 760 

Casquins, 14 

Cassilly, E. V., 257 

Castor Creek, xii 

Castor River, xiv 

Gates, William M., 773 

Cato, Sanford, 1199 

Caulk, Richard, 150 

Cavender, John S., 344 

Cavinor, Joseph, 153 

Cayce, Milton P., 555 

Cedar Hill Baptist Church, 476 

Cellini, Francois, 449 

Centerville, 311, 329 

Cerre, Gabriel, 65, 72 

Central Missouri Baptist Association, 475 

Chaffee, 389 

"Chatifee Signal," 542 

Chalk Bluff, 335 

Chambers, J. 0., 1169 

Chandler, Lewis, 307 

Chaonia, 392 

Chapman, Alvin, 1012 

Chapman, Reuben, 314 

Chapman, Reuben S., 1011 

Chapman, Samuel, 291, 295 

Chaponga, 52 

Chapoosa Creek, 82 

Charless, Joseph, 192 

Charleston, 287, 516 

Charleston Baptist Association, 478 

"Charleston Call," 537 

Charleston Classical Academy, 403 

' ' Charleston Courier, ' ' 536 

' ' Charleston Gazette, ' ' 536 

Charleston M. E. Church, 460 

Charleston Presbyterian Church, 485 

"Charleston Republican." 536 

' ' Charleston Sentinel, ' ' 536 

"Charleston Star," 537 

Cliarpentier, John, 65, 115 

Chasteen, John B., 1129 

Chatham, Alfred T., 1009 

Cheney, L. H., 422, 423 

Cheney, (Mrs.), 423 

Cherokees, 35. 40. 41 

Chevalier, Peter, 64 

Chickasaw Bluffs, 14 

Chilletecaux, xiv 

Chilletecaux. 42, 44, 284. 3116, 307 

Chilletecaux River, 42 

Chilton, Joseph F., 590 

Chookalee (corn meal), 43 

Chouteau, August, 150 

Chouteau. Pierre, 39 

Christians, 208, 494 

Christian Indians, 41 

"Chronicle," 537 

Cinquehomme, xii 

Cinque Homme, 42, 66, SI 

Circuit Court, 159, 304 

Cissell, Bernard, 270 

' ' Citizen-Democrat, ' ' 532 

Civil War, 327 

Claiborne, William, 142 

Clamorgan, Jacques, 65 

Clardy, Martin L., 556 

"Clarion," 535 

Clark. B., 470 

Clark. Francis, 80 

Clark, George B., 374 

Clark, Henry E., 286 

Clark, H. C'., 370 

Clark. John, 65, 197 

Clark. W. C. 1193 

Clarke, C. B., 423 

Clarkson, Rilev. 307, 308 

Clarkton, 164,' 286 

Clarkton Presbvterian ('luirch, 491 

Clarv, Claude L., 1250 

Clarvville, 382 

Clav. Henrv, 239 

Clements, Charles B., 1118 

Clevenger. E. L.. 696 

Clifton. James D., 1287 

Clifton & Mothershead. 262 

Climate, xvi 

Cline, Benjamin .!.. 1137 

Clippard, F. G., 633 

Clowd, Robert E., 282 

Cluley. John M.. 341 

Clule'v, J. M.. 409 

Coats, O. B., 1030 

Cobnrn. John, 151 

Cohen, D., 273 

Coker, A. S., 410 

Cole. Charles A.. 672 

Cole. Oscar R.. 935 

Cole, Phillip. 169 

Cole, Rolla A., 1003 

Cole. William L., 626 

Cole, W. N., 820 

Coleman, Francois, 52 

Coleman, F. M., 317 

Collins, Cicero, 898 

Columbian Bible Society, 208 

"Columbian Reciprocity." 534 

"Comet," 530 

Commerce, 290, 303 

"Commerce Dispatch." 542 

Commercial Clubs, 370 

Common Fields, 118 

Common Pleas Court, 159. 164 

Como, 381 

Concord Baptist Association, 474 

Concordia Seminary, Altenberg, 480 

XXX 11 


Confederate Organizations (Civil War), 348 

Confederate Veterans, 369 

Congregational Churches, 482 

Conrad, Arthur O., 818 

Conrad, David B., 618 

Conrad, Daniel E., 618 

Conrad, D. J., 682 

Conrad, George E., 743 

Conrad, J. J., 313 

Conrad, Peter E., 668 

Conran, James V., 1231 

Conran, Matt J., 1050 

' ' Conservative, ' ' 535 

"Constitution," 188 

Cook Settlement, 177 

Cook, Allen, 342 

Cook, John D., 155, 158, 238, 299, 304, 310, 311 

Cook, L. C, 1153 

Cook, Mrs. M. K., 1291 

Cook, Nathaniel, 63, 154. 238, 267, 299 

Cook, Eiehard, 307 

Cooke, Mrs. L. A., 1021 

Cook's Settlement, 63 

Cooksey, Guy E., 537 

Cooley, W. G., 288 

Cooper, Samuel, 164 

Cooper, T. S., 968 

Cooper, Thomas W., 717 

Cooper, William A., 575 

Coppage, Robert F.. 932 

Coppedge, George S., 1062 

Corbin, Abel E., 405 

Corbin, Daniel B., 1187 

Cordrey. Henry L., 1225 

Cordrie, Cliarles, 342 

Corn ifeasured liv Horses (view), 517 

Cornwall, 379 

Cornyn, F. M., 346 

"Correspondent and Record," 541 

"Cosmos," 543 

Cottard, Francis, 150 

Cottle, Warren, 150 

Cottonplant, 7, 377 

Cotton Plant Baptist Church, 473 

Cottonwood Point, 382 

Coucli. Lewis J.. 890 

Crnisin, Barthelinii, 74 

Cox. Caleb. 267 

Cox, John J., 267 

Cox, Moses, 267 

Cox, William, 171 

Cowdon, Emma E., 425 

Craig, Peter, 171 

Craig, William L., 941 

Craighead, E. B., 428 

Crain, George A., 1090 

Crain, Nancy, 934 

Cramer, George H., 250, 341, 409 

Cramer, William, 249 

Cramer, Wilson, 250 

Cravens, George L., 311 

Cravens, L. B., 1078 

Creek Indians, 43 

Creeks, 41 

Creighton, .Tames A., 419 

' ' Creole, ' ' 541 

Criddlp, Edward, 163, 262 

Criddle, (Mrs.) Edward, 402 

Crites, Charles M., 673 

Crites, Peter, 80 
Crittenden, John J., 243 
Crittenden, Thomas T., 190 
Crockett, Robert L., 1039 
Croke, James J., 830 
Crooked Creek, xiii 
Crooked Creek, 334 
Crow, William E., 768 
Crowder, 388 
Crowe, Bennette D., 941 
Crowley 's Ridge, xii, xv 
Crowley 's Ridge, 14 
Crumb, George H., 543 
Crutcher, William J., 1095 
Crutchfield, William H., 1134 
Crystal City, 274 
Cude, .James, 284 
Culmer, Frederick A., 575 
Cumberland Pre.sbyterians. 493 
Cummings, Henry G., 287, 311 
Cummins, .John, 65 
Cunningham, J. A., 314 
Clippies, Samuel, 262 
Current River, 292, 318, 513 
' ' Current Local, ' ' 532 
Cushion Lake, 231 

Daffron, Isaac N., 656 

Daflfron, William H., 722 

Dale. .John C, 696 

Daley, John, 450 

Dallas, 313 

Dalton, George, 972 

Dalton. Jesse S., 1040 

Dalton, Robert P., 620 

Danby, Edward L., 1089 

Dan forth, L. W., 1256 

Daniels, .Tames, 342 

Daniels, Rev., 468 

Darlington, Thomas P., 1017 

Davault, W. A., 687 

David, Nathan. 312 

Davidson, Alexander, 1116 

Davidson, Hugh C, 1115 

David<^on, Isaac M., 1117 

Davidson, .John, 154, 155 

Davidson, J. T., 532 

Davis, Albert S., 1020 

Davis, A. M.. 284 

Davis, Charles, 267 

Davis. Edward L., 958 

Davis, Garret, 243 

Davis, Greer W., 157 

Davis, .John, 162 

Davis, Lowdes H., .549 

Davis, Orren L., 1086 

Davis. Timothy, 157 

Davis, W. J., 1192 

Davis, Will E., 1297 

Davis, William L., 1169 

Daugherty, Abraham, 171 

DaughertV, Colonel, 329 

Dau;jherty, G. R., 1272 

Daugherty, Ralph, 79 

Daugherty Settlement, 77 

Daugherty. William, 77, 161, 261 

Dawson Family, 533, 1065 

Dawson, George W., 96, 1066 

Dawson, Robert A., 1066 


Dawson, Robert D., 96, 105, 154, 155, 238, i65, 315, 

Dawson, William, 96, 1066 
Dav, Jaeob, 85S 
Deal, Henry J., 344, 552 
Dean, William D., 1285 
Dc Andreis, Father, 137, 448 
Dearmont, W. S., 427, 428 
Dearmont, Washington S., 563 
Deck, Jacob M., 692 
Deck, John, 178 
Deckwith, Thomas, 11 
Decyperi, 89 
Deem, David B., 1128 
DeField, C. S., 1280 
De Guire, Andrew, 64 
De Guire, Baptiste, 64 
De Guire, Paul, 64, 183 
De Guire, Jlichael, 669 
Delaroderie, Alphonse, 265, 266 
De 'Lashmutt, Lindsay, 78 
De Lashmutt, Van B.", 194 
De Lassus, Camille, 115 
De Lassus, Charles DeHault, 89, 95, 110 
Delassus, Governor, 64, 72, 386 
DeLassus, Leon, 270 
DeLassus, Placide, 554 
Delawares, 40. 41, 170 
DeLisle Family, 232 
DeLisle, Alfonse, 1031 
DeLisle, Alfred, 1286 
DeLisle, Alphonso, 314 
DeLisle, Charles A., 1161 
DeLisle, Edward, 267 
DeLisle, George, 1054 
DeLisle, James E., 1175 
DeLisle, Jesse J., 1202 
DeLisle, Jonah, 1162 
Deloreileri, Alphonso, 402 
De Luziere, Pierre De Hault De Lassus, 62 
"Democrat," 532, 539 
' ' Democrat-News, ' ' 536 
' ' Democracy, ' ' 530 
De Mun, Augustine, 154 
Denman, Clint, 540 
Denman, Harry, 540 
Denman, Harry E., 1177 
Denny, William, 79 
De Keign, Albert, 1266 
Des Arc, 298, 377 
DesLoge. 384 
DesLoge, Firrain, 557 
' ' DesLoge Sun, ' ' 541 
De Soto, 1, 82, 133, 273, 514 
De Soto's Adventures — Route, 14; timber, 15; first 

religious service, 16; the Capahas, 16; Quigate, 

20 ; <leath, 21 ; exact route, 21 
De Soto Congregational Church, 482 
De Soto Episcopal Church, 482 
"DeSoto Facts," 535 
De Soto German M. E. Church, 483 
DeSoto Home Guards, 342 
"DeSoto Press," 535 
Detchemendy House, 401 
Detchmendy, P., 150 
" Deutscher Volks Freund, " 530 
Dexter, 389, 526 
Dexter Christian Church, 495 
' ' Dexter Enterprise, ' ' 543 

"Dexter .Messenger," 544 

' ' Dexter Statesman, ' ' 544 

Dick, F. A., 243 

Dickinson, J. J., 370 

Dickinson, Lewis, 478 

Diehlstadt, 379 

Digges, T. H., 266 

Digges, William L., 1038 

Dill, A. R., 343 

Dinkins, John T., 853 

Din 111 ng, Louis F., 1244 

District of St. Louis, 49 

Dittlinger, Michael. 341, 347, 409 

D'Lashnutt, E., 262 

Dodge, Augustus C, 253, 399 

Dodge, Henry, 61, 171, 238, 399 

Dodge, Israel, 66, 124. 197 

Dodge, .Tohn, 124 

Dodge, Josiah, 197 

Dodge, Thomas, 66 

Dodson, N. ('., 349 

Doerner, H. E., 955 

Doe Run, 387 

Doe Run Presbyterian Church, 491 

Doesselman, Charles, 480 

Dohogne, Leo, 1253 

Donaldson, Humphrey, 308 

Donaldson, I. F.. 882 

Donaldson, Thomas F., 882 

Doniphan, 292, 522 

Doniphan, Alexander William, 292 

' ' Doniphan News, ' ' 539 

"Doniphan Prospect, " 539 

' ' Doniphan Prospect-News, ' ' 539 

"Doniphan Republican," 539 

Doniphan 's Expedition, 300 

Donnell, Thomas, 207 

Donohoe, Thomas. 201 

Dooley, A. J., 349 

Doris, James H., 722 

Dorris, Timothy, 1142 

Dorsay, Samuel, 105 

Dorsey, Richard, 270 

Dougherty, John, 307 

Douglas, A. E., 426 

Douglas. R. E., 536 

Douglass, A. B., 308 

Douglass, Alexander T.. 570 

Douglass, A. T., 307 

Douglass, A. W., 996 

Douglass, James M.. 571 

Douglass, R. H., 473, 474 

Douglass, R. S. (Frontispiece) 

Douglass, Thomas J., 1015 

Douthitt, Thoiuas, 495 

Dowd, Thomas, 265 

Dowdy, Robert A.. 1139 

Downing, Ben R., 826 

Downing, James L., 927 

Downing, John M., 1286 

Downs, Thomas J., 735 

Drainage, 360 

Drainage Movements, 357 

Drerup, John B.. 1007 

Dress, 195 

Drum, T. B., 837 

Drury, Amos L., 1267 

Dubourg, 448 

Dubourg, W. F.. 137 


Duckworth, Buren, 783 

Dudley, William, 306 

Dueling, 189 

Dufour, Parfait, 52 

Duncan, Burwell A., 1209 

Duncan, J., 476 

Duncan, John E., 1058 

Dunham Hall, 269 

Dunklin County, 284, 306, 310, 513 

"Dunklin County Advocate," 532 

"Dunklin County Herald," 532 

"Dunklin County Mail," 533 

"Dunklin County Xews, " 533 

Dunklin County Publishing Company, 533 

Dunklin, Daniel, 169. 322, 405 

' ' Dunklin Democrat, ' ' 533 

Dunmire, George T., 615 

Dunn, John, 154 

Dunn, S. G., 162 

Dunscomb, Daniel E., 925 

Dunscombe, James K., 952 

Durham Hall, 169 

Dutcher, C. H., 426, 428, 434 

Duval, John, 66 

Duvall, Eev., 468 

Dye, Dave, 1055 

Eagle's Xest, 257 

Ease's, Jim, Camp, 42 

East Prairie, 379 

' ' East Prairie Eagle, ' ' 537 

Easton, Rufus, 151 

Eastwood, James, 313 

Eating Up the Flax (illustration), 129 

Eaton, E. S., 476 

Ehert, A. A., 1281 

"Echo," 536 

Echols, Joseph W., 290 

Eckhardt, 262 

Eckhardt, Otto, 426 

Edgar, William B., 599 
■ Edmonds, Moses, 316 

Education — Work of the subscription schools. 398 ; 
parochial schools, 400; academies, 400. (See also 
Public Schools and Higher Learning.) 

Edwards, Casper M.. 533 

Edwards, James, 262 

Edwards, James P., 203 

Edwards, John F. T., 297, 316 

Edwards, Mike, 1285 

Ehrichs, Theodore. 896 

Eighty-third Battalion, 348 

"El Camino Real" (King's Highway), 110 

Eldridge, L. P., 349 

Elephant Rocks, Granite\-ille (view), x 

Ellington, 383 

' ' Ellington Press, ' ' 540 

Elliott, Benjamin, 402 

Elliott, Henry, 299 

Ellis, Alfred P., 256 

Ellis, Erastus, 74, 155 

Ellis, Solomon, 74 

Ellis, William H., 1285 

Ellis, W. W., 1258 

Ellrodt, Christian, 342 

EUsinore, 373 

Elmer, J. B., 342 

Elmwood, 78 

Elmwood Seminary, 419 

Elvins, 384 

Elvins, Jesse M., 644 

Elvins, Politte, 645 

Ely, T. E. R., 607 

' ' Embarras, ' ' 132 

Emerson, John W., 297, 550 

Emory, Arthur R., 1124 

Engineer Regiment, West Missouri Volunteers 

England, E. E., 846 

English, 27 

English, James H., 754 

English, Robert, 154. 155 

English, Thomas, 199 

English, Thomas B., 158. 293 

Enler. George W., 270 

' ' Enterprise, ' ' 532, 536 

' ' Enterprise-Messenger, ' ' 544 

Episcopal Churches, 481 

Epps, Daniel, 179 

Ernst. Joseph A., 542, 741 

"Espial," 535 

Essary, Calvin L., 1156 

' ' Essex Leader, ' ' 544 

Establishment Creek, 66 

Eubanks, J. Oliver, 706 

Eudaly, James, 312 

Eudaly, John, 312 

Evangelical Lutheran Churches, 479 

Evans, Enoch, 303 

Evans, Evan. 307 

Evans. E. P., 257 

Evans, Horace D., 601 

Evans, James, 74, 238 

Evans, John James, 242 

Evans, W. H., 277 

"Evening Shade," 533 

Ewing. H. C, 422 

Ewing, Thomas, Jr., 337 

' ' Fairplav, ' ' 541 

Fallenwider. Caleb B., 262 

Faris, Charles B., 1174 

' ' Farmer & Miner, ' ' 535 

' ' Farmers ' Union Advocate. ' ' 534 

Farming, 364 

Farming Machinery and Implements, 445 

Farmington, 277, 337. 450 

Farmington Circuit, 453. 455. 463 

Farmington College, 419 

' ' Farmington District Messenger, ' ' 545 

"Farmington Eagle," 540 

' ' Farmington Herald, ' ' 540 

"Farmington News," 540 

Farmington Presbyterian Church, 489 

' ' Farmington Progress, ' ' 540 

"Farmington Times," 540 

"Farmington Times-Herald," 540 

Farnham, A. C, 317 

Farnsworth, Albert A.. 677 

Farquhar, J. S. N., 918 

Farr, S.. 476 

Farrar. B. J., 345 

Farrar, John, 203 

Farrar, George W., 422 

Farrar, Jloses, 308, 310 

Farris, Absolom, 307 

Fath, Leonard, 270 

Faughn, James, 307 

Felts, John W., 1180 


Felts, Robert G., IISO 

Feltz, Lawrence L., 778 

Fenwick-Crittenden Duel, 190 

Fenwick, Ezekiel, 78 

Fenwiek Settlement, 66 

Fenwick, Walter, 190 

Ferguson, James S., 293 

Ferguson, J. S., 403 

Ferguson, N. G., 470 

f>rguson, Patrick, 1223 

Ferrell, J. F., 729 

Ferries, 161 

Festus, 378 

' ' Festus News, ' ' 533 

Fields, William E., 1296 

Fifteenth Regiment, ilissouri Enrolled Militia, 347 

Fifth Missouri Regiment, 343 

Fiftieth Missouri Infantry, 346 

Fifty-sixth Jlissouri Regiment, 343 

Figari, H., 413 

Finch, James A., 1272 

Finger, B. F., 371 

Finley, David, 307, 308 

Finney, James G., 531 

Finney, John M., 623 

Knney, Reynolds M., 776 

Finney, T. M., 461 

Finney, William B.. 770 

Finney, W. E., 1240 

First Association of Baptist Churches, 203 

First Bank in Cape Girardeau, 256 

First Bank in Jackson, 262 

F^rst Baptism, 56 

First Baptist Church in Louisiana, 198 

First Brick House Built West of the Mississippi 

(view), 50 
First Circuit Court in Butler County, 312 
First Conference West of the Mississippi, 206 
First Congregational Church in Southeast Missouri, 

First County (state) Court, 160 
First English School West of the Jlississippi River, 

First Grist Mill, 52 

First Jlasonic Lodge, 157 

First Jlethodist Society West of the Jlississippi, 204 

First Presbyterian Church, 207 

First Protestant Baptism, 197 

First Religious Service, 16 

First School in Southeast Missouri, 193 

First Schools in Bloomfield, 402 

First Schools in Various Counties, 409 

First Steamboat up the ilississippi, 188 

Fisher, Alvin B., 1155 

Fisher, T. D., 540 

Fisk, 372 

Flanarv, Hugh M., 1093 

Flat River, 384 

Fleege, William B., 872 

Flentge, Edward W., 606 

Flentge, William, 343 

Fletcher, Governor, 501 

Fletcher, C. E., 273 

Fletcher, James W., 345 

Fletcher, John W., 273 

Fletcher, Thomas C, 273, 345 

Flint, Timothy, 207, 208, 261 

Florence, Oscar S., 810 

Flovd, J. H., 473 


Fly, Christopher C, 1219 

Flynn, Ebenezer, 163 

Flynn, Joseph, 530, 542 

Fonville, William T., 1217 

Forcher, Pierre, 89 

Fordyce, S. W., 505 

Fornjfelt, 387 

Fort, James L., 567 

Fort A, 329 

Fort B, 329 

Fort Celeste, 89 

Fort Creve, 30 

Fort Davidson, 338 

Fort Joachim, 52 

Fort Osage, 44 

Forty-feventh Missouri Infantry, 345 

Forty-seventh Regiment, Missouri Volunteers, 347 

"Forum," 539 

Foster, F. P., 1277 

Fourche a Renault Church, 478 

Four Mile Baptist Church, 473 

Foust, A. L., 1177 

Fowlkes, R. W., 1176 

Fox, Burwell, 616 

Fox, James D., 551 

Foxes, 35, 40, 70, 150, 170 

Frank, Jacob J., 1150 

Franklin Baptist Association, 469 

l'>anklin, J. R., 293 

Franklin, Robert G., 267 

Frazer, Theodore P., 1263 

Fredericktown, 64, 177, 186, 267, 268, 349, 420, 453, 

4.54, 455 
Fredericktown Baptist Church, 477 
' ' Fredericktown Conservative, ' ' 538 
' ' Fredericktown Democrat, ' ' 535 
' ' Fredericktown Journal, ' ' 535 
Fredericktown Northern Presbyterian Church, 493 
' ' Fredericktown Standard, ' ' 535 
Fremont 's Rangers, 342 
French, 50 
French, Bristol, 705 
French Explorers — From the great lakes, 22; Fiench 

in Canada, 23; Joliet and Marquette, 24; La Salle, 

27; Indian trade, 28; Tonti and Hennepin, 29; 

La Salle's death, 31 
French, George E., 342 
French Settlers, 248 
Frie, Philip A., 885 
Friend, Charles, 108, 179 
Frissell, Elizabeth Bollinger, 318 
Frizzell, Joseph, 194, 262 
Frohna Evangelical Lutheran Church, 479 
Fromentin, Eligius, 150 
Frontenae, 23, 27, 28 
Fry, Henry, 63, 179 
Fulkerson, .lames P., 256 
Fur Trade, 124 

Gabouri, Laurent, 51, 52 
Gaither, Benjamin B., 290 
Gaither, J. W., 987 
Gale, C. F., 256 
Gallivan, Thomas, 1062 
Gambling, 189 
Game, 50 

Garaghty, Eugene, 256 
Gardiner, J, J., 402 
Gardner, Dempsey, 11 SO 


Gardner, Samuel, 1155 
Gardoqui, Diego, 83 
Gargas, James W., 795 
Garner, Levi, 1205 
Garner, William J., 1184 
Garrett, H. Clay, 1061 
Garrett, Peter E., 262 
Gary, Walter, 1269 
Gaskin, John W., 1130 
Gay, W. T., 799 
Gayle, John W., 262 
Gayoso, 108, 179, 282 
' ' Gayoso Democrat, ' ' 538 
Geaslin, Hiram P., 582 
Gee, John T., 1260 
Geneauz, 52 
George, Solomon, 62 
"General Pike," 188 
Gerhard, Ernst, 479 
German Evangelical Churches, 482 
German Methodists, 483 
German Settlers, 249 
Germans in Upper Louisiana, 128 
Gibault, Father, 135 
Gibler, Frederick, 74 
Giboney Family, 77 
Giboney, Alexander, 77 
Giboney, Andrew, 256, 319 
Giboney, Eebecca (Eamsay), 77 
Gibson, 376 
Gibson, Dean, 536 
Giddings, N. J., 463 
Giddings, Solomon, 207 
Gideon, 379 

Gideon Anderson Lumber & Manufacturing Company, 
1251 , w , 

Gilbert, Charles E., 713 
Gilbert, Miles A., 254 
Gilbow, William N., 1285 
Giles, John, 171 
Gill, Ealph, 262 
Gillen, Edward D., 951 
Gilley, Jesse A., 293 
Gillispie, Grant, 370 
Girardot, 73 
Girvin, J. T., 314 
Gissel and Company, 270 
Glascock, Charnel, 204 
Glascock, John, 262 
Glascock, Eobert L., 307 
Glasscock, Sarah A., 308 
Glassey, James A., 1198 
Glen Allen, 178, 371 
Glennonville, 377 
Goad, Henry S., 1013 
Godt, William J., 1142 
Goff, David P., 721 
Goff, James L., 830 
Gorg, Albert J., 1293 
Golden, John, 291 
Golder, Solomon D., 288, 344 
Gomaehe, August, 65 
Gomache, Jean Baptiste, 65 
Goodale, C. T., 410 
Goodman, Laurin C, 1192 
Gordon, Joseph F., 1042 
Gordon, Nellie, 426 
Gordonville, 77, 79, 178, 374 
Gordonville German M. E. Church, 483 

(Jorman, Kuran, 287, 288 

Gossage, William F., 1008 

Governor, 152 

Government Under France — Province of Upper Louisi- 
ana, 112; question of language, 113; procedure, 
113; intoxicants to Imlians, 116; excise tax, 116 

Govreau, Joseph, 52 

Grace Episcopal Church, Crystal City, 482 

Graham, C. T., 476, 477 

Graham, Clara E., 1261 

Graham, Margaret A., 1173 

Graham, Napoleon B., 1173 

Graham, Pinkney, 477 

Graham, William, 1278 

Graham, William F., 262 

Grand Army of the Eepublic, 369 

Grand Tower, ix 

Grand Tower, 24 

Grandin, 373 

Grandiu Congregational Church, 482 

Grant, John F., 1001 

Grant, U. S., 329 

Grasey, William, 290 

Gratiot, Charles, 150 

Graves, Fayette P., 819 

Graves, F. "P., 557 

Gray, Alexander, 320 

Gray, David, 105 

Gray, Drakeford, 171 

Gray, John, 171 

Great Osages, 39 

Green, B. W., 1113 

Green, Ernest A., 1154 

Green, Samuel M., 319 

Green, Thomas P.. 193, 465 

Greene, David, 199, 201 

Greene, Eobert, 161 

Greene, Samuel M., 203 

Greene, Thomas Parish, 202 

Greenville, 272, 333 

Greenville Circuit, 454 

"Greenville Democrat," 545 

"Greenville Eeporter," 545 

' ' Greenville Sun, ' ' 545 

Greenwell, Leo A., 1060 

Greer, Alfred W., 1172 

Gregory, James, 374 

Gregory, W^illiam, 349 

Gregory, William N., 297 

Greshaln, Milo, 1276 

GriflHn, Edward, 656 

Grimsly, William C, 313 

Grisham, Lin, 628 

Grojean, Constantine, 342 

Groseilliers, 23 

Grove, F. M.. 409 

Gruelle, William, 530 

Gudger, William M., 707 

Guerthing, John, 164 

Guess, Harry A., 709 

Guffy, B. l!, 982 

Guibeault, Charles, 107 

Guibord, Eugene, 411 

Guibord, Jacques, 159 

"Guignolee, La," 123 

Guignon, S. A., 267 

Guild, Ealph, 163, 318 

Gulf Bailroad System, 259 

Gulf System, 260 


Gunuells, John, 307 
Guthrie, Orlantlo F., 370 
Guy, B. L., 1188 
Gnyn, Oliver B., 622 

Haden, Antlionv, 1&2 

Hafner, Phil A., 542 

Haines, Bert, 1077 

Haines, Edward C, 1036 

Haines, Frank, 10.59 

Haley, Oba, 630 

Hall, Joseph, 206 

Hall, Robert, 162 

Ham, Thomas H., 732 

Hamburg, 328 

Hamilton, A. V., 410 

Hamilton, George A., 66 

Hammersley, George O., 786 

Hammond, Daniel, 238 

Hammond, Samuel, 148, 275 

Hand, William, 262 

Handy, Noah, 288 

Hanesworth, Henry, 461 

Hanover Evangelical Lutheran Chureh, 480 

Happy Missouri Corn Grower (view), 181 

Harbin, James A., 1191 

Harbin, John W., 1148 

Harbison & Christie, 282 

Harbison, George C, 158 

Harbison, John, 291 

Harbison, John ('., 74. 205, 206 

Hardemann, Leteher, 370 

Harden, Joseph, 155 

Harkey, Daniel, 308 

Harkev, Daniel D., 308 

Harkey, J. H., 308 

Harkey, W. il., 308 

Harkev, Wells E., 823 

Harkey. Wilbur D., 308 

Harlan, George W„ 485 

Harlow, Alonzo T., 857 

Harms, Ernst, 480 

Harper & Christy, 295 

Harper, Robert, 80 

Harper, W. B., 265 

Harrington, George W., 531 

Harris & Chinn, 297 

Harris, Charles, 1267 

Harris, James, 307 

Harris, John W., 1030 

Harris, O. B., 740 

Harris, Samuel Stanhope, 319, 349 

Harris, Van Leslie, 1268 

Harrison, Allan J., 1260 

Harrison, Arthur S., 888 

Harrison, N. C, 409 

Harrison, Van H., 286, 877 

Hart, George W., 154 

Hart, John, 115 

Hartshorn, Carr, 664 

Hartv, Alfred L., 1200 

Harty, William C, 1199 

Harviel, 372 

Hase, Fre<lei'iek, 270 

Hatcher, Robert A., 553 

Hatcher (R. A.) & Co., 265 

Hatcher. William H., 749 

Hatlev, Thomas, 307 

Haw,' J. L., 288 

Haw, .Marvin T., 461 

Haw, U. L., 461 

Haw, Uriel, 452 

Hawkins, H. P., 346 

Hawkins, Jesse M., 854 

Hawkins, John, 159, 402 

Hawkins, Milton, 835 

Hawn, Daniel, 776 

Hawks, Edward L., 1185 

Hawthorn, Edward, 80 

Hayden, Anthony, 158 

Hayden, Blevins. 77 

Haves & Bartlett, 288 

Haves, Hartford, 288, 410 

Haynes, Daniel, 374, 905 

Haynes, Henry, 747 

Hays, Christopher, 79, 84, 150, 161, 162 

Hays, George, 78 

HaVs, John, 161 

Hayti, 381 

•'Hayti Signal," 538 

Hazel Run Lead District, 183 

Head, James, 65 

"Headlight," 531, 539, .540 • 

Heeb, John W., 1186 

Heeb, Rosa L., 1186 

Hematite. 65, 276 

Hembree. .1. C, 477 

llemme, Charles A. F.. 804 

Hempstead, Benjamin R.. 855 

Hempstead, Stephen, 207 

Henderson & Lawson, 293 

Henderson, A. S., 291 

Henderson, George, 74, 257 

Henderson, Harry, 1045 

Henderson, J, M., 403 

Hendricks, A. F., 573 

Hendrickson, William, 342 

Henn, Susan, 56 

Hennepin, 29 

Henry, Nelson B., 426, 557 

Henrv, S.. 539 

Hensiev, Oliver E., 1147 

Hensoii, Elbert H., 979 

Henson, James A., 597 

Henson, Samuel D., 305 

Hepzibah Church, 201 

"Herald," 531 

Herculaneum, 168, 177, 193, 275 

Herkstroeter, Henry A., 598 

Herrman, James, 307 

Hertich. Charles S., 556 

Hertich. Joseph, 193, 405 

Heuehan, Robert B., 1234 

Hickman, E. A., 370 

Hickman, J., 468 

Hickman. John A., 1159 

Hicks, Z. T., 748 

Higdon, William H., 773 

High School, Farmington (view), 279 

Higher Learning — St. Mary's seminary, 412; St.. Vin- 
cent 's college, 413; Will Mayfield college, 418; 
Elmwood seminary, 419; Farmington college, 419; 
Marvin Collegiate institute, 419; Carleton college, 
420 ; Arcadia college, 420 

Highest Point on Pilot Knob (view), 298 

Higginbotham, James L.. 1102 

Higginbotham, Thomas. 825 

Highfill. B. F., 781 

XXXV] 11 


Highfill, Charles W., 998 

Highfill, Sadie E., 998 

Hil'lebrand, John, 64, 124 

Hildebrantl, Samuel S., 550 

Hilgert, John J. A., 899 

Hill. Alonzo T)., 1255 

Hillsboro, 275 

Himmelberger, John H.. 64b 

Hindman, Emma P., 879 

Hindman, James il., 879 

Hinrichs, Belle C, 1163 

Hinriohs. Charles F., 1162 

Hitchcofk. Ethan Allen, 2,4 

Hitt, Benjamin, 199 

Hitt, Wiliiam, 199 

Hodges, Thomas L., 859 

Hodgmeiller, James, 344 

Hoffmann, August W., 1145 

Hogan, Edmund, 162 

Hogan, Peter, 343 

Hogue, John A., 982 

Holbert, James, 302 

Holbrook, F. M., 477 

Holcomb, 376 

Holeomb, Lewis, 307, 310 

Holden, Edward M., 402 

Holland, 382 

Holland, James H., 1114 

Holley, Ulysses G., 1257 

HoUiday-Klotz Land and Lumber Company, 507 

HoUiday Land & Lumber Company, 272 

Hollida'y, Sallie H., 419 

HoUiman, A. W.. 317 

Hollister, Edward, 208 

Holl.y, W. N., 960 

Home of Our Fathers (view). 126 

Hone.Y, John, 65 

Hoos, Thomas, 343 

Hopewell Baptist Churi-h, 476 

Hopkins, Joseph A., 303 

Hopper, Gillum M., 950 

Horine, Thomas M., 300 

Horner, John J., 948 

Horner, Russell, 307 

Horner, William B., 889 

Horner, William H., 287, 307 

Hornersville, 287 

" Hornersville Courier," 287 

Hornsby, J. C, 477 

Horrell, B. M„ 256, 319 

Horrell, Thomas, 481 

Hoskins, John, 290 

Hoskins, Thomas L., 1204 

Hostetler, Henry S., 986 

Houck, Louis, 78, 259, 422, 428, 434, 501, 503, 548 

Houck's Missouri & Arkansas Eailroad, 502 

Hough, Harrison, 312, 315, 498 

House, Adam, 65 

Houses of Louis Bouldue and Louis Guibourd. Ste. 
Genevieve (views), 57 

House's Spring, 65, 378 

Houston, Hiram J., 891 

Houston, John S., 284 

Houston, Joseph S., 310 

Houston. W. H., 9S1 

Houts, Christopher G., 238, 262, 291 

Houts, James, 303 

Houts, John, 290 

Howard, William X.. 685 

Hubbard, Charles T., 911 

Hubbard, Michael, 286 

Hubbard, Robert G., 940 

Hubbard, Walter M., 922 

Hubbard. William W., 697 

Hubbell Creek, 79 

Hubbell, Ithamar, 79 

Hubble 's Mill, 161 

Hudspeth. Ayers. 311 

Huebner, Joiin H., 1188 

Huff, Henderson, 293 

Huffman, Jesse D., 892 

Huffman, Samuel, 462 

Hug, Stephen, 909 

Hughes, A., 476 

Hughes, Benjamin H., 666 

Hulser, H. M,, 342 

Humboldt Literary Society, 430 

Hummel, John A., 1054 

Humphreys, Joshua, 164 

Hunot, Joseph, 115 

Hunter, 373 

Hunter, Abraham, 108, 303 

Hunter, Albert B.. 1079 

Hunter & ilathewson, 266 

Hunter & Watson, 265 

Hunter, Eva P., 1249 

Hunter, Ben, F., 292 

Hunter, David, 291 

Hunter, E, C, 895 

Hunter, J. H„ 349 

Hunter, Joseph, 108, 153. 154, 179, 290, 553 

Hunter, Lewis F., 1249 

Hunter, Mary, 78 

Hunter, Shapley E., Jr., 1055 

Hunting, 187 

Hurley, Moses, 108, 165 

Huskev, T;;omas, 732 

"Hustler," 537, 539 

Hutehings, John, 238 

Hux, William J., 1121 

Illinois, 24 

Illinois, Jlissouri & Texas Railwa.v Company, 501 

Illinois Southern Railroad, 508 

Illmo, 388 

"Illmo Headlight," 543 

Impeachment Proceeding, 155 

"Independent," 534, .541 

"Independent Patriot," 192, 529 

Indian Grove School, 288, 410 

Indian Agriculture, 36 

Indian Moccasin, 38 

Indian Mound (view), 4 

Indian Plates, 11 

Indian Relics, 11 

Indian Roads, 82 

Indian Trade, 27, 33 

Indian Wars, 170 

Indians, 9, 150, 170 

Indians — Trade with, 33; tribes, 34; agriculture, 36; 
houses of the Osages, 36; women, 36; weapons, 
37; knowledge of the^itars, 37; pipe, clothing and 
Indian moccasin, 38; government of the Osages, 
38; witchcraft, 43 

Industries, 180 

Industries — Farming, 444; trade, 445; mining inter- 
ests, 446 
In the Bonne Terre Lead Mining District (view), 385 


In the Thick Timber (view), 511 

lowas, 70, 170 

Iron, 183 

Iron County, 178, 316, 513 

"Iron County Kegister, " 534 

Irondale, 392 

Irondale Presbyterian Church, 491 

Iron Mountain Evangelical Lutheran Church, 481 

Ironton, 296 

"Ironton Forge," 534 

"Ironton Furnace, " 534 

Iroquois, 30, 31, 40 

Island No. 10, 333 

Ivers, John, 257 

Jackson, 162, 178, 186, 193, 261, 401 

Jackson — Founding of, 261 ; first institutions and per- 
sons, 262 ; civil government, 263 ; present countv 
seat, 263 

Jackson Academy, 194, 402 

Jackson Baptist Church, 465 

Jackson Branch Eailroad Company, 500 

' ' Jackson Courier, ' ' 530 

"Jackson Eagle," 529 

Jackson German Evangelical Church, 482 

Jackson M. E. Church, 455, 460 

' ' Jackson Review, ' ' 529 

Jackson, Albert, 315, 343 

Jackson, John W., 1173 

Jackson, Lyman F., 533 

Jackson, Sanford, 282, 315 

Jackson, Thomas M., 686 

Jackson. M'ingate, 20?, 463 

Jacobs, John, 78 

James, Henry, 308 

James, if. T"., 1239 

Janis, B. N., 52 

Jauis, Henry J., 542 

Janis, Nicholas, 53 

Jarvis, Daniel 0., 1127 

Jasper, Henry, 266 

"Jeans," 127 

Jeeko, F. J., 288 

Jeffers, W. L., 334, 349, 350 

Jefferson, 141 

Jefferson County, 168, 176, 179. 314— First settler in, 
64 ; first mill in Jefferson county, 65 ; first Protes- 
tant services within Jefferson county, 65 

Jefferson County Baptist Association, 475 

"Jefferson County Crystal Mirror." 535 

"Jefferson County Democrat," 535 

"Jefferson County Eeeord," 535 

"Jefferson County Eepublican," 535 

" Jeffersonian, " 529, 535 

Jennings, Daniel L., .349 

Jennings, James II., 349 

Jennings, E. E., 688 

Jesuits, 133 

Joachim, 177 

Joachim Creek, 273 

Johns, William L,, 595 

Johnson, Albert L., 610 

Johnson, Benjamin, 193 ^ 

Johnson, John, 179, 751 

Johnson, .John M., 295 

Johnson, .Joseph, 109 

Johnson, Thomas, 197, 198 

Johnson, T., 256 

Johnson, William H.. 1157 

Johnson, Winifred, 426, 1242 

Johnson, W. H,, 1211 

.Johnson, W., 256 

.Johnston, Frank A., 749 • 

.Jokerst, Leon, 51 

Joliet, 14 

.Joliet, Louis, 24 

Jones, Andrew, 349 

Jones, Augustus, 253 

.Tones, Benjamin C, 1165 

.Tones, Charles, 65 

Jones, Charles L., 906 

Jones, E. E., 1032 

Jones, E. M., 1041 

Jones, F. M., 807 

Jones, George H., 1103 

.Jones, George W., 252 

.Tones, Isaiah, 307, 308 

Jones, John Rice, 61, 154, 169, 238, 252, 269, 299, 

322, 402 
Jones, Joseph L., 1203 
Jones, Langdon, 787 
Jones, N, 6, H., 295 
Jones, O. C, 543 
Jones, Robert H., 787 
Jones, R. H., 285, 507 
.Jones, Thomas D., 864 
Jones, William T., 1297 
Jones, W. P., 349 
Jordan, G. W., 493 
Jordan, J. S., 468 
Joslyn, Clarence L., 1073 
' ' Journal, ' ' 545 
Jovce, J, R., 1279 
Jovce, T. E., 410 
Juden, John, Sr., 199 
Juden, John, Jr., 155, 199 
Juden, John, 262 

Kahmann, Guy F., 700 

Kalfus, C. C, 288 

Kansas, 34 

Karnes, John M., 1002 

Kaskaskia, 51 

Kaskaskias, 14, 26 

Kaths, Frederick, 814 

Kayser, George M., 344 

Keaton, Cornelius L., 1212 

Keleh, L. E., 1184 

Keel-boat, 132 

Keep, Frederick, 171 

Keith, Abram W., 755 

Keith, Frank L,, 755 

Keller, Daniel J., 533, 994 

Kellev, John E., 1005 

Keller & Taylor, 293 

Kelly, Jacob, SO 

Kelly, N. F., 711 

Kellv, William V., 711 

Kelso, 388, 450 

Kelso, I. R., 1232 

I\;endree Chapel. 453 

Kennedy, John E., 1156 

Kennedy, Matthew, 54, 124 

Kennett, 284 

Kennett Baptist Church, 473 

"Kennett Clipper," 533 

Kennett Presbyterian Church, 491 

Kent & Sparrow, 254 



Kent, Thomas B., 923 

Keyl, Wilhelm, 479 

Keyte, William A., L'70 

Kibby, Timothy, 150 

Kiefner, Charles E.. (i9l' 

Kiefner, Samuel B., 619 

Killian, George, 270 

Killian, Joseph C. 343 

Kallion, WiUiam M., 1057 

Killough, W. W., 488 

Kimball, Charles A., 282 

Kimbrow, James H., 1068 

Kimm, Theodore, 275 

Kimraell, G. G., 409 

Kimmell, J. Q. A., 410 

Kimmswick, 275 

Kinder, Emanuel, 1164 

King's Highway, 65, 108, 110, 291 

Kinsolving, Hersehel P., 946 

Kinsolving, Thomas B., 763 

Kinsolving, Timothy F., 871 

Kirkman, Albert, 1120 

Kirkman, Thomas P., 768 

Kitchen, Solomon G., 78, 293, 296, 304, 312, 349, 350, 

403, 499 
Kittrell, Lemuel, 305 
Kittrell, Solomon, 179, 311 
Kittredge, W. Herbert, 1196 
Klepman, Frank, 342 
Kneibert, Jacob, 262 
Knob Liek, 386 
KnowJ, James, 415 
Knowles, John A., 764 
Kochtitzky, John S., 736 
Kochtitzky, Otto, 560 
Kohl, John H., 1271 
Koons, M. B., 295 
Kopp, F., 266 
Koppitz, Albert, 766 
Kreps, W. P., 292 
Krone, George, 585 
Krueger, Louis, 631 
Krueger, Martin C, 640 
Kuennel, John, 271 
Kurreville Evangelicnl Lutheran Church, 480 

"Labor Herald," 541 

Labriere, Julien, 51 

Lacy, George A., 759 

Laeey, Jordan, 307 

Laeey, W. B., 538 

Ladd, Pierre D., 370 

La Fleur, Lambert, 55 

Lafont, Lafayette F., 1208 

La Forge, Alexander, 96 

La Forge, Antoine, 148 

La Forge, A. C, 96 

La Forge, Pierre, 115 

La Forge, Pierre Antoine, 89, 96 

Laidlaw, John, 410 

Lakeville Presbyterian Church, 485 

Lalond, Jeanette, 53 

Lambert, Felix G., 654 

Lambert, Warren C, 1264 

La Motte Mine, 59 

Land, A., 476 

Land Grants, 148 

Landry, T. & L., 270 

Lane, Albert, 811 

Lane, Adam, 317 
Lane, Hardage, 154 
Lane, Isaac, 474, 475 
Lane, M. M., 539 
Lane, Thomas F., 726 
Langdon, Edwin J., 307, 308 
Langdon, Hiram, 307 
Langley, DeWitt C., 1131 
Langley, L., 476 
Langlois, Francis, 107 
L'Annee des Grandes Eaux, 59 
"L'Annee du Coup,'' 114 
Laupher, George W., Sr., 688 
Laque Terrible, 231 
Laramie Station, 67 
Larsen, Martin, 1098 
Larsen, William H., 1099 
Larson, Louis, 1275 
LaRue, John P., 1111 
La Salle, 27 
Lasieur, Francois, 43 
Lasley, C. N., 308 
Lasswell, W. D., 507, 897 
Latham, H. C, 266 
Latimer, R. T., 1259 
Latimer, William H., 1259 
La Valle, E. P., 290 
Lavalle, John, 95, 115 
Lawlessness, 189 
Lawrence County, 154, 166 
Lawson, A. W., 410 
Lawson, Moses, 275 
Lawson, William, 317 
Layton, Bernard, 270 
Layton, John, 402 
Layton, John E., 170 
Lazear, Benjamin F., 343 
Leach, John, 295 
Lead Belt, 363 
"Lead Belt Banner," 541 
' ' Lead Belt News. ' ' 541 
Lead Mines (1804-1821), 183 
Leadwood, 384 
Leavenworth, V., 344 
Lebanon Baptist Church, 476 
Lebermuth, Adolph, 919 
LeCompte, Elroy S., 410 
Lee, Frank, 307 
Lee, George, 306 
Lee, Isaac H., 1070 
Lee, Robert E.. 370 
Leech, A. D., 256, 422 
Leedy, D. H., 291 
Lefler, Leonanl L., 1035 
Leeper, 392 

Leeper, William T., 342 
Legislative Council, 152 
Legrand, Joseph A., 1224 
Lehman, A., 480 
Lemmon, G. T.. 423 
Leopold, 449 
LeRoy, Lewis B.. 1146 
LeSieur, Francois, 8], 107, 266 
LeSieur, F. V., 265 
LeSieur, Godfrey, 213, 402 
LeSieur, G. V., 266 
LeSieur, Joseph. 81 
Lesieur, Lewis F., 1284 
LeSieur, Napoleon, 265 



Lesieur, Philo, 1284 

Lesterville, 298, 311 

Levees, 313 

Leveque, J. A., 415 

Levi Mercantile Compauy, 919 

Lewis, Lilburn, 266 

Lewis, William H., 742 

Leyba, Ferdinand, 114 

"Liberal," 534 

Libertyville, 277, 387 

Liberty Baptist Church, 473 

Libraries, 195 

Light, Peter, 84 

Lilbourn, 380 

Liles, William J., 1230 

Limbaugh. Frederick, 80, 161 

Lindsay, 335 

Lindsay, James, 348, 530 

Linn, Lewis F., 213, 321, 399 

Literary Societies, 430 

Lithium, 383 

Little Black Eiver, xii 

Little, Kos, 694 

Little Osages, 39 

Little Prairie, 95, 107, 178, 233, 282, 315 

Little Biver, xii 

Little Eiver, 230 

Little, William, 306, 470 

Lix, Louis W., 870 

Local Option Jlovemeut, 367 

Loeber, Gotthold H., 479 

Logan, Charles, 80 

Logan, David, 80 

Logan, James, 167 

Logan, James M., 889 

Logan, John, 270 

Logan, J. v., 316 

Logan, Mary L., 1171 

Logan, Oliver, 1171 

Logan, Eobert A., 80 

Loggrear, Del, 538 

Loignon, Charles, 107 

Loisel, Joseph, 52 

London, William, 477 

London, William, 895 

Long, Mayor, 213 

Long, Frank L., 712 

Long, Jesse, 307 

Longtown, 271 

Longtown, 383 

Lorance, John, 178 

Lorimer, Charlotte P. B., 73 

Lorimer, Louis, 34, 41, 67, 74, 115 

Lorimier, Louis, 161, 164 

Louisiana, 49 

Louisiana Purchase, 139 

Lower Louisiana, 49 

Lowery, John, 307 

Lowery, John J., 405 

Lowry, William, 66 

Lucas, Charles, 169, 190 

Lucas, James B. C. 151 

Lucas, John B. C, 299 

Luckey, Frank S., 891 

Lutes, Eli, 280 

Lutes, Jacob, 371 

Lutesville, 280 

' ' Lutesville Banner, ' ' 531 

Lutherans, 479 

Lyell, Charles, 213 
Lynch, Orton C., 609 
Lynn, James W., 1028 
Lynn, W. A., 288 

Mabrey, Thomas, 1292 

McAlister, Alexander, 206 

McAnally, Edward D., 738 

McArthur, John, 154 

McBride, Albert, 1053 

McCarthy, E. S., 285, 507 

McCarty, Sterling H., 574 

MacChesney, F. L., 410 

McClearv, H. S., 410 

McClendon, H. B.. 710 

McColgan, John W., 1241 

McCollum, Jesse W., 1105 

JleCombs, John, 295 

McCombs, William, 402 

McConachie, L. G., 426 

MeCormack, James E., 555 

MeCormack, Peter, 65 

JlcCormick, Emmett C, 847 

McCormick, James E., 846 

MeCourtney, Joseph, 105 

McCown, Thomas D., 1290 

McCoy, Ananias, 64 

McCoy, Eobert, 96, 115, 265 

McCoy, Mollie, 1182 

McCulloch, Colonel, 328 

MeCullocli, Eobert, 350 

McCidli.ush, E. E., 410 

McCull(iUf.h, J. B., 284 

JlcCutchen, Louis, 1216 

McDaniel, C. P., 650 

McDaniel, J., 307 

McDaniel, W. I., 649 

MacDonald, John, 329 

McElmurry, Absalom, 311, 552 

McElmurry, Henry, 469 

McElvain, Jerry M., 914 

McFarland, James A., 282 

McFarland, Thomas, 980 

McFerron, Joseph, 74. 157, 161, 190, 238, 401 

McFerron-Ogle Duel, 157, 190 

ilcGready, Israel, 153, 169 

McGee, Charles, 1288 

JIcGee, John S., 426, 435 

McGee, Samuel T., 701 

McGehan, George. 302 

ilcGerrv, J. F.. 413 

McGerry, John F., 415 

McGhee, J. S., 427 

McGinthv, Fleety, 988 

ilcGlothlin, Jesse A., 648 

McGrew, Elias V., 1113 

ilcGuire. F. A., 530 

:\rcGuire, J. S.. 262 

McGuire. William. 262 

McHanev, T. C, 659 

McHanev. T. N.. 834 

Machen, Harrv L., 580 

Mcllvaine, John. 402 

McKav. Benjamin A., 888 

:McKav, Johii T., 663 

itcKay, Virgil. 507, 1298 

McKendree. 204 

^IcKendree Chapel. 463 

McKendree, William, 204 



McKenzie, David H., 807 

Mackley, Andrew P., 863 

McLane, William, 270 

McLane, W. H., 343 

McLaughlin, Michael, 290 

Maclird, Thomas H., 342 

McMasters, John, 307 

McMUlan, Albert C, 1016 

McMillan, William J., 1056 

McMinn, Sam J., 658 

McMuUin, Frank M., 1104 

McMullin, E. W., 535, 796 

McMurtry, William, 208 

MeNails, Joseph, 311 

McNelly, Eugene T., 425 

McNeil, John, 335 

McNiel, Oscar, 1082 

Maeom, William, 469 

Madden, Thomas, 62 

Madison County, 167, 177, 514 

Magness, Perry G., 155 

Mails, 192 

Maisonville, 42 

Malcolm, Pleasant M., 1264 

Maiden, 374 

Maiden Christian Church, 495 

"Maiden Clipper," 533 

Maiden Cumberland Presbyterian Church, 493 

Malone, Elias J., 1194 

Maltus, C. F., 482 

Malugen, John H., 771 

Manitous, 24 

Mann Brothers, 266 

Mann, David H., 1076 

Mantler, S. C, 277 

Mantz, Ernst, 480 

Manufactures, 362 

Manufacturing, 446 

Maple, J. C, 199, 465 

Maramec Baptist Association, 478 

Maramec Eiver, xii 

Marble City Guards, 348 

Marble City Mill, 256 

' ' Marble City News, ' ' 530 

Marble Hill, 280, 313 

Marble Hill Northern Presbyterian Church, 492 

Marbury, Benjamin H., 584 

Marbury, H. L., 885 

Marks, David F., 155 

Marlow, Eoy S., 596 

Marmaduke, John S., 337 

Marmaduke's Eaid, 335 

Marquand, 371 

"Marquand Leader," 536 

Marquette, 14, 24, 133 

Marquette Among the Mississippi Valley Indians 

(view), 25 
Marsh, John, 307 
Marsh, John H., 284, 310 
Marshall, Brannon, 308 
Marshall, John I., 822 
Marston, 372 
Martin, George, 536 
Martin, John, 315, 402 
Martin, Tom, 1072 
Marvin Collegiate Institute, 419, 461 
Massey, Drury, 313 
Mason, Charles H., 1002 
Mason, Charles J., 1289 

Mason, E., 257 

Mason, Nellie J., 1003 

Mason Gang of Eobbers, 96 

Mason's and Murrell's Men, 102 

Master, Henry, 164 

Mathews, Eiehard, 303 

Mathews Prairie, 109, 179, 452 

Matkin, William M., 874 

Matthews, Ezekiel, 297 

Matthews, John, 207 

Matthews, William, 371 

Mattox, W. H., 476 

Maulsby, H. D., 402 

Maulsby, H. T., 265 

Maurice, Francois, 52 

Maurice, Henri, 52 

Maurice, Jean Baptiste, 52 

Mauthe, John J., 617 

May, Henry A., 691 

Mayes, F. A., 1027 

Mayfield College, Will, 572 

Mayfield, John J., 1073 

Mayfield, Pinkney M., 1073 

Maxwell, James,' 136, 153, 154 

Maxwell, I. Newton, 1070 

Mead, Eobert L., 992 

Meador, A. E. L., 476 

Meador, J. Frank, 637 

Meigs, Eeturn J., 148 

Menard, Mrs., 51 

Menard, Pierre, 56 

Menard & Valle, 56 

' ' Mercury, ' ' 529 

Merrill, William, 306 

' ' Messenger, ' ' 543, 545 

Metcalfe, Eiehard L., 532 

"Methodist Advocate," 542 

Methodists, 452 

Meurin Father, 134 

Meurin, J. L., 56 

Mexican War, 300 

Meyers, Benjamin, 107 

Meyers, Jacob, 105 

Meyers, William, IDS, 290 

Michel, Joseph, 90 

Michie, Ive, 962 

Michie, L. S., 1069 

Middle Brook, 298 

Milem, Jacob A., 1235 

Miller, Daniel, 295 

Miller, D. B., 293, 312, 413 

Miller, Elijah, 295 

Miller, Harry A., 655 

Miller, Henry, 296, 403 

Miller, Isadore W^, 900 

Miller, James S., 1249 

Miller, .John,. 311 

Miller, John A., 1099 

Miller, John N., 1123 

Miller, John W., 316 

Miller, Otis W., 1280 

Miller, Eobert J., 1279 

Miller, Trentis V., 1254 

Miller, William H., 569 

Millerville, 374 

Mills, J. N., 1262 

Mill Spring, 393 

Milsepen, Henry, 450 

Milster, A. W..' 410 



Mine a Breton, (54, 169, 182 

Mine a Gerboree, 183 

Mine a Platte (Doggett mine), 183 

Mine LaMotte, 178, 182, 378 

' ' Jline LaMotte Advertiser, ' ' 535 

Mineral District of Louisiana, 181 

Mineral Point, 292, 337 

Minerals, xv 

"Miners' Prospect," 544 

Mineral Regions, xi 

Mining, 181 

Mining Industry, 362 

Jlinter, Jlartin B., 758 

Mintrup, Joseph A., 604 

Miro, (Governor,) 88 

jMississippi, 24 

Mississippi Bottoms, 26 

Mississippi County, 109, 179, 311, 516 

Mississippi embayment, xiv 

Mississippi Eiver & Bonne Terre Railway, 506 

" ilississippi Valley Globe," 530 

"Missouri Cash Book," 530 

Missouri Compromise, 237, 240 

' ' Missouri Democrat, ' ' 541 

"Missouri Democracy," 532 
"Missouri Gazette," 153, 192, 541 

"Missouri Herald," 192, 529 

Missouri M. E. Conference, 206 

Missouri Orchards in Bearing (views), 519 

Missouri Presbytery, 207 

Missouris, 34, 35 
Missouri State Guards, 328 

Missouri State Hospital from Superintendent's Resi- 
dence (view), 279 

Missouri State Militia, 342 
ilitchell, John N., 295 
Mitchell, Samuel, 262 

Mitihell. Samuel E., 911 

Mitchim, C. C. 777 

Mobley, A. B., 285 

Mohrstadt, E. C, 1126 

Molder, H. SI., 498 

Monroe, 141 

Monteith, John, 422 

Montgomery, (Mrs.) Floyd. 3ii7 

Montgomery, Grover C, 1233 

Montgomery, ilaude, 419 

Montgomery, Samuel, 346 

Monticello, 275 

Moonshine, Captain, 43 

Moore, B. J.. 288 

Moore, Curtis, 999 

Moore, David H.. 306, 718 

Moore, George, 482 

Moore, Howard, 306 

Moore, Isadore, 66 

Moore, Isidore. 154, 155 

Moore, James L.. 288 

Moore, J. L., 288 

Moore, Joseph, 287 

Moore, Joseph C, 288 

Moore, Joseph H., 1213 

Moore, Joseph L., 1214 

Moore. Joseph R., 793 

Moore, P. B., 536 

Moore. Sam C, 288 

Moothart, George W.. 806 

Morean & Burgess, 290 

Morehouse, 381, 537 
' ' Morehouse Sun, ' ' 537 
Morgan, Fred, 984 
Morgan, George, 82 
Morley, 389 

Morrill, Joseph W., 1114 
Morris, Ira M., 967 
Morris, John W., 983 
Morrison, D. L., 410 
Morrison, E., 1249 
Morrison, James, 171 
Morrison, Robert, 262 
Morrison, T. J. O., 265, 315, 422 
Morrow, James R., 994 
Moseley, Clay A., 1087 
Moseley. Wifliam S., 314 
Moser.'john R.. 481 
Mott, John A., 553 
ilound Builders, 8 

Mounds — De Soto 's discovery of, 1; clistriliutinii nf. 
2; material of, 3; pottery, 7; burial, S; mound 
. builders. 8 ; age of, 9. 
Mt. Tabor. 76 
Mt. Zion Chapel. 452 
Mozley. Charles N.. 1265 
Mueller, George. 271 
Mueller, Jacob, 483 
Murdock, Lindsay, 342, 531 
Murphy, D., 302 
Murphy. David, 277 
Murphy, Jesse, 302 
Murphy, Richard, 154 
Murphy, (Mrs.) Sarah, 63, 410 
Murphy Settlement. 177, 206, 410 
Murphy, William, 63 
Muse, William, 286 
Musgrave. Elzie H., 953 
Musick. David, 150 
Myers, William. 1051 
Myrick, Frank, 288 

Naeter Brothers, 531 

Nail, G. B., 297 

Nancy Hunter Chapter. D. A. R.. Cape Girardeau. 369 

Nanson, H. Clem, 939 

Napper, William H., 1043 

Nations. Gilbert O.. 571 

Navarro, Angelo, 415 

Naylor, 384 

"Naylor Nail," 539 

Neal, George F., 274 

Neal, James P., 307 

Neal. Thomas, 194. 262 

Neale, Thomas. 262, 295, 401 

Neel, Thomas, 307 

Neel, Thomas, Jr.. 306 

Neeley, William, 153. 154 

Neely. William, 261 

Neeleyville, 372 

Neiswanger. Joseph. SO 

Netherton, George. 291 

Newberry, Frank, 791 

Newberry. William, 791 

Newberry, William M., 791 

New Bourbon. 66, 124. 177 

New Bourbon (Novelle Bourbon). 62 

"New Era," 530, 531. 535, 540 

New France. 28 

New Hamburg. 449 



Xew Hartford, 65 

Xew Madrid, 16, 21, 34, 51, 82, 106, 114, 125, 139, 
152, 165, 176, 177, 178, 186, 192, 232, 383, 334— 
Early history, 265; blows to New Madrid, 265; 
incorporated as a eitr, 266; long the county seat, 

Xew Madrid Academy, 402 

X'ew Madrid Baptist Association, 47S 

Xew Madrid Circuit, 455 

Xew Madrid County, 164, 165, 178, 517 

Xew Madrid District, 49. 117, 125, 176 — Its bound- 
aries, 81; "L'Anse a la Graise," 82; Indian 
transfer, S3 ; Pemiscot county, 107 ; Scott county, 
108; Mississippi county, 109 

Xew Madrid Earthquake — Area of, 214; fissures, 
218; sand blows, 222; sinks. 222; cause, 223 

"Xew Madrid Gazette," 537 

New Madrid Presbyterian Church, 490 

' ' Xew Madrid Record, ' ' 537 

"Xew Madrid Times," 537 

Xewman, Arthur R., 287 

Xewspapers, 192, 529, 547 

Xew River, 231 

"Xew Southeast," 544 

Xew Tennessee, 62, 454 

X'ew Tennessee Christian Church, 494 

Xeybour, Joseph, 65 

Nichols, James A., 1226 

Nickey, Emmett C., 1161 

Ninth Missouri Infantry, 351 

Nipper, Simon G., 876 

X'ixon, Burton S.. 1175 

Nixon, Frank B.. 1175 

Noblesse, Peter, 107 

Xoel, Thomas E., 323 

Xoell, John W., 322 

Xormal Dormitory Company, 428 

Norman, Moses, 307 

Northern Judicial Circuit, 300 

Northern Judicial (territorial) Circuit, 1.54 

Northern Presbyterians, 491 

Northwest Ordinance, 139 

Norton, Richard C, 426, 435 

XuU, William, 65 

Oakes, Clyde, 760 

Oak Grove Baptist Cluirch. 473 

Oakridge, 264, 374 

" Oakridge Indicator." 5.^1 

Oak Ridge Presbvterian Church. 491 

O'Bannon. Welto'n, 96 

O'Connor, .lohn X.. 7.34 

Odin. John. 413 

Odin, J. M., 448 

Oertel, Maximilian, 249 

Oglesby, Joseph, 206 

Ohio River. 24. 27 

O'Kelley. H. T.. 797 

Oldest House in Cape Girardeau (view), 258 

Old-Fashioned Ore Hoisters in Action (views), 120 

Ogle, William, 74, 157. 190 

Old Mines. 64, 270, 449 

Old-Time Windlass (view), 119 

Olive. John Baptiste. 96, 116, 164 

Oliver, Arthur L., 887 

Omahas, 35 

Onen Bay, xiv 

Oran. 387 

"Oran Leader," 542 

O'Reilly. 53 

O'Reilly. Count, 139 

Orr. D.", 463 

Orth, John, 342 

Osage Indians, 54, 63, 183 — Agriculture, 36; furni- 
ture and implements, 36 ; polygamy, 37 ; stealing 
horses, 37; religion. 37; pipe, 38; clothing, 38; 
Great and Little Osages, 39; treaty, 44 

Osages, 23, 34, 35, 40, 70 

Osborn, Stephen, 276 

Otter Bayou, 230 

Otto, George H., 737 

Our Lady of Perpetual Help Church, 451 

Outagamies. 37, 40 

Overall, Asa, 206 

Overall, B. W., 533 

Overton, James M., 811 , 

Owen, David W., 662 

Owen, Given, 307, 309 

Owen, Reuben, 309 

Owen, R. P., 295 

Oxley, James, 308 

Ozark Plateau, Elevation of, ix 

Pacahas, 35 

Page, Thomas J. E., 944 

Painter, Louis, 262 

Painter, (Mrs.) Louis. 78 

"Palladium," 531 

Palmer, Aaron, 636 

Panker, D. B., 507 

Pankey, David Young, 309 

Pankev, D. B., 836 

Pankey, D. Y., 285, 349 

Paquin, Joseph, 413 

Paragould & Memphis Railroad, 508 

Paragould Southeastern Railroad, 508 

Paramore & McDaniel, 295 

Parish. Joseph, 80 

Parker, A. F.. 1283 

Parker. Henry B., 851 

Parkin. Felix" J., 659 

Parks & Akin, 266 

Parks, F. C, 995 

Parma, 380 

' ' Parma Victor, ' ' 537 

Parrott, James, 291 

Parochial Schools, 400 

Parsons. Charles B., 591 

Parsons. Roscoe R. S., 595 

Pascola, 381 

Patterson, 178, 273 

' ' Patterson Times, ' ' .545 

Patterson, Andrew, 171 

Patterson, John, 74 

Pawnees, 41 

Payne, .Joseph, 107 

Pease & Hill, 297 

Peck. 58 

Peek. Elmer H.. 962 

Peek. George W., 374, 961 

Peck, John Mason. 203 

Pcckham, .James. 344 

Peers, John D., 302 

Pelts, Charles L., 601 

Pelts, John A., 600 

Pelts, Joseph, 307, 600 

' ' Pemiscot Argus, ' ' 538 

Pemiscot Bayou, xiv 



Pemiscot Bayou, L'31 

Pemiscot Comity, 107, ITS. l'4l', l'Sl', 31:!, 518, 538 
Penny, Gilbert T., ilTH 
Peorias, 40, 41 
Perkins, Amos B., IISI 
Perkins, William P., 10(i9 
Perry County, 66, 169, 177, L'49, 518 
' ' Perry County Republican, ' ' 536, 539 
"Perry County Sun," 539 
Perry, Samuel, 154, 15.5, 169, 23S 
Perry, William, 402 
Perryman, David E., 169 
Perryville, 138, 270, 451, 520 
' ' Perryville Chronicle, ' ' 539 
"Perryville Democrat," 539 
' ' Perryville Union, ' ' 538 
Peter, Sherwood T., 802 
Peterson, B. H., 344 
Pettis, William G., 238 
Petty, Harrv V., 890 
, Petty, William G., 883 
Pettv, William H., 1101 
Petty, W. G., 314 
Pevely, 378 

Peyroux, Henri, 95, 96 
Pfett'erkorn, William, 1235 
Pliarr, X. H., 314 
Phelan, William G., 305, 349 
Phelps, C. P., 293 
Phelps, John D., 904 
Phillips, Henry N., 1168 
Phillips, Levi B., 931 
Phillips, Murray, 1063 
Phillips, Samuel, 153. 164 
Phillipson, Joseph, 256 
Philomathean Literary Society, 430 
Physicians, 442 
Pickard, Taylor, 349 
Pickawilly, 67 
Picker, Frederick, 249 
Piedmont, 272, 527 
' ' Piedmont Banner, ' ' 545 
' ' Piedmont Leader, ' ' 545 
' ' Piedmont Eambler, ' ' 545 
' ' Piedmont Weekly Banner, ' ' 545 
"Piernas, 53 

Pierrepont, William, 265 
Pigg, P. T., 531 
Pigg, T. P., 540 
Pikey, Ben, 1051 
Pikey, Grace, 1052 
Pilgrim 's Rest Baptist Church, 476 
Pillow, General, 328 
Pilot Knob, xi 
Pilot Knob, 178, 338 

Pilot Knob Evangelical Lutheran Church, 481 
' ' Pioneer, ' ' 541 

Pioneer Spinning Wheel (illustration), 129 
Pipe, 38 

Pirtle, Isaac J., 860 
Pitman, W. A., 1028 
Pittman, 56 
" Plaiudealer, " 535 
"Pleasant Dealer," 541 
Pleasant Hill Presbvterian Cluirch, 490 
Plumb, William, 342 
Pocahontas, 264, 3i3 
Poe, Elton W.. 744 
Poe, Isaiah. 204 

Poe, Sinuju, 204 

Point Pleasant, 178, 230, 266, 334 

Polack, Theodore il., 425 

Polk, Charles K., 843 

Pollock, L. X., 942 

Ponder, Abner, 306 

Ponder, William S., 351 

Ponder 's Hill, 337 

Pontiae, 38 

Pope, Nathaniel, 158 

Poplar Bluff, 292, 312. 511 

"Poplar Bluff Citizen," 531 

Poplar Bluff Christian Church, 495 

Poplar Bluff High School (view), 294 

Poplin, Green L., 403 

Poplin, G. L., 531 

"Poplin's Black River News," 531 

Population, 53, 56 

Population (1804-1821), 175 

Population (1820-1830), 247 

Poor, T. C, 28 

Portage Bay, xiv 

Portage Bay, 107 

Portageville, 178, 267 

" Portageville Critic," 537 

"Portageville Push," 537 

Portell, Thomas E., 89 

Porter, Charles E., 786 

Porterfield, John D., 675 

Porterfield, J. JL, 680 

Postage, 192 

Postoifices, 192 

Poston, Charles P., 578 

Poston, Harry P.. 998 

Poston, Henry, 302 

Potosi, 169, 193, 269. 329, 337, 401, 527 

Potosi Academy, 402 

"Potosi Eagle." .544 

' ' Potosi Free Press. ' ' 544 

Potosi Home Guards. 342 

"Potosi Independent." 544 

Potosi Presbytery. 489 

"Potosi Republican." 544 

Powell. B., 265 

Powell, John E., 266 

Powell, John W., 347 

Powell, Isaac W , 1040 

Powell, William H., 930 

Powers. William A.. 1024 

Pratt, Charles R., 782 

Pratte. Bernard, 171 

Pratte, J. B. T.. 52 

Pratte, James W., 160 

Pratte, Joseph, 115, 413 

Pratte, John B., 53, 183 

Pratte, S. B.. 267 

Prentiss, 330 

Presbyterians — Presbytery of Missouri formed, 483; 
Southeast Missouri Presbvterian churches, 484; 
Preshyterianism in 1854-94. 484; 1864-74. 485; 
division in Presbytery. 486; decades from 1884 to 
1904. 487; general review. 488; Northern Presby- 
terians, 491 ; Cumberland Presbvterians. 493. 

Preslar. J. P.. 1014 

Press (see newspapers). 

"Press," 531, 538 

Price. Charles B.. 349 

Priest, J. v.. 318 

Priest. Zenas, 262, 401 



Priteharil, Charles M., 1044 

Pritfliard, Columbus E., 989 

Pritebard, Thomas E., 989 

Protesiants, 196 

Provenehere, P., 150 

Providence Church, 201 

Proviues, William C, 410 

Pruente, E., 45U 

Pryor, Herbert, 598 

Public Schools — Foundation of public system, 404; 
the State Commission, 405; sale of lands, 406; 
curriculum, 406; laws of 1853, 406; provisions of 
1874, 407; growth of the system, 407; Southeast 
Missouri Teachers ' Association, 409 ; first schools 
in various counties, 409. 

Pulliam, Thomas, 306 

Punch, Jasper N., 1085 

Purtels, James, 290 

Puxico, 392 

' ' Puxico Index, ' ' 544 

Quapas, 35 
Quigate, 20 
quinby, N. E., 288 

Badisson, 23 

Kailroads — Railroad building since the war, 357; St. 
Louis & Iron Mountain Eailway Company, 496; 
the Belmont branch, 497; Cairo & Fulton, 498; 
Jackson Branch Railroad Company, 500; Cape 
Girardeau, Pilot Knob & Belmont Railroad Com- 
pany, 501 ; Cape Girardeau & State Line Railroad 
Company, 501 ; Illinois, Missouri & Texas Railway 
Company, 501 ; Houek 's Missouri & Arkansas Rail- 
road, 502; St. Louis & Gulf Railroad, 502; St. 
Louis & San Francisco Railroad Company, 502; 
Cape Girardeau & Thebes Bridge Terminal Rail- 
way Company, 503 ; St. Louis & San Francisco sys- 
tem, 503 ; St. Louis, Memphis & Southeastern Rail- 
road, 504; St. Louis Southwestern Railroad Com- 
pany, 505; Mississippi River & Bonne Terre Rail- 
way, 506; Holliday-Knotz Land and Lumber Com- 
pany, 507 ; St. Louis, Kennett & Southeastern Rail- 
road, 507 ; St. Louis & Missouri Southern Railroad, 
507; Paragould Southeastern Railroad, 508; Illi- 
nois Southern Railroad, 508; Paragould & Mem- 
phis Railroad, 508; Butler County Railroad Com- 
pany, 508; Cape Girardeau & Jackson Interurban 
Company, 509. 

Rainbolt, W. K., 478 

Ramsay, Andrew, 77, 150, 171 

Kamsay, Andrew, Jr., 171 

Ramsay, Andrew M., 303 

Ramsay, James, 171 

Ramsay, John, 78 

Ramsay Settlement, 76 

Ramsay, W. C, 78 

Ramsay, William, 171 

Ramsey Creek, xiii 

Ramsey, Robert G., 802 

Ramsey, Samuel L., 1248 

Randoff, S. M.. 476 

Randol, Enos, 79 

Randol, John, 74, 214 

Randol, Medad, 79, 171 

Randol, Samuel, 79 

Randol Settlement, 77 

Randol, Thankful, 287 

Randolph, George E., 1288 

Raniller, Baptiste, 65 

Rankin, Lewis J., 273 

Ranney, Johnson, 155 

Ranney, Rhoda, 402 

Ranney, Robert G., 611 

Ranney, W. C, 257, 295, 501 

Ran, Gustav C, 775 

Rauls, John H., 1135 

Ravenseroft, James, 155 

Eawls, Hardy, 107 

Ray, David M., 1122 

Rayburn, M. B., 310, 995 

Rayburn, W. C, 310 

Read, T. W., 803 

Reagan, George K., 115 

Reagan, Mathias M., 803 

Reaves, George A., 1268 

Reavis, G. H., 410 

Reck, Edward B., 586 

Redden, George W., 627 

Reddick, John R., 1107 

Red House, 71, 74 

Redman, S. E.. 973 

Reed, Charles W., 1047 

Reed, D. C, 317 ■ 

Reed, Harmon, 295 

Reed, Jacob, 188 

Reed, Mary E., 1154 

Reed, Simpson, 1153 

Reed, William, 62 

Reeves, Everett, 881 

"Reflector," 531 

' ' Reformer, ' ' 540 

Regimental Histories (Civil War) — Home Guards, 341 
Missouri State Militia, 342 ; Third Missouri Regi- 
ment, 343; Fifth Missouri Regiment, 343; Fifty- 
sixth Missouri Regiment, 343 ; Sixty-fourth Mis- 
souri Regiment, 343; Sixty-eighth Missouri Regi- 
ment, 344; Seventy-ninth Missouri Regiment, 344; 
Second Missouri Infantry, 344 ; Twenty-ninth Mis- 
souri Infantry, 344; Thirteenth Missouri Infan- 
try, 345 ; Forty-seventh Missouri Infantry, 345 ; 
Fiftieth Missouri Infantry, 346; Sixth Missouri 
Cavalry, 346; Tenth Missouri Cavalry, 346; Engi- 
neer Regiment, West Missouri Volunteers, 347; 
Second Regiment Missouri Volunteers, 347 ; Forty- 
seventh Regiment Missouri Volunteers, 347 ; Fif- 
teenth Regiment, Enrolled Missouri Militia, 347 ; 
Twenty-third Regiment, Missouri Enrolled Militia, 
348 ; Thirty-ninth Regiment, Missouri Enrolled 
Militia, 348 ; Eighty-third Battalion, 348 ; Confed- 
erate organizations, 348; Ninth Missouri Infantry. 
351 ; Second Missouri Infantry, 351 ; Second Mis- 
souri Cavalry, 352. 
Reid, James, 410 
Reinecke, Frederick, 74, 97 
Relfe, James H., 322 

Religious History (see also churches) — Catholics, 448; 
ilethodists, 452 ;■ Baptists, 463; Lutherans, 479; 
Episcopal, 481; Congregational, 482; German 
Evangelical Church, 482 ; German Methodists, 483 ; 
Presbyterians, 483; Presbyterianism in 1854-64, 
484; Presbyterians, 1864-74, 485; division in Pres- 
byterv, 486; decades from 1884 to 1904,487; gen- 
eral review, 488; Northern Presbyterians, 491; 
Cumberland Presbyterians, 493 ; Christians, 494. 
Renault, 270 

Renault, Philip Francois, 182 
Rench, Daniel E., 716 


Reuiek, Joseph A., 1010 

' ' Eenovator, ' ' 532 

Reppy, John H., 535 

Reppy, Samuel A., 785 

' ' Representative, ' ' 541 

"Republic," 532 

• • Kepiiblioan, " 261, 532, 534 

Resources, 366 

Revelle, John W., 370, 1004 

Revelle, L. W., 477 

"Review," 534 

Reyburn, Joseph A., 832 

Reynol, A., 150 

Reynolds County, 179, 311, 520 

"Reynolds County Outlook," 539 

Reynolds, James, 256 

Reynolds, Thomas, 311 

Rhodes, Horatio S., 1198 

Rice, David, 308, 310 

Rice, James, 402 

Rice, Jimer E., 606 

Rice, John F., 1120 

Rice, John T., 1021 

Rice. Pascal, 306 

Richards, Cap B., 1072 

Richardson, J. N., 473 

Richardson, Mack, 370 

Richardson, W. B., 478 

Riehwoods, 392 

Riddle, J. F., 1274 

Rider, R. P., 423 

Rigbv, J., 257 

Rigdon, D. JL, 748 

Rigdon, Thomas J., 800 

Riney, Thomas, 270 

Ring, Thomas, 80 

Ringer, Louis, 295 

Eingo, Mann, 619 

Ripley Countv, 180, 248, 305, 521 

Ripley, Eleazer W., 806 

Ripley Mission, 453 

Rishe, John, 74 

Risher, ,Iohn, 74 

Ritton, J., 257 

Rivard. Francois, 51 

"River of the Conception," 133 

River St. Louis, 49 

River Transportation, 364 

Rivers, D. L., 1018 

Riverside, 65 

Riviere, Baptiste. 65 

Riviere Petite (Little River), 230 

Riviere Zenon, 79 

Roberson, 0. A., 1160 

Roberts, DeWitt. 426 

Roberts, Frank D., 920 

Roberts. Thomas. 290, 303 

Robertson, Edward, 108 

Robertson, J. R., 1132 

Robidaux, Joseph, 153 

Robins, M.. 477 

Robinson, C. S., 207 

Robinson, William P., 1288 

Roeheblave. Phillip, 53 

Rodney family, 79 

Rodney, i\Iichael, 171, 295 

Rodney settlement, 77 

Rodney, Thomas J.. 256. 257 

Rogers, Edmond, 290 

Rogers. James A., 702 

Rogers, John J., 896 

Roland, Dan W., 724 

Romain, John, 65 

Romine, Abraham, 293 

Roniines. James R., 697 

Rood, Lee W., 899 

Roper. G. L., 1167 

Rosati. Father, 412, 448 

Rosati, Joseph. 137 

Roseerans, General, 337 

Rosenborg, L., 288 

Rosenthal, Moses, 707 

Ross, Alexander, 1170 

Ross, A. jr.. 468 

Ross, Steel, 165 

Ross, Stephen, 155 

Roth, Caspar, 480 

Roth, Louis. 480 

Rotroek, C. P.. 545 

Eowe, C. E., 280 

Roy. Barbeau A.. 652 

Roy, Joachim, 65 

Roy, Pierre. 53 

Rozier, Charles, 415 

Rozier, Charles C, 321, 422, 433 

Rozier, Edward A., 817 

Rozier. Ferdinand, 56, 60, 270, 402 

Rozier, Firmin A.. 115, 301, 320 

Rozier, Francois C. 410 

Rozier. Frederick, 413 

Ruddell, George, 43. 107 

Ruddell. John, 107 

Rudy, J. F., 477 

Rueijottom, Ezekiel, 167 

Ruether. Fred J., 728 

Ruggles, Martin, 169 

Run'els, Will M.. 1013 
Rush's Ridge, 179 
Russell, James, 78, 79 
Russell, Joseph, 318 
Russell, J. J., 288. 551 
Russell, William. 78. 79 
Ruth, Andrew F., 781 
Rutledge. James A., 402 
Rutter, John B., 290 
Rutter, John P.. 303 
Ryan, Abram .T.. 417 
Eyan, Dawsey, 1115 

Sabula, 378 

Sacs, 35, 40, 70. 150. 170 

Sadd, Joseph M.. 492 

Sadler. Stephen H., 973 

St. Aubin, Lewis, 107 

St. Charles. 51, 140, 152 

St. Charles District, 49 

St. Francis Levee District, 314- 

St. Francisville, 333 

St. Francois County. 177, 277, 302, 522 

"St. Francois County Democrat." 540 

"St. Francois Countv Republican." 541 

St. Francois Mountains, x 

St. Francois River, xii, xiv 

St. Francois River, 42 

St. Gem, Gustavus. 555 

St. Gem, Jean Baptiste. 51, 52 

St. Gem. J. B., 171 



St. Gem, Vital, 53 

Ste. Genevieve, 21, 50, 56, 114, 137, 139, 140, 152, 176, 
177, 182, 186, 190, 192, 193, 197, 254; shipping 
center of mineral region, 251 ; Ste. Genevieve- 
Iron Mountain Plank Boacl, 251 ; 150th anniversary 
celebrated, 252 ; U. S. Senators from Ste. Gene- 
vieve, 252; Ste. Genevieve of today, 254. 

Ste. Genevieve Academy, 193, 194, 237, 320, 401 

Ste. Genevieve Asylum, 399 

Ste. Genevieve Circuit, 454, 455 

' ' Ste. Genevieve Correspondent and Eecord, ' ' 192 

Ste. Genevieve County, 177, 523 

Ste. Genevieve District, 49, 66, 125, 159; population, 
53, 56 ; trade of, 54 ; military expedition, 55 ; so- 
cial life and amusement, 55; common field, 56; 
dates of settlement, 62; houses of French settlers, 
119; food and cooking, 121; French Canadians, 
121 ; houses of American settlers, 125 ; food of the 
Americans, 127. 

Ste. Genevieve Evangelical Lutheran Church, 481 

' ' Ste. Genevieve Herald, ' ' 542 

St. John 's Bayou, xiii 

St. John's Bayou, 82, 229 

St. James Bayou, xiii 

St. James Bayou, 229 

St. Joseph Lead Company, Bonne Terre, 506 

St. Louis, 57, 114, 140, 152 

St. Louis & Gulf Eailroad, 502 

St. Louis & Iron Mountain Railway Company, 496 

St. Louis & Iron Mountain Railroad, 259, 506 

St. Louis & Missouri Southern Railroad, 507 

St. Louis & San Francisco Railroad Company, 502 

St. Louis & San Francisco System, 503 

St. Louis, Kennett & Southeastern Railroad, 507 

St. Louis, Memphis & Southeastern Railroad, 504 

St. Louis Southwestern Railroad Company, 505 

St. Mary, Augustus S., Jr., 878 

St. Marys, 254 

St. Mary's Academy, 193 

' ' St. Mary 's Progress, ' ' 542 

' ' St. Mary 's Review, ' ' 542 

St. Mary's Seminary, 412, 44S 

"St. Mary's Times,'" 542 

St. Michael 's, 64, 126, 139, 201, 449 

St. Paul 's Episcopal Church, fronton, 482 

St. Philip River, 49 

St. Vincent 's Church, 448 

St. Vincent 's College. 413 

St. Vincent's College (views), 414 

Saline Creek, xii 

Saline Creek, 18, 65, 177 

Sand Blows, 222 

Sandlin, Jonathan R., 311 

Sandlin, Martin, 179 

Sandy Creek, 193 

Sarford, Daniel, 29o 

Sans Oreille, 39 

Satterfield, W. M., 308 

Saucier, F., 150 

Saukees, 40 

Sayres, William, 311 

Scene at the Shut-in near Arcadia (view), xi 

Scene on Black River near Poplar Bluff (view), 294 

Schaaf, John F., 254 

Sehadt, Otto, 345 

Schaper, Jesse H., 903 

Schell, Casper, 178 

Schiller Verein, 431 

Schleich, L. C, 423 

Schmitz, Ferdinand, 342 

Schneider, Charles W., 829 

Sehonhoff, C. A., 1229 

Schonhoff, J. H., 1247 

Schools (see Education) 

Sehrader, Anthony, 480 

Schramm, Emil C, 684 

Schrum, Eugene G., 1189 

Sehult, Hina C, 314 

Schult, H. C, 956 

Sehult, W. D., 314 

Schulte, Frank, 678 

Schultz, Thomas W., 634 

Sehultze, Andrew T., 578 

Sehulz, Gustav B., 665 

Schwartz, John, 342 

Scoggin, George W., 809 

Scott, Andrew, 154, 402 

Scott, Jonathan, 315 

Scott, Jolm, 153, 155, 237, 238, 242, 307, 313 

Scott, J. B., 410 

Scott, John G., 323 

Scott, Thomas, 311 

Scott, Thomas B., 148 

Scott County, 108, 156, 179, 290, 303, 342, 524 

Scott County Hills, xii 

' ' Scott County Agricultural Wheel, ' ' 542 

' ' Scott County Banner, ' ' 543 

' ' Scott County Democrat, ' ' 543 

"Scott County Kicker," 542 

' ' Scott County Newsboy, ' ' 543 

Scripps, George H., 262 

Scripps, John, 205 

Scrips, (Mrs.) John, 402 

Seabaugh, A. Frank, 1254 

Seabaugh, Oda L., 779 

Seavers, David, 74 

Seavers, Nicholas, 77 

Seawell, Joseph, 261, 401 

Second Missouri Cavalry, 352 

Second Missouri Infantry, 344, 351 

Second Regiment, Missouri Volunteers, 347 

Seelitz Evangelical Lutheran Church, 479 

Segal, Louis, 1064 

Seindre, .John, 65 

Sellers, Benjamin, 282 

Selma, 275 

Senath, 376 

' ' Senath Leader, ' ' 534 

"Senath Star," 534 

Seneca Slough, 42 

Sergeant, lehabod, 411 

Settle, V. T., 477 

Settle, W. W., 476, 477 

Seventy-ninth Missouri Regiment, 344 

Sewell,' Joseph, 154, 155 

Sexton, J. W., 643 

Sexton, Lafayette, 307 

Shady Grove" Baptist Church, 473 

Shafer, Sophia, 65 

Shaner, Henry, 295 

Shannon, William. 155 

Sharp, E. F., 1278 

Sharp, .James J., 946 

Sharp, Thomas B., 699 

Shaw, John, 172, 228 

Shaw, Thomas M., 290 

Shawnee Hills, ix 

Shawnees, 40, 41, 170 



Shearer, J. G.. 478 

Sheehy, John T., 1060 

Shelby, Jo, 335, 337 

Shelby, Beuben, 270, 402 

Shell, Benjamin, 162 

Shelton, Enoch, 308 

Shelton, Lee, 562 

Shelton, William H., 308 

Shelton, W. F., 823 

Shelton, W. F., Jr., 824 

Shepherd Mountain, xi 

Sheppard, Isaac, 199 

Sheppard, Jesse C, 1282 

Sheppard, John, 162 

Sheppard, 'William, 262 

Sherrill, L., 277 

Shields, Charles "W., 926 

Shields, 8. A., 808 

Shiplev, Hugh, 307 

Shivers, J. A., 965 

Short, John, 178 

Shot Tower, 65 

Shrader, John, 153 

Shreve, Israel, 84 

Shultz, Thomas J., 853 

Shurlds, Henry, 169 

Siege of New Madrid (1862), 265 

Sigler, Charles L,., 1220 

Sikes, John, 291 

Sikeston. 108, 291, 525 

' ' Sikeston Herald, ' ' 542 

Sikeston M. E. Church, 460 

Sikeston Presbyterian Church, 491 

Sikeston Eidge, xiii 

"Sikeston Standard," 542 

' ' Sikeston Star, ' ' 542 

Simply a Big Oil Tank (view), 518 

Simpson, A. E., 288 

Simpson, A. P., 1052 

Simpson. Doda B., 1052 

Simpson, .Teremiah, 77 

Simpson. Samuel P., 343 

Sink Hole, 172 

Sinks, 222 

Siouan, 34 

Sioux, 170 

Sixth Missouri Cavalry, 346 

Sixty-fourth Missouri Eegiment, 343 

Sixty-eighth Missouri Eegiment, ?44 

Sixth Eegiment (Spanish-American War), 370 

Skaggs, Dick, 307 

Skaggs, Dr., 286 

Skaats, Lillie E., 426 

Slinkard, Frederick, 80 

Slinkard, J. V., 873 

Sloan. Albert D., 370 

Sloan, H. L., 256, 262 

Sloan, William, 169 

Smart, John C, 349 

Smelting of Lead, 363 

Smith & Love, 297 

Smith, Ashael, 265 

Smith, Harry A., 539 

Smith, Henry H., 154 

Smith, H. M., 478 

Smith, James, 288 

Smith, James W., 160. 302 

Smith, John, 350 

Smith, John T., 169 

Smith, .loseph, 290, 303 

Smith, J. S., 290 

Smith, Melbourne, 74(i 

Smith, Owen A., 835 

Smith, Beuben, 313 

Smith, S. Henry, 5:r.T 

Smith, Tilman. 80 

Smith, T. John, 60, 1911 

Smith T.-Browne duel, 190 

Smith, William, 199 

Smyth, James A., 3118 

Smyth, E. Lee, 1096 

Snider, Frank M., 954 

Snider, G. B., 667 

Snider, Jacob, 307 

Snider, .Tohn A., 1143 

Snider, Oliver E., 313 

Snoddy, John, 293 

Social Life — Population of Louisiana in 1804, 117; 
Ste. Genevieve district, 118, 119, 121; American 
settlers, 119; houses of French settlers, 119; In- 
dians, 119; food and cooking, 121; French Cana- 
dians, 121; dress of the French, 122; amusements, 
122; personal property, 124; wealth (personal 
property), 124; trade, 124; fur trade of Upper 
Louisiana, 124; American immigration, 125; 
houses of American settlers, 125; clothing, 127; 
food of the Americans, 127; general conditions, 
439; houses, 440; food, 440; dress, 440; house- 
hold implements, 441; amusements, 441; physi- 
cians, 442. 

Son, Thomas A., 752 

Sorosis Society, 430 

Soulard, Antonio, 65 

Southeast District Agricultural Society. 257 

"Southeast Gazette," 530 

"Southeast Missourian, " 532, 537 

' ' Southeast Missouri Enterprise, ' ' 534 

Southeast Missouri Teachers ' Association, 409 

"Southeast Missouri Statesman," 538 

"South Missouri," 530 

South Missouri Guards, 301 

"Southern Advocate and State Journal," 529 

' ' Southern Democrat, ' ' 529 

Southern Judicial (territorial) Circuit, 1.54 

Southern Mississippi Steamer (view), 365 

' ' Southern Missouri Argus, ' ' 540 

"Southern Pemiscot News," 538 

"Southern Scimetar, " 538 

Southern, William A., 720 

Spanish-American War, 370 

Spanish Government over Louisiana — Merchants, 130; 
prices, 130; products, 130; travel, 131; religion, 

Sparks, Daniel, 164 

Spear, Edward, 171, 199 

Speer, Asier J., 1189 

Spence, James M., 293 

Spence, J. M., 403 

Spence, William A.. 1152 

Spence, W. W., 493 

Spencer, Edward, 307, 310 

Spencer, H., 307 

Spencer, Urban C, 402 

Spencer, Wade H., 282 

Spiggott, Joseph, 206 

Spiller. Elbert C. 284 

Spiller, S. W., 374 

Sprigg Street, 329 



Stacy, William L., 1047 

Stady, William C, 568 

Stallcup, James A., 1208 

Stalleup, Lynn JI., 1207 

Stallcup, iiark H.. 291, 1206 

Stanberry, Henry, 243 

Stancil, Martin L., 313 

"Standard," 531 

Stanfill, J. H., 371 

Stanley, Rufus H., 937 

Stanton, John, 169 

Starett, William S., 957 

Starved Eock, 30, 31 

Statehood — Memorial for, 234 ; Missouri Compromise, 
237, 240; solemn public act, 239; state bounda- 
ries, 242. 

State Normal School, Cape Girardeau, 259, 367, 
409; established, 420; courses of study, 428; lit- 
erary societies, 430 ; the Young Men 's Christian 
Association, 4i51 ; library, 431 ; enrollment, 432 ; 
faculty, 432; board of regents, 433; former presi- 
dents, 434; place of the normal school, 436. 

State Normal School, Cape Girardeau (view), 421 

Statler, Conrad, 79 

Statler, Peter, 79 

Stear. Jacob, 290 

Steek, Emil, 1236 

Steele, 382 

Stein, Louis, 652 

Steinback. B., 74, 97 

Steinbaek. F.. 74, 97 

Stephens, John W., 932 

Stephens, L. L., 473 

Stephens, Thomas. 202 

Stevens, John, 313 

Stevenson, John, 311 

Stevenson, J. Henry, 763 

Stevenson, William' J., 341 

Stevenson, William T., 879 

Steward, Ambrose S., 1292 

Steward, .James, 65 

Stewart. Eobert, 313 

Stewart, Thomas, 262, 401 

Stierberger. Edward A., 642 

Stiver, Christian E., 629 

Stoddard, Amos. 142, 143, 304 

Stoddard County. 180, 295. 304, 525 

Stoddard County Baptist Association, 478 

' ' Stoddard County Republican, ' ' 543 

Stokes, Amzi L., 1023 

Stokes. Charles E., 543 

Stokes, John E., 963 

Stokes. Robert W.. 992 

Stokes, R. W., 286, 308 

Stokes. T. C, 286 

Stokes, William C. 881 

Stone, John H., 317 

Storey, 0. H.. 639 

Story, Joseph, 105, 107, 165 

Stout, Ephraim, 80, 178 

Stout, Thankful, 79 

Strange. Tubal E., 192 

Strange, T. E., 262, 529 

Street. William, 167, 203 

Strifklin, John W.. 1210 

Strother. Benjamin. 159 

Stumpe, Frederick W., 681 
■Sturdivant, Robert, 256, 318 

Subscription Schools, 398 

Sugg, H. A., 856 
Summers. Andrew, 79 
Summers, John, 105 
Summers, John C, 948 
Sumpter, Bert, 818 
' ' Sunnyside, ' ' 541 
Surrell, William, 195, 262 
Sutherland, George W., 1049 
Swan, Clarence M., 729 
Swashing Baptist Church, 476 
Swearingen, William A., 963 
Sweazea, Thomas J., 685 
Swinger. Jacob M., 1178 
Syenite Gi-anite Company, 820 
Syenite Presbyterian Church, 491 

Tarkington, William W., 974 

Tallmadge Amendment, 237 

Tanner, Eucker, 206 

Tauot, Pierre, 65 

Tarlton, George W., 699 

Tate, C. J., 468 

Tatum Brothers, 285 

Tatum, James F.. 657 

Tatum, Luther F.. 933 

Tatum, Luther P., 562 

Tatum, Ira B., 934 

Tatum. Richard M., 658 

Taverns, 191 

Tawney, John. 1101 

Taylor", (Captain), 349 

Taylor, Edward O.. 1032 

Taylor, John P., 308 

Tavlor. Lee. 349 

Taylor, Lee J., 1000 

Taylor, Luther, 270 

Taylor, il. W., 476 

Taylor Slough, xiv 

Taylor Slough. 231, 307 

Taylor, T.. 400 

Taylor, William E., 1097 

Taylor, William T., 980 

Teeumseh, 42 

Templeton, James D., 938 

Templeton, William A., 943 

Tennille. Benjamin, 162 

Tenney. David, 208 

Tenth Missouri Cavalry, 346 

Territorial Government of Louisiana — Governor and 

general assembly. 152; courts, 158 
Territorial House, 152 
Terry. Philip S., 1025 
Test Oath, 417 
Tetweiler, S. G., 536 
Thebes. 260 
Theel, Levi, 65 
Tbeilmann, Louis, 915 
Thiele. Frederick, 858 
Thilenius, Edward, 797 
Thilenius, E. M., 902 
Thilenius, G. C, 343, 501 
Third Missouri Regiment, 343 
Thirtieth Missouri Infantry, 345 

Thirty-ninth Regiment, Missouri Enrolled ililitia, 348 
Thomas, Jesse B.. 237 
Thomas, John C, 288, 498 
Thomas, John L., 867 
Thomas, Judge, 170 
Thomas, Richard S.. 153, 154, 155, 238, 242, 300 


Thoniasson, Bettie U., 1075 

Thomasson, J. W., 1074 

Thompson, A., 307 

Thompson, Benjamin, 410 

Thompson, Benjamin F., 792 

Thompson, General, 330, 331 

Thompson, James, 171 

Tliompson, John, 171 

Thompson, Samuel H., 206 

Thompson, Samuel T.. 1152 

Thompson 's Fort, 335 

Thompson, Sullivan S., 1039 

Thompson, Wilson, 202 

Thomure. Jean Baptiste, 52 

Thornberry, Ephraim, 307 

Thome, Solomon, 74 

Thrower, A. C, 1222 

Tiilwell, A., 477 

Tidwell, A. (i., 476 

Tiedeman, D. F., 410 

Timber, xv 

Timber, 360 

Timberman, J. W., 673 

Timberman, John, 286 

Timberman, John H., 1273 

"Times," 540 

Timon, John, 413, 448 

Tindle, Albert, 1037 

Tinnin, Edwin L., 828 

Tinuin, Eobert H., 790 

Tipton, Samuel, 77 

Tolds, James, 403 

Tolle, B. A., 1065 

Tolleson, Thomas E., 850 

Toole, Thomas J., 1093 

Tone}', Henry, 402 

Tong & Carson, 297 

Tong, H. F., 477 

Tong, Theodore F., 267, 316 

Tonti, 29 

Topping, Moses H., 614 

Toriman, 35 

Totty, Ulysses G., 1291 

Tower, Rush, 275 

Towl, Benjamin F., 838 

Townships, 159, 163, 304 

Trade, 27, 33, 124, 130, 140, 186, 445 

Transfer to the United States-Louisiana Purchase, 

139; trade, 140; land grants, 148 
Transportation, 187, 364 
Travis, John, 204 
Traylor, George H.. 1033 
Treece, George W., 958 
Tresenwriter, C. D., 531 
Tribble, Pearl D., 1085 
Tribble, Thomas E., 1083 
' ' Tribune, ' ' 536 
" Tri-City Independent," 535 
Trogdon,' J. B., 1204 
Tromley, L. F., 532 
Trotter, David, 44, 115 
Trudeau, Zenon, 79 
Tual, Charles J., 861 
Tucker, Father, 451 
Tucker, John, 164 
Tucker, Joseph, 170, 270 
Tucker, Marion F., 832 
Tucker, Nathaniel B., 302 
Tucker, Rufus C, 774 

Tucker, William 1.., 566 

Turley, John G.. 1025 

Turley, Lee, 762 

Turnbaugh, J. J., 262 

Turnbaugh, T. Ben, 1081 

Turnbaugh, Thomas B., 1080 

Turner, B. F., 403 

Turner, Samuel E., 342 

Tuttel, Joseph, 1151 

Twenty-third Regiment. Missouri Enrolled Militia, 

Twentv-ninth Missouri Infantry, 344 
Tyler," Thomas, 65 

Typical Stone Quarries (yiews), 515 
Tywappity Bottoms, 81, 179 

Uhl, Casper, 343 

Union American Lead Company, 268 

Union Literary Society, 430 

United Daughters of the Confederacy, 369 

Unity Masonic Lodge, 157 

Upper Louisiana, 49 

Ursulinc Sisters, 420 

Vail, John W., 1137 

Valle Family. 269 

Valle, Charles, 114 

Valle, Felix, 410 

Valle, Francisco, 52, 115, 159 

Valle. Francisco, Jr.. 115 

Valle, Jean Baptiste, 52 

Van Amburg. James H., 410 

Van Bnren, 180, 372 

Vance, Robert L., 723 

Vandenbenden, Joseph, 105 

Vandenbenden, Louis. 97, 105 

Van Denbenden, Lewis, 107 

Vandiver, Willard D., 426, 427, 435 

Vandover, William, 293 

Vanduser, 389 

VanFrank. P. R., 342 

VanGilder. J. W., 1133 

Van Guard Literary Society, 430 

Vanhorn, Xathan, 163, 262 

Van Lluvtelaar, John. 449 

Vardell, B. X., 822 

Vardell, Drew, 875 

Vasquez, Benito, 65 

Vessells, Francis M.. 805 

Victoria, 378 

Views — Capaha Bluffs, Rock Levee Drive, Cape Gi- 
rardeau, yiii; elephant rocks. Graniteville, x; 
scene at the Shut-in near Arcadia, xi; In- 
dian mound, 4; Marquette among the Mis- 
sissippi Valley Indians, 25 ; first brick house built 
west of the Jlississippi, 50 ; old-time windlass, 
119; home of our fathers, 126; happy Missouri 
corn grower, 181; oldest house in Cape Girardeau, 
258; Missouri State Hospital from superintend- 
ent's residence, 279; high .school, Farmington, 
279; Will Mayfield College. :Marble Hill. 281; 
Poplar Bluff High School and scene on Black 
River near Poplar Bluff, 294 ; highest point c n 
Pilot Knob, Arcadia Heights. 298; soutli- 
ern ilississippi riyer steamer. 365; State Normal 
School, Cape Girardeau, 421 ; in the thick timber, 
511; typical stone quarries, 515; corn measured 
by horses, 517; simply a big oil tank, 518; Mis- 
souri orchards in bearing, 519. 


Vincennes, 51 
"Vindicator." 543, 545 
Vire, F. A., 539 
Vitt, Alfred A., 632 
Vossbrink, Henry C, 653 
Voyageur, 24 

Wabasli Eiver, 49 

Wade, David, 74 

Wade, Eobert C, 971 

Wade, Eobert L., 908 

Wagner, Jolin F., 648 

Wagner, L. M., 481 

Wagster, Xofflit J.. Sr., 815 

Walil, James S., 908 

Waide, Eobert, 288 

Walker, Alexander S., 154 

Walker, C. A., 705 

Walker, Charles N., 537 

Walker, Cyrus,, 263 

Walker, George W., 679 

Walker, Irwin K., 342 

Walker, James A., 349 

Walker, James P., 556 

Walker, Jesse, 204, 205, 461 

Walker, J. H., 233, 282 

Walker, John B., 307 

Walker, John Hardeman, 107, 178, 242, 315 

Walker, Thomas B., 343 

Walker, Thomas M., 928 

Walker, William S. C, 629 

Wallace, John W., 968 

Wallace, Newton, 312 

Waller's Ferry, 163 

Wallis, J. P., 476 

Walls, Eobert D., 714 

Walser, David F., 1202 

Walsh, M. C, 450 

Walters, Jacob, 155 

Walther, C. F.. 271 

Walther, Carl F. W., 480 

Waltrip. I. A., 308 

Waltrip, J. M., 308 

Ward, E. D., 274 

Ward, H. M., 498 

Ward, il.. 288 

Ward, Eobert L., 945 

Ward, Samuel J., 348 

Ward, W. J., 844 

Ware, Hardy, 65 

Warren, Humphrey, 287 

Warren, Martin S., 892 

Warrington & Pennell, 265, 282 

Warner, Charles G., 505 

Warner. .John E., 1262 

Warren, Eobert L., 1015 

Washington County, 153, 168, 176, 179, 269. 526 

Washington County Baptist Association, 478 

Washington County Battalion, 342 

Washington County, first settlement in, 64 

' ' Washington County Gazette, ' ' 545 

' ' Washington County Journal, ' ' 544 

' ' Washington County Miner, ' ' 544 

Washington Female Seminary, 402 

Waters, Richard Jones, 97, 115, 150, 164, 265, 402 

Waters, Thomas W., 179 

Waters, W. W., 537 

Watervalley Presbyterian Church, 491 

Watkins, Griffin, 717 

Watkins. .Tames H., 987 

Watkins, Joseph, 80 

Watkins, Martha E., 988 

Watkins, JS'athaniel W., 156 

Watkins, N. M., 263 

Watkins, N. W., 257. 316, 328 

Watkins, W., 349 

Wathen, I. E., 256 

Wathen, Ignatius E.. 290 

Watrin, P. M., 56 

Watson, Jason, 263 

Watson, Eobert Goah. 97, 265, 402 

Watson, W. S., 257 

Watts, H. S., 461 

Watts, Xapoleon B., 639 

Wayne County, 80, 167, 176, 178, 203, 272, 527 

Wayne County Baptist Association, 479 

WelDer, Carl, 1221 

Weber, Charles A., 343 

Weber, Emil M., 1220 

Webb, George B., 986 

Webb, W. J., 1222 

Webster Literary Society, 430 

' ' Weeklv Journal, ' ' 545 

Weiberg (Whybark). Samuel, 80 

Weigel, E. F.'. 422 

Weirick, Upton L., 709 

Weiss, Henry F., 769 

Welker, Leonard, 80 

Welker. Wilbur M., 587 

Wellborn, .Tames, 290 

Welling, Charles, 262, 263, 318 

Wells. Francis M., 624 

Wenom, Gustavus A., 866 

Wernert, L. C, 842 

West, Henry T., 581 

West, John, 287 

"Western Eagle, 530 

"Westliche Post." 530 

Whaley, Nathaniel C, 999 

Wheeler, Doctor, 402 

Wheeler, David. 402 

Whiteomb, George. 287, 498 

Whitcomb, G. W., 288 

White. Cornelius C, 1074 

White. Edmund, 295 

White, Elbert C, 532 

White, E. C. 308 

White. G. M., 308 

White, .Tames B., 351 

White. Josiah M., 745 

White, J. W., 884 

White, William, 74 

Whiteaker, Eobert A., 924 

Whiteaker, William C, 1071 

Whitehead. Samuel W.. 1196 

Whitehead. Thomas L., 1119 

Whitelaw. James M., 319 

Whitelavr. Eobert H., 549, 704 

Whitener, David A.. 739 

Whitener. Henrv, 267, 371 

Whitener. J. Q.'A.. 371 

Whiteoak, 377 

White Oak Grove Baptist Church, 478 

Whiteside, Jacob, 206 

Whitewater, 373, 492 

Whitewater Creek, xii 

Whitewater Eiver, xiii 

"Whitewater Times," 531 


Whittaker, M. J., 473, 474 

Whiften, William H., 10^3 

Whitworth, Isaac G., 851 

Whybark, Levi C, 343 

Whybark, Levi E., 493 

Whybark, John C, 313 

Whybark, Samuel, 49:i 

Wifhterich, Robert F., 689 

Wiggins, Levy. 66 

Wiggs, Franklin A., 638 

Wilcox, Edward, 204 

Wilkinson, James, 14:i, 143 

Wilkerson, Joel, 349 

Wilkes, William C, 349, 872 

Wilkins, Fabium M., 962 

Wilkinson, James, 88 

Wilkson, Charles P., 765 

Willett, J. O.. 468 

Williams, A. B., 307 

Williams, C. S., 799 

Williams, Elisha G., 1125 

Williams, George, 291 

Williams, George B., 849 

Williams, George K., 647 

Williams, George W., 849 

Williams, James, 469, 475 

Williams, Justin, 403 

Williams, J. J., 314 

Williams, Lee, 1227 

Williams, Lewis, 45 

Williams, Luther H., 703 

Williams, Matthew J., 1225 

Williams, Philbert E., 731 

Williams, Thomas, 291 

Williams, William, 204 

Williamson, James, 307 

Williamsville, 393 

" Williamsville Iron News," 546 

Williford, Charles, 349 

Willis, Eiley, 1229 

Will Mayfield College, 418 

Will Mavfiekl College, Marble Hill, 479. 572 

Will Mayfield College. Marble Hill (view), : 

Wills, Ernest S., 1138 

Wilson, Andrew, 105 

Wilson, A. W., 419 

Wilson, Ben, 1111 

Wilson, Charles D., 1092 

Wilson, Eli, 1237 

Wilson, Ellen, 425 

Wilson, George. 164 

Wilson. H. G., 409 

Wilson, John O., 1289 

Wilson, Michael A., 296, 403 

Wilson, Mattie G.. 1239 

Wilson, Nicholas, 154 

Wilson, Parrish G., 1110 

Wilson, Thomas G., 753 

Wilson, T. M.. 410 

Wilson, Ward, 370 

Wilson, William B., 550 

Winchester, 291 

Winchester, Abraham, 291 

Winchester, Hendcr:-cpii. 291 

Windsor, Elisha, 164 

Windsor, Thomas. 164 

Winn, Lulu May, 419 

Winningham, S., 469 

Winston, P. S., 9SS 

Winter, H. F., 480 

Wisecarver, John, 312 

Wisecarver, Nathan, 312 

Witchcraft, 43 

Witt, Christian, 65 

Wittenberg, 383 

Wittenberg Evangelical Luthcriu] I'hiinh. 479 

Wofford, Moses, 921 

Wolf Island, 243 

Wolff, Joseph S., 621 

Wolverton, Levy, 74 

Wood, Fred C, 714 

Wood, S. N., 346 

Wood 's Battalions, State Guards. 349 

Woodward, John, 266, 267, 402 

Workman, Elmer S., 1086 

Workman, Henry A., 1270 

Worsham, J. V., 487 

Worth, Charles, 1296 

Worthington, Robert, 74 

Wright, Campbell, 284 

Wright, C, 346 

Wright, Edward A., 1043 

Wright, E. A., 537 

Wright. (Mrs.) Ellen, 257 

Wright, John, 308 

Wright, J. L., 975 

Wright, Thomas, 204, 205. 206, 207 

Wright, Will D., 545 

Wulfert, Albert, 869 

Yankeetown, 254 
Yarber. John N., 293 
Yesberg, John H., 1081 
Yorke Chapel, 452 
Young, Charles A., 882 
Young. David. 205 
Young, David B., 1258 
Young, John A., 1227 
Young, J. R., 1236 
Young, L. Willis. 1048 
Y'oung, Robert C, 936 

Zalma, 371 

Zenonian Literary Society, 430 

Zimmerman, Aaron R., 927 

Zimmerman, Daniel C, 767 

Zimmerman, .John H., 1027 

Zion Evangelical Lutheran Church, Oravclton, 481 

Zoellner Brothers, The, 1022 

Zoellner, Adolph H., 1022 

Zoellner, August B., 1023 

Zoellner, Frank H., 1023 

Zoellner & Zoellner, 539 


Arcliaeology— De Soto— French Explorers— lucliaus 



tures of the topography of this section for 
they exist by thousands. Few people have 
any idea as to the vast numbers of mounds. 
There are single counties which have within 
their borders more than three thousand 
mounds. This is true of Bollinger county and 
of Scott county. Our knowledge of the vast 
numbers of mounds has been rendered exact in 
recent years by the work of Hon. Louis 
Houck. In the preparation of his ' ' History of 
Missouri" he had the mounds of the state 
counted. Even this enumeration, carefully 

formed the basis of more widely divergent 
views. An entire theory of the early history 
of this country has been built up around 
them. They have been regarded, at times, as 
the evidence of the existence of a mighty and 
civilized race of people who existed here be- 
fore the coming of the Indians; and who. for 
some unknown reason, perished completely 
from the land before the discovery by Colum- 
bus. A great empire with organized govern- 
ment, with a mighty capital, with swarming 
millions of population, has been pictured as 

Indian Mound 

made as it was, does not give all the mounds. 
He found, however, within the bounds of 
Southeast Missouri, as defined in this book, 
more than eighteen thousand mounds, and it 
is doubtless safe to say that were all of them 
known we should find the number to exceed 
twenty thousand. Such vast figures are over- 
whelming when we consider what an enormous 
amount of work is represented by them. 

These mounds have formed a fruitful sub- 
ject of controversy. Few subjects connected 
with historv have evoked more discussions or 

the condition of the people who built them. 
On the other hand other ^-iews have been ad- 
vanced concerning them. An examination of 
some of the principal facts and theories con- 
cerning these prehistoric remains cannot fail 
to be of interest to all those who have a re- 
gard for the past. 

In the first place, it is to be said, that these 
mounds are to be found in every county in 
this district. There seems to have been no 
part of Southeast ^klissouri where the people 
who constructed mounds did not live and 
work. It is true that thev are more abundant 


in some parts of the section than in others. 
It is pointed out by Houck, that they are most 
abundant on a line extending southwest along 
the border of the lowlands from Cape Girar- 
deau to Arkansas. Along this line they exist 
in great numbers. They are found also in 
large numbers in all the lowland region bor- 
dering the Mississippi. Another fact that 
concerns their distribution is that they were 
often constructed on the bank of creek or 

Many of them are found, it is true, away 
from bodies of water, and yet so many of them 
are found in relation to water that we are 
justified in concluding that proximity to some 
body of water helped often to determine the 
location of the mounds. 

Another fact of interest in connection with 
them is that they vary greatly in size. Some 
of them are very large. One which stands 
about two miles south of the present site of 
New Madrid is nearly circular in form, hav- 
ing a diameter of about two hundred feet and 
is probably thirty feet high. It is surrounded 
by many smaller mounds. The largest mound 
in the section, if not in the state, is in Pemi- 
scot county. It is four hundred feet long, 
two hundred and fifty feet wide and thirty- 
five feet high. It has an approach from the 
south leading up to the top. It is higher at 
the north end than at the south by fifteen 
feet. There are many other large mounds in 
the same vicinity, some of them being more 
than two hundred feet in length. One of 
them is six hundred feet long and two hun- 
dred feet wide but only eight feet high. From 
these large mounds they vary in size to the 
very small ones only a few feet in length and 
in some cases only a few inches high. 

The mounds vary in shape as well as in size. 
Some of them are rudely conical. This is per- 
haps the most common form. Others are 

somewhat elliptical in form having one axis 
much longer Hian the other. This is the case 
of the great mound in Pemiscot county. 
Others, still, are almost square at the base 
with tapering sides in the form of a pyramid. 
These mounds however are very much less 
numerous than the conical ones. It is rather 
remarkable that few if any of the countless 
mounds here show any resemblance to bird 
or beast. In other parts of the country, where 
mounds exist in such numbers as here, some 
are usually found bearing unmistakable re- 
semblance to the form of some animal. This 
is true of the great serpent mound of Ohio. 
One mound in Pemiscot bears some resem- 
blance to the handle of a gourd. A few others 
in this part of the state bear some real or 
fancied resemblance to some natural object. 
Most of them, however, have no such resem- 

Another fact that is true of a very large 
number of these mounds is that they are earth 
mounds. In many parts of the country there 
are mounds which have rude structures of 
stones at their base. There are some of this 
character in Southeast Missouri, but the great 
number are built entirely of earth. It is 
plainly evident, in many cases, just where 
the earth which entered into the construc- 
tion of the mound was secured, for the de- 
pression or excavation made in taking up the 
earth is still to be seen in the immediate 
neighborhood of the earthwork itself. No 
matter who built them, nor for what purpose, 
it is still true that they were built of earth 
taken in most if not all cases from near the 
site of the mound itself. 

These mounds are often grouped in rather 
significant ways. They are as we have said 
often situated on the bank of a stream or 
pond. They are nearly alwaj's grouped to- 


gether in numbers. Not many are solitarj-. 
Often one large mound is surrounded b^- many 
smaller ones. Sometimes a number of larger 
ones are found near together. It is the all 
but universal rule that they are not found 
singly. In some eases the group of mounds 
is surrounded by a wall. Mention is made 
elsewhere of a group in New Madrid county 
around which a wall of some height was con- 
structed. Beckwith, in his history of the In- 
dians of Missouri, mentions another similar 
group in Mississippi county which is also in- 
closed within a wall. 

On Bayou St. John, about eighteen miles 
from New Madrid, is a group of interesting 
moimds. They lie on the west side of the 
bayou and are situated on the sloping ground 
that rises from the bayou to the prairie land 
above. It seems that in early times an area 
of about fifty acres was here inclosed by a 
wall. This wall may be traced in part 
yet, though much of it ha.s disappeared. 
It is fi'om three to five feet in height 
and about fifteen thick at the base. It 
is built of earth. Inside the iuclosure made 
by this wall and near its western side is an 
oblong mound about three hundred feet long 
by one hundred in width and twenty feet 
high. Near this mound is a depression in the 
earth about ten feet in depth. Within the 
memory of men now living this depression 
had very steep sides so that a ladder was 
necessary to reach its bottom. In the center 
of the iuclosure is another mound, circular in 
shape, seventy-five feet in diameter and twenty 
feet iu height. Directly in line with these 
two is another circular mound, one hundred 
feet in diameter and twelve feet high. Sur- 
rounding this one are a number of smaller 
mounds, while still within the iuclosure ai'e a 
large number of shallow depressions about 
three feet in average depth. 

In connection with these mounds there «as 
to be seen at one time a curious formation of 
the banks of the bayou. Conant, from whom 
this description is taken , says that small 
tongues of the land had been carried out into 
the water, from fifteen to thirty feet in length 
and ten to fifteen in width, with open spaces 
between. These are quite similar, says Con- 
ant, to tlie wharves of a seaport town. It is 
Conant 's theory that this bayou was once the 
channel i)f the Mississippi river, which no 
doubt it was, that with the recession of the 
waters of the river, a lake was formed and 
that upon the shores of this lake the builders 
of the mounds and the inclosing wall built 
these miniature walls for the conveuieuee of 
handling their fishing boats. 

Conant further describes an excavation ly- 
ing about one mile from the mounds hei-e de- 
scribed. This excavation is in the form of an 
oval, one hundred and fifty feet by seveiit,v- 
five feet and six feet deep. It has an em- 
bankment around it. On the northern side 
this embankment is eight feet high while at 
the south it is only five. On the southern side 
there is a narrow opening in the wall and from 
this opening a curved dump or fill, such as are 
erected b\' railroads, leads to the swamp. At 
the end of this fill and within the swamp the 
dirt taken from the excavation was deposited, 
until a circular mound or wharf was raised 
about twenty feet in diameter and five feet 
high. The same opening and elevated way 
extends from the northern end of the excava- 
tion to the water. (Switzler's "History of 
Missouri. ''"i 

In aiidition to the mounds which we have 
described there are a large number of other 
striking ones to be seen in several of the coun- 
ties. One of these is a group of mounds south 
of the present site of Ste. Genevieve. They 


are found within the "Big Field" and are 
very evidently of artificial origin. Imme- 
diately aronnd them the ground is perfectly 
level being alluvial soil. The mounds vary 
in size, the largest being about thirty feet in 
height and probably one hundred and fifty 
feet by one hundred feet. There are a num- 
ber of other smaller mounds some of thes'j 
too being of considerable size. JMost of these 
mounds have been partly explored and have 
yielded some material to the work of the ex 

In Dunklin county, jvist south of the town 
of Cottonplant on the main county road, there 
is a large mound probably thirty feet in 
height and one hundred feet in diameter at 
the base. This mound has been dug into at 
various times and considerable quantities of 
Indian relics taken from it. It was evidently 
a burial ground for there have been found 
vessels containing bones in the mound. This 
mound is the site of the substantial dwelling 
of C. V. Langdon. 

Still another gi-oup of mounds is on the 
main road between Bemie and Dexter not far 
from the line of the Cotton Belt Railway. 
Just as is true of all the others we have de- 
scribed, this group of mounds is found on per- 
fectly level ground. There are four of them 
varying in size from a small heap of earth to 
the largest which is perhaps twenty-five feet 
in height. Different persons have dug in this 
group of mounds at various times and in 1900 
some persons living in Maiden opened the 
largest of these mounds and took from it a 
quantity of Indian relics. Among these relics 
are some specimens of Indian pottery that 
are unusually good. There were found water 
bottles, pots and urns of a very high class 
of M'orkmanship. Some of these pieces are in 
the possession of the Maiden High school. 

It is evident that these mounds present to 
the student of history and archeology a most 
fascinating problem. Here are thousands of 
mounds of earth, scattered throughout every 
county of this section, varying in size from 
the tiny one of a few feet in diameter and a 
few inches in height, to the giant earthwork 
hundreds of feet in dimensions large enough 
to be mistaken for natural hills, and yet bear- 
ing unmistakable evidence of artificial origin. 
These structures are grouped in some order, 
follow the water-courses, are inclosed some- 
times by walls of earth, are of such age in 
man.v cases as to bear upon their summits or 
sides great trees hundreds of years old. Who 
built these moiands? For what purpose were 
they built? These questions presented them- 
selves at once to those who fii'st recognized 
their artificial character. 

An answer to these questions was sought in 
the mounds themselves. Many of them were 
excavated. They returned to the researches 
of those who dug in them very different re- 
wards. Some of them contained absolutely 
nothing at all. In many of them nothing was 
found except the evidences of fire. Burned 
pieces of wood and ashes constituted the en- 
tire contents of many of the mounds. But 
some of the mounds contained other and very 
interesting remains. Pottery of every char- 
acter and size, bones of persons and of beasts, 
implements and tools, and weapons of war, 
all these have been found in mounds. Most 
numerous of all are the mounds which con- 
tain bones and pottery. In some cases the 
bones are found in the earth itself, in others 
they are in vessels of pottery. IMany people 
have engaged in the exploration of these 
mounds and man.y mounds have been opened. 
There are still others in this section which 
have not been touched as vet. These are for 


the most part owned by persons who do not 
wish them disturbed. It is quite probable that 
there exist large numbers of mounds, some of 
them not yet known, which contain many in- 
teresting remains such as those mentioned. 

So many bones are found in some of the 
mounds that they are classified as burial 
mounds. In some of them there are evidences 
of two or more distinct burials, leading us to 
believe that after the first bodies were placed 
in the mound and covered, other bodies were 
then placed above and the mound carried on 
to its completed form. The condition of the 
bones leads to the belief that most of the 
bodies were denuded of flesh before being 
placed in the mounds, and that frequently 
only a part of the bones were buried at all. 
Often only the skull and some of the large 
bones of the legs are found. In some cases 
a large number of bones are found together, 
comprising parts of a number of skeletons. 
The probability is that in such cases a large 
number of bones were gathered together and 
then put into the mound without separation. 
The tools and implements sometimes found in 
the mounds are often associated with bones, 
showing them to have been buried together, 
and suggesting some connection between their 
presence and the rites of burial. The pottery 
found in these mounds is of various shapes 
and sizes. A few large urns containing bones 
have been found, other and smaller vessels 
seem to have been made to hold food or water. 

As has been said, these mounds and their 
contents have given rise to a great deal of dis- 
cussion and many theories have been ad- 
vanced to explain their origin. Archaeologists 
believed for a long time that they were the 
work of a vanished race whom they called the 
"Mound Builders." These people were re- 
garded as having lived in this country prior 

to the coming of the Indians and to have been 
a much superior race. The grouping of the 
mounds has suggested to some the arrange- 
ment of cities and villages about a center 
which was a great capital. It was insisted 
that the Indians could not have built the 
mounds for a number of reasons. One reason 
was that their arrangement indicated an or- 
ganization, a nation with a capital. This or- 
ganized national life the Indians did not 
have; consequently they did not build the 
mounds. Another reason was that the In- 
dians could not have built mounds of such 
great size as some of the works. Still another 
advanced was that the age of the mounds pre- 
cludes the idea that they were the work of the 

The balance of opinion inclines however, at 
this time, to the idea that the mounds are the 
work of Indians. It is difficult to accept the 
hypothesis of the Mound Builders, with their 
high state of civilization, their organized gov- 
ernment and their great capital. There is not 
suflScient evidence of such a state of civiliza- 
tion. The excavation of the mounds did not 
disclose any evidence at all of a high state 
of civilization supposed by those who believe 
the IMound Builders to have existed. There 
has been little or nothing found in the mounds 
which was not entirely familiar to the Indian 
of this country. No such finds were made in 
these mounds as in the somewhat similar ap- 
pearing mounds of the Tigris-Eiiphrates val- 
ley. There the spade of the archaeologist 
turned up all the external evidences of a great 
civilization. Mighty palaces and temples ; the 
walls and streets of great cities, libraries, in- 
scriptions; the record of long years of exist- 
ence and civilization, were all uncovered, bear- 
ing silent but unmistakable evidence to the ex- 
istence of mighty and wealthy nations. Con- 
trast this with the meager contents, the im- 



plenieuts of stoue, the vessels of pottery, and 
the masses of bones found in the mounds of 
this country, and we see at once how strong is 
the negative argument against the existence 
of a great civilized race of people antedating 
the Indians. It is true that in Central Amer- 
ica some ruins are found approaching the con- 
stnictions unearthed in the East, but such is 
not the case in North America. "We may 
wonder at the industry that reared the 
mounds of such great size, we find some things 
ditiRcult to explain in any way about them, 
but we cannot believe them to have been the 
work of civilized people. 

On the other hand there are reasons for be- 
lieving that they are the work of the Indians. 
One of these is the fact of their arrangement. 
The Indian, for many reasons, selected most 
frequently as a site for his habitation or vil- 
lage, the bank of a stream or lake. This is the 
situation of many of the mounds. Another 
evidence of the Indian origin of the mounds 
is the fact that the utensils and implements 
found in some of them are similar to those 
used by the Indians. Yet another is the fact 
that the Indians of this country were ac- 
customed to practice mound burial. They 
placed the dead body on a scaffold or in a tree 
until it was denuded of tlesh, then gathered 
up the bones and placed them in a mound. 
That is evidently what the builders of the 
mounds did. The age of some of the mounds 
also indicates their Indian origin. Many of 
the mounds, it is true, are very old. On the 
other hand many of them bear unmistakable 
evidence of having been built in recent times. 
The mound described by Conant near Bayou 
St. John in New Madrid county, cannot be 
very old for within very recent times the pit, 
from which the earth was taken for the 
mound, had very steep sides ; so steep, in fact. 

that a ladder was needed to descend into it. 
This would not have been the case if the 
mound had not been of recent origin. The 
natural action of the elements would have 
partly filled it up and reduced the steepness 
of its sides. In fact this has happened within 
the memory of those living when Conant 

These facts, while not conclusive, point to 
the Indians as the builders of the mounds. 
There are other facts pointing in the same 
direction. Many of the mounds contain 
tra.ces of what seems to be the mud plastering 
from a wall con.structed of canes or sticks. 
Such walls were built by the Indians of the 
^Mississippi valley having been copied, doubt- 
less, from the Indians of the southwest. 

It has been objected to this theory that 
some of the mounds are too old. It is pointed 
out that many of them must have been in ex- 
istence for centuries before the coming of the 
white men, for at the time when DeSoto was 
here these mounds had trees growing on them. 
This objection assumes the Indians to have 
lived here but a short time. That is not 
known to be true. On the contrary we have 
strong reason for believing that they must 
have lived in North America for many hun- 
dreds of years. If they have not been here 
for a long time, it is difficult or even impos- 
sible to explain how they became scattered 
over the great continent. They were found 
to be living in practically every part of this 
country. No matter how they first reached 
the continent it required a long period of 
years for them to people such a vast expanse 
of territory. 

It is objected too that the Indians had no 
reason for building the mounds. We may not 
understand just why they were built by In- 
dians, but neither do we know why they were 
Iniilt bv ^Mound Builders or anyone else. It 



is just as difficult to explain the motive of 
their construction, if we assume them to have 
been reared by the Mound Builders, as it is if 
we ascribe them to the Indians. To imagine 
another race of people does not lessen the dif- 
ficulty of explaining the reason for their con- 

It is not, however, impossible to give a rea- 
sonable explanation of the existence of these 
mounds on the theory that they were the work 
of the Indians. When the ancient Assyrians 
began to rear buildings, they put them on 
mounds of earth and constructed them of sun- 
dried brick, and this, in spite of the fact that 
their country contained many hills suitable 
for building purposes and plenty of wood and 
stone which might have been utilized for 
building. The explanation of these remark- 
able facts is found when we remember that 
they were imitating the work of an older 
civilized people, the Babylonians. These 
Babylonians had neither hills as sites, nor 
wood or stone as building materials. They 
found substitutes for them. The Assj^rians, 
who began later, simply copied what they had 
seen others do. It is highly probable that the 
Indians who build mounds were simply imitat- 
ing a form of village arrangement with which 
they had become familiar elsewhere. Per- 
haps in the southwest, where the Pueblo In- 
dians placed their dwellings on the top of 
cliffs and utilized the tall rocks for lookout 
stations, there was formed the notion that the 
suitable place for a dwelling was on an eleva- 
tion. The Indians who went out from there 
carried this idea into places where no natural 
elevation was to be found. In lieu of this 
they reared artificial mounds. In time it 
came to be accepted that a mound of earth 
was the proper place for the location of the 
house or temple. This idea, in turn, was car- 

ried from the alluvial plains where it was 
formed into the hills where again mounds 
were reared. 

In considering this, which is advanced 
simply as a theory which may explain the 
building of mounds, it should be remembered 
that mounds are not found in all parts of the 
country. A careful investigation may dis- 
close the fact that they are found in those 
parts of the country where the inhabitants 
had some connections with the south and 

What seems the best and most reasonable 
explanation of the existence of the mounds is 
this. The Indians selected as a site for their 
village the vicinity of some stream or lake. 
They then erected mounds. One was for the 
house of the chief; another, sometimes pyr- 
amidal in shape for the temple ; another was 
for the burial of the dead; still another 
formed a station for the priests and orators 
of the tribe, and one was for the purpose of 
a lookout from which to observe the approach 
of enemies. The size of the mounds depended 
in part upon the number of Indians in the 
village and in part upon their inclination and 
industry. In the course of years the dwel- 
lings and temples, of frail construction as 
they were, disappeared, leaving onty a heap of 
earth to puzzle those who found them. 

The contents of these mounds, as we have 
said, are interesting as being the record of 
the degree of civilization of the people who 
built them. Many of the mounds have yielded 
interesting and curious returns to the spade of 
the investigator. Hundreds of mounds have 
been explored more or less completely. The 
relics taken from them have been carried to 
museiTms and the collections of private indi- 
viduals in many parts of the country. There 



are a great many of these relics owned iu 
Southeast Missouri. Most of them are scat- 
tered, but there are several good collections. 

Perhaps the largest collection of Indian 
relics in Southeast Mis.souri, if not in the en- 
tire state, is that owned by Thomas Beckwith. 
of Charleston. This collection has been gath- 
ered by Mr. Beckwith through a period of 
more than thirty years, and now comprises 
about ten thousand different pieces ; some of 
them of the every finest workmanship and of 
tlie greatest value. Practicall}' all of these 
were found in ilississippi county and by far 
the larger number on Mr. Beckwith 's own 
farm. This collection is described and pic- 
tured in his book, "Indians of North Amer- 
ica. ' ' There are a number of ottier collections, 
most of fhem smaller, owned by residents of 
this section. Louis Houck in his book, "His- 
tory of ilissouri, " described some unique 
pieces which he has seen, one of which, a pipe 
bearing a carved head, has disappeared. An- 
other of these was a statuette, the figure of a 
woman carved in sandstone, aboi;t eight 
inches in height and bearing considerable re- 
semblance to the Venus de Melos. Unfortu- 
nately this remarkable piece of sculpture has 
been lost. Another of these unique pieces is 
a figure in the collection of Mr. Beckwith. It 
represents some animal and is also carved 
from sandstone and evidences considerable 
skill on the part of the artist. 

There are other collections not so large as 
this, but containing many things of interest. 
Some collections which formerly existed have 
been broken up and the pieces dispersed. It 
seems unfortunate that at some central point 
in this part of the state, tliere might not be 
gathered a great and complete collection of 
Indian relics of this section to be perma- 
nently retained as a memorial for all time of 
the presence of the aborigines. 

Besides these collections having a general 
interest, there have been found occasionally 
certain pieces which have been deemed of 
great importance owing to the fact that tlicy 
were different from the usual character of 

Indian relics. In there was found on a 

farm just south of Maiden a very remarkable 
series of Indian plates. Ray Groomes while 
plowing on the farm of Mrs. Baldwin, turned 
up a piece of metal which attracted his atten- 
tion by being caught on the point of his plow. 
On examination he found that there had been 
tlirown out of the furrow some metal plates. 
He searched about and picked up eight of 
these plates which had been buried to a depth 
of about sixteen inches. There was nothing to 
mark the spot and he is confident that there 
was nothing else buried in connection with the 
plates. He dug about hoping to find some 
other relics, but the only thing that he dis- 
covered was a kind of white powder in the 
place where the plates had been lying. This 
powder he did not preserve as he could make 
nothing of it at all. The plates were taken 
by him to the town of Maiden and offered for 
sale. They were finally bought by A. S. Davis 
and kept by him for a time, and then dis- 
posed of to J. M. Wulfing. of St. Louis, who 
now owns them. These plates are the most 
remarkable of the Indian relics found in 
Southeast Missouri. They are of thin copper 
and represent what seemed to be eagles hav- 
ing faces of men. One of them seems to be a 
double eagle. They at once suggest, from 
their appearance and workmanship, the work 
of the Indians of Mexico. There is nothing 
else like them to be found in the Jlississippi 
valley. How or why they were put into the 
place where they were discovered are ques- 
tions which cannot now be answered. No one 
who has examined them has been able to solve 


the mystery of their presence in this part of deau the collection was broken up and sold, 

America. part of it coming into the possession of the 

There existed in Southeast Missouri two or State Normal School. Another large coUec- 

three other unusually good collections of In- tion was owned by Dr. L. P. Ruff. This col- 

dian relics. Dr. G. W. Travis, of Cape Girar- lection has been removed from this part of the 

deau, at one time owned one of these large state, 
collections. On his removal from Cape Girar- 



Is Made Governor of Florida — Lands in Florida — Discovers the Mississippi — Place of 
Crossing — Direction op March — The Casquins — Religious Service — Attack on Cap- 
AHAS — Search for Salt — Probable Situation of Capaha Camp — Return to the South 
— QuiGATE — Location of Caligoa — Further Travels and Death — Interest Concerning 
Exact Route. 

It seems probable that De Soto was the first 
white man to set foot on the soil of Missouri. 
Certain difficulties are in the way of an exact 
determination of the question of his visit to 
this state. One of these is the somewhat ro- 
mantic style of the Spanish chroniclers who 
wrote the earliest accounts of his journey ; an- 
other is the difficulty of telling, from their ac- 
counts, just what places are referred to. It 
is no easy matter to identify with certainty, 
from the description given of places visited, 
where these places are. Yet, while we may 
not be sure, it seems highly probable that the 
travels of De Soto and his companions brought 
them into the Southeast IMissouri. 

Ferdinand De Soto was one of the most 
daring and able of the Spanish soldiers of for- 
tune who explored the continent of America. 
He was with Avila on the isthmus of Darien, 
with Cordoba in Nicaragua ; explored, inde- 
pendently, the coasts of Guatemala and Yuca- 
tan, seeking doubtless for a waterway to the 
west. In 1532, he accompanied Pizarro to 
Peru and was one of the boldest members of 
the remarkable band of men that overturned 
the empire of the Incas. From these expedi- 

tions De Soto returned to Spain with a large 
fortune, apparently willing to settle down to 
a life of ease. In 1537, however, he was ap- 
pointed by Charles V, governor of Florida 
and Cuba and in JMay, 1539, he landed at 
Tampa bay, Florida, with an expedition for 
the exploration of that country. He had with 
him a well-equipped army of six hundred 
men, the largest and most complete expedi- 
tion that Spain had sent to the New World. 
His purpose was to explore and conquer the 
country. Especially was he desirous of find- 
ing the great and populous cities which the 
imagination of the Spaniards, stimulated by 
their experiences in Mexico and Peru, pic- 
tured as existing in the great and unknown 
continent to the north. Strange stories were 
told by the Indians of these cities and return- 
ing wanderers of the Spanish had heard of 
Quivira, a great and rich city where there 
was gold enough to satisfy even the Spaniards. 

De Soto plunged into the wilderness with 
his little army and for nearly three years pur- 
sued his journey through the unexplored wil- 
derness of North America. For a time he 
was in the Carolinas; then he explored the 




Alabama river; then he came to the great 
river, the Mississippi, and crossed it. Prom 
this time on his wanderings have an interest 
for the student of ]\Iissouri history, for, from 
a careful study of the narrative of his further 
wanderings, we are led to the conclusion that 
he penetrated the territory of the present 
state of Missouri. It is not possible to deter- 
mine with absolute accuracy the precise point 
where he crossed the Mississippi. Some stu- 
dents of journey, among them Bancroft, Nut- 
tall and Schoolcraft, think he must have 
crossed at the Chickasaw Bluffs, near the 
present site of Memphis. Others, however, in- 
cluding Elliot, Winsor and Martin, consider 
it more probable that he crossed lower down. 
Houck, reasoning from the fact stated by 
Garcillasso that heavy timber existed where 
they crossed the river, concludes that the 
crossing must have been at a place of alluvial 
soil and consequently not at Chickasaw Bluffs, 
which were not then timbered. He thinks the 
crossing was at some point between the mouth 
of the St. Francois and the mouth of the Ar- 
kansas, and in view of all the facts this seems 
the most reasonable supposition. 

Having crossed the river the expedition 
wandered for four days through a flat coun- 
try intersected with swamps. On the fifth 
day from their crossing they reached a high 
ridge from whose summit they saw a river. 
Upon its banks was an Indian town sur- 
rounded by fields of maize. To this place the 
march of the party had been to the north. 
Garcillasso says they kept "northward" or 
"marched directly to the north." This prob- 
ably means that after crossing the Mississippi 
they did not strike into the forest away from 
it, but continued their journey in a general 
direction parallel to the course of the river 
itself. It was quite natural for them to do 
this, because we know that the trails or traces 

of the Indians were accustomed to follow the 
general course of the river. If, then, De Soto 
after the crossing, continued to the north near 
or along the bank of the Mississippi, we may 
inquire as to the location of the ridge which 
the expedition climbed and from which was 
seen another river with a village encircled 
with fields of maize. 

It seems highly probable that this ridge was 
what is now called Crowley's ridge, one of 
the offshoots of the Ozark range which con- 
tinues into Arkansas, forming a divide be- 
tween the alluvial bottom of the St. Francois 
and that of the "White and the Cache. This 
ridge terminates at the Mississippi river not 
far from Helena, Arkansas, and along its 
eastern border flows the St. Francois. Crow- 
ley's ridge is the only ridge on the west side 
of the river between the Ohio and the Arkan- 
sas. If the expedition then proceeded north 
from their point of crossing, and that point 
was south of the mouth of the Arkansas as 
we believe it to have been, then it was to this 
ridge they came. From its summit the course 
of the St. Francois could be seen, and in the 
alluvial soil at its base would likely be found 
the fields of maize mentioned by the chron- 
iclers of the expedition. 

De Soto and his men spent some time in the 
village which they had seen form the summit 
of the ridge resting and recovering from the 
effects of their long march through the wil- 
derness. These Indians are called Casquins 
by the members of the expedition. They were 
probably a part of the tribe of the Kaskas- 
kias. They later made their home on the Illi- 
nois where they were found by Joliet and 
Marquette. It was not an unusual thing for 
the Indian tribes to change their place of 
residence, however. In fact, this was a habit 
that marked them, so that we may believe that 



the Indians found by De Soto dwelling on the 
St. Francois, later moved to the country of the 
Illinois. These Indians received De Soto and 
his men with great hospitality showing the 
utmost friendliness and desire to please. They 
opened their houses, such as they were, for 
the use of De Soto's men, and provided pro- 
visions for men and beasts. 

The Indians of this village told De Soto 
that their great chief, or cacique, resided 
some distance to the north. Indeed two mes- 
sengers from this chief came to the village 
during the stay of the expedition and invited 
De Soto to visit the cacique. This he deter- 
mined to do. He marched north along the 
banks of the Mississippi river, finding higher 
ground than formerly and the richest alluvial 
soil they had yet seen. This soil was a sandy 
loam, black in color and very rich. It was 
covered with forests of timber in places, di- 
versified with prairies and broken in places 
by swamps. The pecan tree, the wild plum 
and the mulberry were everywhere abundant, 
while the fields abounded in maize. After 
two days of marching they came to the chief 
town of the country where the cacique of the 
Casquins resided. It seems evident that this 
ridge up which they marched was the sandy 
ridge that runs parallel to the river from near 
the mouth of the St. Francois to the hills of 
the Ozark region near Cape Girardeau. It 
has the same soil as that described by De 
Soto's men, the trees are the same, and it 
runs in the direction of the course taken by 
them. On this ridge are situated many flour- 
ishing towns in southeast Missouri, to-day. 
Among them are Caruthersville, New Madrid 
and Charleston. Then, of course, it was a 
wilderness broken by the small clearings of 
the Indians and traversed by the celebrated 

trace that led to the great crossing of the 
river near Commerce. 

The expedition was received by the In- 
dians with great kindness. The chief invited 
De Soto to lodge in his house. This dwelling 
stood on a high artificial mound and con- 
sisted of a number of houses for the accommo- 
dation of his numerous wives and their chil- 
dren. This invitation was declined by De 
Soto and he and most of his men w-ere lodged 
by the natives in arbors or booths of brush. 
Presents were exchanged and the utmost good 
feeling prevailed. 

On the fourth day of their stay occurred 
an incident which attested the impression 
made by the expedition upon the savages. On 
the morning of that day there appeared be- 
fore De Soto the cacique, accompanied by 
his principal followers, who addressed the 
leader of the Spaniards in these words: 
"Senor, as you are superior to us in prowess 
and surpass us in arms, we likewise believe 
that your God is better than our god. We 
supplicate you to pray to your God that our 
fields, which are now parched may receive 
rain and our crops be saved." 

In response to this request, De Soto caused 
a large pine tree to be procured, and from it 
the carpenter of the expedition constructed a 
large cross. This cross was erected, and, 
there in the midst of the forest, a solemn pro- 
cession was formed which marched to the 
cross, and while the wondering Indians looked 
on in astonishment the services of the church 
were performed and a supplication sent up to 
God for the needed rain. The Indians seemed 
profoundly impressed by the solemnity of 
the occasion. Many of them knelt upon the 
ground, some w-ere moved to tears by the serv- 
ice, and others still inquired for an expla- 



nation of the mysteries which they beheld for 
the first time. The soleoiu service was closed 
with the singing of a Te Deum and the forest 
aisles eelioed for the first time with the sound 
of men's voices lifted up in the service of 
song to God. In the middle of the night the 
long drought was broken and a copious rain 
fell upon the earth. 

Such was the first religious service of the 
Christian church held in Missouri. Speaking 
of it Irving' says:* "More than three cen- 
turies ago the cross, the type of our beautiful 
religion, was planted on the banks of the ]\Iis- 
sissippi, and its silent forests wakened by the 
Christian's hymn of gratitude and praise. 
The effect was vivid but transitory. The 
voice cried in the wilderness and reached and 
was answered by every heart, but it died away 
and was forgotten; and was not to be heard 
in that savage region again for many gener- 
ations. It was as if a lightning's gleam had 
broken for a moment upon a benighted world, 
startling it with sudden effulgence, only to 
leave it in ten-fold more gloom. The real 
dawning was yet afar off from the benighted 
valley of the Mississippi." 

That the place of this first service was with- 
in the limits of Missouri we may not doubt. 
It is impossible to fix the precise spot. The 
high hill, doubtless an artificial mound, has 
probably disappeared. The pine tree, which 
was made into a cross, was probably a cypress 
which resembles the pine in some respects, 
and might have been found anywhere in a 
vast extent of territory. From these things, 
then, it is impossible to determine the place of 
this Indian village, but, judging from the 
direction of their travel, from the distance 
probably covered in the two days of their 
march, they were within the limits of Mis- 
souri, perhaps according to the opinion of 
* "Conquest of Florida," p. 114. 

Nuttall near the present site of New Jladrid. 
At an early day a mound stood near the town. 
This mound has been swept away by the river, 
but it may well have been the scene of this 

On the next morning after the service and 
the rain, De Soto made ready to continue his 
journey to the north. He was still led on- 
ward by the hopes which had brought him 
into the wilderness. Great cities were yet to 
be found, gold was to be discovered. These 
things lay in the distance before him, as he 
fondly thought. From time to time, during 
their journey, they had found in the posses- 
sion of the Indians various trinkets and other 
things made of gold ; and these served to con- 
firm them in their belief that somewhere in 
the mighty and unconquered wilderness there 
was much of the yellow metal waiting for the 
fortunate men who might be led to find it. 
And so to seek gold and adventure, after the 
days of rest and pleasure with their new- 
friends of the Casquin Indians, they made 
ready to depart. 

The cacique, however, a wily savage of 
about fifty years of age, had no idea of al- 
lowing his good and great friends to depart 
without conferring on him other tokens of 
their friendship and power. He had been 
greatly impressed with the evident power of 
the Spaniards and meditated on turning it to 
his own account. 

For many years enmity had existed between 
the Casquins or Kaskaskias and the Capa- 
has, a tribe living further to the north. 
Lately the fortunes of war had inclined to 
the side of the Capahas, and the cacique of 
the Casquins and his people had been com- 
pelled to accept the yoke of their enemies and 
to pay tribute and render service to them. 
In the undoubted prowess and power of his 



new-found friends, the Spaniards, the eaciiiue 
saw a means by which he and his people 
might be liberated from the power of the 
Capahas. Accordingly when De Soto was 
i-eady to depart toward the north the ca- 
cique begged leave to accompany him with 
two bodies of his people. ' ' For, ' ' he said, ' ' the 
way is long and arduous. Roads are to be 
cut, the swamps are to be crossed, and the 
baggage of the army to be carried through the 
rough woods of the way." Accordingly, De 
Soto was accompanied bj* three thousand In- 
dians, who carried the luggage of the expe- 
dition, and by a body of five thousand war- 
riors, gay with plumes and war-paint and 
armed with all the weapons of savage war- 
fare. Of course we are to understand that 
these numbers have been greatly exaggerated 
in the telling by the chroniclers of the expe- 
dition. No such numbers of savages could 
have been gathered together in that region. 
Still we are to suppose that many accom- 
panied the expedition, perhaps the whole 
force which the cacique could muster, for he 
meant, now to avenge himself on his hated 
enemies, the Capahas. 

On taking up the march, the cacique took 
the lead with his men; dividing them into 
squadrons and. marching in what the Spanish 
called good military array. The reason given 
for the arrangement of men was that the 
Indians were to clear the roads and prepare 
the camps in advance' of the expedition. On 
the third day of the march they came to a 
miry swamp which contained within its cen- 
ter a lake or gulf which was probably a part 
of the old channel of the Mississippi. This 
swamp discharged itself into the river and 
was about half a bowshot across and was deep 
and sluggish. Over this the Indians con- 
structed a bridge of logs, over which the men 
passed while the horses of the expedition 

swam. This lake with a miry swamp about 
its edge was quite probably one of the slug- 
gish streams which break the sandy ridge up 
which De Soto was pursuing his march. This 
ridge extends through the counties of New 
i\Iadrid, Mississippi, and Scott. It is broken 
at a number of places by streams which carry 
part of the drainage from the basin of Little 
river to the IMississippi. It is impossible to 
know which one of these is meant from the 
early accounts, but it is evident that one of 
them is referred to, if we accept the general 
course of his march as here outlined. That 
march must have carried him from near the 
site of New Madrid across lakes, bayous, 
swamps, along the sandy ridge through the 
edge of Mississippi county, east of the hills 
in Scott county, to the swamp lying south- 
west of Cape Girardeau. 

Having crossed on the improvised bridge of 
of logs, De Soto and his men found them- 
selves on what is described as meadows. 
Here they encamped, charmed by the beauty 
of the landscape, the luxuriance of the foli- 
age and the abundance of the flowers. From 
this place he continued his journey north for 
two daj's. On the third day he came to some 
elevated ridges from which he saw the forti- 
fied camp of the chief of the Capahas. This 
town was itself on a high hill or mound. ' " It 
was nearly encircled by a deep moat fifty 
paces in breadth ; and where the moat did not 
extend, was defended by a strong wall of 
plaster and timber such as has already been 
described. The moat was filled with water 
by a canal cut from the Mississippi river, 
which was three leagues distant. The canal 
was deep and sufficiently wide for two canoes 
to pass abreast without touching one another's 
paddles. The canal and moat were filled with 
fish, so as to supply all the wants of the army 



and village, without any apparent diminution 
of the number. ' ' * 

It is evident that, in thus describing the 
situation and character of the Indian camp, 
the Spaniards were transferring to America, 
as they often did, the scenes and customs of 
Europe. The moat and canal to supply it 
were doubtless nothing more than natural 
channels, perhaps a bayou or former channel 
of the river. The Indians of America seem 
never to have constructed castles defended 
by moats, and while the situation of the Ca- 
paha village may have resembled the artificial 
moats with which the Spaniards were fa- 
miliar, they were not constructed bj' the hand 
of man. It would be interesting to know the 
exact site of this camp of Capaha Indians for 
these were among the most interesting of all 
the Indians encountered by De Soto and his 
party; but it is not possible to determine 
from the description given what the site of 
the camp was. If we have been correct in 
our conjectures as to the general route fol- 
lowed thus far in the wanderings, then the 
camp thus reached must have been not far 
from the neighborhood of Cape Girardeau. 
Of course manj' places in the foothills of the 
Ozarks might fit in a general way the de- 
scription here given, but two circumstances 
in addition to the course pursued in reaching 
this place lead us to believe that it was in the 
vicinity mentioned. One of these is a jour- 
ney, hereafter described, of a part of the ex- 
pedition to a stream, which from the pres- 
ence of salt we suspect to have been Saline 
creek in Ste. Genevieve county. The other is 
the fact that one of the varieties of fish de- 
scribed as ha%ang been present in the moat 
and canal was the spadefish or Platyrostra 
edentula, sometimes known as the shovel-bill 
cat. The latter fish is characteristic of the 
•Irving, "Conquest of Florida," p. 117. 

regions we have mentioned and its presence 
lends weight to the theory that the place of 
the Capahas was at least within the limits of 
Southeast IMissouri. This town of the Capahas 
contained, according to the account of the 
Spaniards, about five hundred houses, and 
was situated nearly three leagues from the 
]Mississippi river. 

The chief of the Capahas had received no- 
tice through his scouts of the coming of the 
Casquins with their new allies, and on their 
near approach to the town, being unable, be- 
cause of the absence of his warriors, to de- 
fend it, he escaped in a canoe, making his 
way down the canal to the river and taking 
refuge on an island in the vicinity. All who 
could, followed him to this retreat, others 
fled into the woods, while many remained in 
the village and waited with alarm the ap- 
proach of the Casquins. The cacique of the 
Casquins, marching with his men in advance 
of the expedition, entered the Capaha villape 
and proceeded to take vengeance for former 
defeats. All the men who were found were 
immediately killed and scalped, the women 
and children were taken as prisoners, among 
them being two wives of the cacique who had 
failed to flee with him, owing to the confu- 
sion and alarm into which the \'illage was 
thrown by the approach of their enemies. 
These women are described by the Spaniards 
as being young and beautiful — a description 
which we may be pardoned for doubting, for 
it was their invariable custom to find beau- 
tiful women among the Indians, just as they 
found among them almost all the manners 
and customs with which they were acquainted 
at home. The houses of the Capahas were 
plundered, and even the dead were not safe 
from insult and disturbance. "Within the 
public square there was situated a mausoleum 



or burial place in which had been deposited 
the remains of the ancestors of the chief, the 
great men of the tribe and the trophies won 
by them in war. The Casquins broke open 
this sacred place, stripped arms and trophies 
from the walls, heaped insult and abuse on 
the dead bodies contained within it, trampled 
upon the bones and scattered them upon the 
ground. They replaced the heads of slain 
enemies, some of them Casquins, with these 
of freshly slain Capahas. There was no in- 
sult or indignity which the minds of savages 
could devise which was not put upon all that 
the Capahas held sacred. 

Now these outrages were committed, we 
are told, before the arrival of De Soto and 
his men. They were in the rear and came to 
the village only in time to save it from utter 
destruction as the maddened Casquins were 
proceeding to fire the houses. De Soto re- 
sented these actions, for he was impressed 
with the evidences of the power of the Capa- 
has and learning of the presence of the chief 
on the island to which he had fled, he sent 
envoys there to disavow the actions of his 
savage allies, and to beg for a friendly alli- 
ance with him. These envoys were not re- 
ceived by the Capaha chief, and De Soto 
learned that he was making every effort to 
gather warriors that he might take vengeance 
for the outrages inflicted upon his village. 
Accordingly De Soto prepared to attack the 
Capahas on their island. He caused to be 
gathered all the available canoes and, filling 
these with his own men and the warriors of 
the Casquins, he made an attack on the 
island. He found that the Capahas had for- 
tified themselves strongly, and it was only 
with great difficulty that he was able to effect 
a landing at all. The Casquins were unwill- 
ing to fight and, after a brief engagement, 
retreated to their canoes leaving the brunt of 

the battle to fall upon the Spaniards. It was 
only after a desperate struggle that De Soto 
and his men were able to retreat from the 
island and make their way back to the village. 
In fact, it seems they would not have been 
able to embark in their canoes at all had not 
the Capaha chief ordered his men not to press 
their attack upon the Spaniards and allowed 
them to depart. 

De Soto was very much displeased because 
of the cowardly desertion of the Casciuius and 
when on the following day envoys arrived 
from the Capahas, asking for peace and sig- 
nifying the desire of their cacique to visit 
him, he determined to accept the offered 
friendship and agree to an amnesty despite 
the objections of the Casquins. 

The cacique of the Casquins feeling the 
displeasure of De Soto and fearing to lose the 
help of such powerful allies as the Spaniards 
had proved themselves to be, attempted to 
appease the Adelantado (as De Soto is called 
by the chroniclers) by gifts of skins and even 
of his daughter as handmaid. In spite of 
these evidences of friendship, De Soto was 
distrustful of the cacique and contrasted his 
conduct most unfavorably with that of the 
Capaha, and he caused the cacique to send 
most of his warriors home. 

On the day appointed the Capaha chief, ac- 
companied by a hundred of his warriors, 
dressed in Handsome skins and beautiful 
plumes came to pay his court to De Soto. He 
proved to be a young man of noble and splen- 
did bearing with handsome face and physique. 
He was vastly moved by the indignities which 
had been offered to his dead, and his first care 
was to gather the scattered bones, and ret\im 
them reverently to their resting place. He 
then sought De Soto who came forth to meet 
him accompanied by the Casquin. 

He brought presents for the Adelantado, 



and offered himself as a vassal, but refused to 
have anything to do with Casquin, except to 
threaten him with a day of retribution, until 
upon the interposition of De Soto he finally 
agreed to settle his quarrel with him. 

In this village the expedition remained for 
several days as the situation was pleasant, 
the Indians friendly, and the supplies of food 
and of skins for clothing were very grateful 
to the members of the expedition who were 
worn and ragged from their long wanderings. 
It was De Soto's wish to find out about the 
country he had not visited. To this end he 
made many inquiries of the Indians concern- 
ing the country to the north and its inhabit- 
ants. He was told that much of the country 
was' barren, but hearing that salt was to be 
obtained in that direction, he sent de Silvera 
and Morena in search of it. The Spaniards 
had suffered much on the expedition from 
lack of salt. Many of those who had died on 
the way declared that they thought they 
would recover if only they could have meat 
with plenty of salt on it. At the end of eleven 
days, the men who had been detached re- 
turned, almost starved, having passed through 
a thinly settled and sterile country where 
they found little to eat except roots and wild 
plums. They brought with them, however, 
supplies of salt and some copper. It is quite 
probable that these men had reached Saline 
ej-eek for the Indians of later, and doiibtless 
of that time also, were accustomed to secure 
salt from the banks of that stream. 

•From this place the expedition returned to 
the village of the Casquins where they re- 
mained for four or five days, and then De 
Soto determined to travel to the westward. 
He was led to this decision by the reports of a 
country called Quigate. On leaving the vil- 
lage of the Casquins he travelled one day's 
march and then rested at another village of 

the Casquins near a river, which in all prob- 
ability was Little river. Crossing this river, 
he found himself upon another ridge, that 
which extends through Dunklin county, and 
after travelling for about four days he 
reached Quigate. His march carried him 
through a fruitful country where large fields 
of maize were to be seen and all the evidences 
of a large Indian population. Quigate, the 
largest town visited by the Spaniards since 
leaving Florida, was perhaps at the lower end 
of the ridge over which they had been travel- 
ing, near the line which separates Dunklin 
county from Arkansas. From here De Soto 
turned to the northwest to reach a town 
called Caligoa, where he expected, from what 
he had been told, he would find stores of gold 
and other precious metals. One difference is 
noted by the chroniclers in the march that 
was made to Caligoa and that is that no paths 
were found, but that the expedition made its 
way through the unbroken wilderness. We 
may infer from this, what we should conclude 
otherwise, that the former marchings had fol- 
lowed the trails or traces made by the In- 
dians. The country from Quiquate to Cali- 
goa is described as marsh.y and swampy with 
morasses and lagoons, and then as hilly and 
mountainous. Garcillasso says they marched 
forty leagues before reaching Caligoa. They 
found this town to be on a small river. Here 
they remained for some days. They were told 
that to north a distance of six days' journey 
the country was level, devoid of trees, and 
covered with buffalo. We may only speculate 
as to the location of Caligoa. If we are cor- 
rect in conjecturing Quiguate to have been on 
lower end of the ridge running through Dunk- 
lin county, and the march of De Soto was 
toward the north and west, he probably fol- 
lowed the ridge to the low hills in the neigh- 
borhood of Campbell, crossed these into the 



lowlands oT Stoddard and Butler county, then 
reached the foothills of the Ozarks and fol- 
lowed them to near the headwaters of the 
St. Francois or the Black, in the granite hills 
of St. Francois count}'. This is the conclusion 
of most of the men who have made a study of 
the probable course of De Soto's wanderings, 
among them Nuttall, Schoolcraft, and Houck. 
Some others, however, conclude that he was 
farther west, perhaps in Southwest Missouri. 
From Caligoa the expedition turned to the 
south and west seeking now for the Cayas or 
Kansas Indians, and with this part of his 
journey he is carried from out the territory of 
Southeast Missouri. With his subsequent 
wanderings, the sufferings and hardships he 
encountered, and his tragic fate we are not 
directly concerned. Suffice it to say that 
after long wanderings he reached the Missis- 
sippi near the mouth of the Red river, sick, 
broken in mind and body. Here, to his con- 
sternation, he was told that the lower reaches 
of the river instead of being populated with 
towns and settlements where he could find 
for his men food and shelter, were practically 
uninhabited and impassable, that he might 
hope for little help or guidance there and 
less of food and other supplies. And, so, at 
last, after three years of wanderings, after 
untold hardships, after having surmounted 
countless obstacles, and traversed enormous 
reaches of the great continent where the foot 
of white men had never before trod, after hav- 
ing inflicted untold suffering and cruelty on 
the helpless Indians, his dreams of wealth and 
conquest all dissipated, having conquered no 
great cities and found no El Dorado, the 
spirit of the great Conquistador, the com- 
panion of Avila and Cortez was at last broken. 
In the midst of the savage forest, surrounded 
by hostile Indians, far from his home, dis- 

appointed, and despairing, he lay down to 
die. At night, by the dim light of torches, 
clad in full armor, his broken and wasted 
body was lowered into the great river which 
he discovered, and the long wanderings, the 
brilliant hopes, the troubled, cruel life of De 
Soto were at an end. 

It will always be a matter of regret to those 
who are interested in the history of their 
country, that the exact route of De Soto can- 
not be traced with certainty. Surely we 
should be glad if we might but know what 
his exact course through Southeast ilissouri 
was. It would be interesting to retrace the 
route over which he wandered, to compare 
the places now, with the description given of 
them by the Spaniards who followed him. 
But such certainty is no longer possible. 
Time has swept away the last traces of his 
expedition. The very surface of the earth has 
changed in the nearly four hundred j^ears that 
have elapsed. The great river has changed 
its course from side to side of the wide allu- 
vial bottom since then, sweeping away the 
very ground, a mighty earthquake has 
changed some of the topography of the coun- 
try through wjliich he passed, mighty forests 
have sprung up, all the forces of nature have 
combined through, the years to change the 
character of the surface of the earth. And sp 
it is that we may never be sure of the way 
over which he passed. Time was when it 
might have been ascertained. Doubtless when 
the first Missouri settlements were formed at 
Ste. Genevieve, New Madrid, St. Louis, Cape 
Girardeau, traces of that fii-st historic march 
through Missouri might have been found. 
But our fathers were too much occupied with 
the struggle for existence to give their time 
to hunting for traces of long vanished men. 



Why Spainards Did not Take and Hold the Country — Vague Ideas op the West — News 
OF THE Mississippi — Radisson and Groseilliers — Joliet and Marquette — Discovery of 
the Mississippi — Extent op Their Voyage — The Return — Illness op ^Marquette — 
Why Joliet Was Not Given Credit fob Expedition — Early Voyage op La Salle — 
French Ideas of the Nevf World — Vievts op the English — La Salle's Purpose — 
Friendship With Frontenac — Visit to France — Start of the Expedition — Loss of 
the Griffon — Creve Coeur — He Reaches the Mississippi — Passes to its Mouth — The 
Colony at Starved Rock — Goes to France — Colony on the Gulp — Death op Lasalle 
— Estimate op His Character. 

It was in 1540 that De Soto and his band 
were in Southeast Missouri. They came 
as we have seen from the south, having landed 
in Florida and penetrated the country in a 
vain search for gold. The next white men 
who came to Missouri were French explorers 
from the great lakes. These came from the 
north and entered the country to find the 
great river whose existence was made known 
to them by the Indians, to search out places for 
trade, and to secure the country for France. 
Some of them were priests who were moved 
by the desire to carry the Gospel to the sav- 
ages — by whatever motives moved they came, 
pushing their adventurous way into the wil- 
derness and blazing the trail over which civil- 
ization and settlement were destined to enter 
the bounds of the state. It is somewhat sur- 
prising that the Spanish did not take posses- 
sion of the valley of the Mississippi since De 
Soto had discovered the river and explored 
a part of its valley, and since the Spanish 
claimed the Gulf of Mexico as a sea belonging 

to them. They did little or nothing to make 
good their claims, however, as it was the great 
misfortune of the Spanish to be occupied in 
this country, at the first, with a search for 
gold and for cities to conquer, rather than 
with attempts to settle the country and to 
develop those resources which were destined 
to produce wealth far greater than the mines 
and cities of which they dreamed. 

It was thus left to France to begin the set- 
tlement and development of the valley of the 
great river. One characteristic of all grants 
made in this country was their indefinite ex- 
tension toward the west. Little idea was had 
as to the extent of the continent in that di- 
rection, and, accordingly, kings and trading 
companies calmly made grants whose western 
limits were undefined and undetermined, and 
whose extent, if carried to the western sea, 
was vast beyond the very conception of those 
making them. Thus the French in Canada, 
having little idea of the extent of the country 
to the west of them, came to regard it as 




ouly an exteusiou of Canada. When reports 
uanie to them of the great river that very 
probably emptied into the western sea or the 
Sea of Japan, they were moved to accept it as 
part of New France and laid claim to it ac- 

No more adventurous or hardy men were 
concerned with the early settlement and ex- 
ploration of the new world than these same 
French in Canada. Better than any one else 
they understood and sympathized with the 
Indian; for better than any one else they en- 
tered into and shared his life. The mighty 
forests, the unexplored regions, the wild life 
had no terrors but rather attractions for 
theiu. Thus it was that the hardy woodsmen, 
traders, trappers, and canoe men of Canada 
explored and hunted throughout a wide ex- 
panse of territory. They set their traps and 
hunted in all the woods, they pushed the 
prows of the adventurous canoes into all the 
waters about them, they found the secret 
trails of the Indians and followed them into 
the west. They took part in the long hunts 
of the Indian, lived his life, traded to him 
the beads, the calico, the hatchets, and some- 
times the arms of the white men, and re- 
ceived in turn the choicest furs caught in the 
wide domain that stretched from the lakes 
far to west and south and north. 

To these men, fitted by nature and experi- 
ence for daring adventure and exploration in 
distant territories, the news of the mighty 
river of the west, so great that it dwarfed all 
the other rivers of the continent and poured 
a mighty flood of waters to an unknown sea, 
came like a challenge, and, in response to 
that challenge, we find them making their wa\' 
farther and farther into the west. 

It is probable that some of these men made 

their way into Missouri and perhaps pene- 
trated to the southeast corner of the state. It 
seems certain from the narrative of Radis- 
son, one of the most famous of these hardy 
and daring explorers, that he and Groseilliers 
made their way once, if not oftener, to Mis- 
souri, coming at least as far as the mouth of 
the ^Missouri. He speaks of the ' forked river ' 
— perhaps, if not certainly, the Mississippi; 
of the tribe of Indians living upon one branch 
of it, ' ' of extraordinary height and biggnesse, ' ' 
referring no doubt to the Osages who were 
celebrated for their height and size. Others 
probably came, also, lured by the hope of 
riches, and the desire of adventure, but little 
is known of them and their wanderings. They 
established no trading posts or settlements 
within the state and left, with the exception of 
Radisson, no accounts of their wanderings to 
enable us to judge with any certainty con- 
cerning the course of their travels. 

But these obscure and almost unknown voy- 
ages and explorations, barren of any tangible 
result in one way, produced a great ett'ect in 
another way, and were, therefore, of impor- 
tance. The reports which they brought back 
of the country through which they travelled, 
of its soil, its rivers, the Indians and the rich 
trade which might be secured with them, of 
the mighty river that poured its flood south- 
ward and perhaps westward, of an empire 
that might be won for France and for New 
France, induced the French authorities of 
Canada to arrange for the exploration of the 
wilderness and of the great river. 

In 1672, Frontenac, the newly appointed 
and energetic governor of Canada, determined 
to send an expedition to explore the course 
of the great river and to take possession of 
the country it traversed, for France. No man 
seemed better suited for such an expedition 



than Louis Joliet. He was a Canadian by 
birth, was educated at the Jesuit school at 
Quebec and intended for the life of a priest ; 
but was so attracted by the wild country about 
him that he abandoned the idea of the church 
and began the adventurous life of a voyageur. 
Previous to 1672 he had made several expe- 
ditions to the west, having explored a part 
of the western shores of Quebec and been pres- 
ent when that country was taken possession of 
in the name of France. He had also explored 
a part of the Hudson Bay territory, and was 
looked upon by those who knew him well, as 
a hardy, daring, and reliable man. To him 
Frontenae intrusted the command of the ex- 
pedition to the great river. He had instruc- 
tion to take Father Marquette with him. 
Marquette was a Jesuit priest who had long 
contemplated a visit to the Indians of the 
Mississippi, and was assigned to accompany 
Joliet in accordance with the usual policy of 
the French in sending priests to accompany 
expeditions into the wilds. Joliet was com- 
missioned to proceed to the river, to make a 
voyage down its course, at least far enough to 
determine into what body of water it 
emptied, and to its mouth if possible. 

Joliet began his voyage from Point St. Ig- 
' naee on May 17, 1673. The expedition con- 
sisted of Joliet himself, Father Marquette, and 
five other Frenchmen. They had two canoes 
and a somewhat scanty stock of provisions. 
They made their way along the shores of Lake 
Michigan to Green Bay, passed up the Fox 
river to Lake Winnebago then the limit of 
French explorations, secured here Indian 
guides, made their way through lakes and 
streams to the height of land separating 
streams flowing into the lakes from those 
which empty into the Mississippi. Here they 
carried their canoes across the divide, which 
is narrow at this point, and launched them 

again on the Wisconsin, and on the 17th day 
of June they entered the Mississippi. After 
proceeding down its current for some distance 
they came to a settlement of Indians where 
they landed and were kindly received. Then 
they came to the mouth of the Illinois and 
saw on the face of the great rocks which line 
the stream on the eastern side, painted mon- 
sters, described by Marciuette as dreadful in 
appearance and suggestive of the devil. 
These were two specimens of the art of the 
Indians and represented manitous or gods. 
While they meditated on these they came to 
the mouth of the Missouri. They seem to 
have reached it during flood time and were 
amazed and frightened at the tremendous 
flood of water, bearing on its tide trees and 
logs and all the debris common to high water 
in the great and turbulent Missouri. With 
difficulty they passed safely through. They 
next observed a place where the river was nar- 
rowed by rocks, part of it pouring into a nar- 
row gorge and then returning with fury on it- 
self. Doubtless this is the first description of 
the narrows at Grand Tower. The descrip- 
tion is not quite accurate for the present con- 
dition there, but the place has doubtless 
changed in appearance in the years that have 

Day after day the voyagers pursued their 
way, floating tranquilly down the tide of the 
great river. They passed the mouth of the 
Ohio, which they called Ouabouskiaou, or the 
Beautiful river. Sometimes they came to the 
camps of Indians, and, on displaying the calu- 
met which one of their Indian friends had 
given them, they were kindly received. Wliat 
a scene was presented to their eyes — the wide 
expanse of the majestic river, the boundless 
forests that lined its course unbroken by tlie 
dwellings of men, and peopled only by the 
wild and savage life of the woods. The nights 


Marquette Among the Mississippi Valley Indians 



they passed iu their boats or lying on the 
shore by the river, beneath the stars, listen- 
ing to the sounds of the mighty current sweep- 
ing its way to an unknown sea. 

The scenes changed as they made their way 
farther and fai-ther south. The high and 
rockj' bluffs which had lined one or both sides 
of the river, from the top of which the coun- 
try stretched in rolling verdure for miles on 
either side, gave way to the low and marshy 
land of the ^Mississippi bottoms. Cane brakes 
were seen and mosquitos appeared in great 
clouds and made life miserable for them. 
They came at last to the mouth of the Arkan- 
sas. Here they met with Indians who dis- 
played the greatest hostility for a long time. 
but were finally induced to receive them with 
something like civility. One member of the 
tribe spoke the language of the Illinois and 
through him ilarquette preached the Chris- 
tian faith to the assembled savages. They 
told him, in return for presents given them, 
what they knew concerning the lower reaches 
of the river. According to their account, the 
lower ilississippi was infested by tribes of 
fierce Indians, so formidable that they them- 
selves dared not hunt the buffalo but con- 
tented themselves with fish and corn. 

Joliet and ilarquette determined to turn 
back from this place. They had performed a 
part of their ta-sks. They had seen the great 
river, had voyaged for hundreds of miles 
upon its bosom, and had approached near its 
mouth as they believed, though in reality they 
were seven hundred miles from the Gulf. 
They had gone at least far enough to make 
sure that it did not empty into the sea of Vir- 
ginia, the Vermillion or California sea, but 
into the Gulf of Mexico. Further progress 
was doubtful. Their supplies were limited. 

the hot weather was coming on, the Indians 
farther down were reported as hostile, — aU 
these considerations induced them to relin- 
quish their hope of continuing to the mouth of 
the river. They began the return trip on 
the seventeenth of Julj'. The return voj'age 
was far from pleasant. It was midsummer 
and the heat was great. They might no longer 
drift, but must urge their canoes against all 
the force of the river. Father I\Iarquette fell, 
ill and was like to die before the voyage could 
be completed. At last they reached the Illi- 
nois, entered its mouth, and made their way 
up its beautiful course. They were enter- 
tained by a tribe of the Illinois Indians, 
called Kaskaskias, perhaps the Casquins of 
De Soto's time. One of the members of the 
tribe guided them to Lake Michigan which 
they reached in September, having voyaged 
more than two thousand miles in the four 
months since their departure. 

Joliet and Marquette separated at Green 
Bay, Marquette remaining to recruit his 
health while Joliet hastened homeward. The 
good fortune which had been his for so many 
months deserted him at the last and he was 
almost drowned near jMontreal by the upset- 
ting of his canoe. All his papers were lost 
by this accident, and he made only an oral 
report to Governor Frontenac concerning his 
trip. It is partly due to this circumstance 
that he has received so little of the credit 
justly due him for his exploit, since I\Iar- 
cjuette afterward published an accoiint of the 
voyage and it is his name that is most closely 
associated with the enterprise. In reality he 
had no official connection with it. but was 
present as a volunteer under the direction of 

Frontenac was much gratified at the siic- 
cess of the voyage and reported to the gov- 



eniment of France the results with a reeoin- 
nieudatiou that it be followed up and the 
country held. 

We have now to consider the work of the 
greatest of the French explorers whose trav- 
els and voyages brought them to Southeast 
Missouri. Robert Cavelier de La Salle was a 
man who would have made his mark in any 
place or situation of life, for he was rarely 
gifted in many ways. He was born in France 
in 1643, received a good education and 
emigrated to Canada at the age of twenty- 
three. Here he heard the reports current 
among the French and Indians of a great 
river that flowed to the south and west and 
perhaps entered into the western sea, called 
the Vermillion sea, or Sea of California. La 
Salle was fired by the desire to discover and 
explore this river and thus open the long 
sought and eagerly desired way to China and 
the East. He accordingly interested Cour- 
celles, the governor, and Talon, the intendant 
of Canada, in his schemes. He spent several 
years in exploring the lakes and rivers, dis- 
covering in the course of his travels the Ohio 
river and descending it as far as the present 
site of Louisville and perhaps to its junc- 
ture with the Mississippi. At any rate he be- 
came convinced that the ilississippi did not 
flow to the west nor to the east but toward the 
south and emptied into the Gulf of Mexico. 

La Salle had become a friend of the new 
governor of Canada, Frontenac, and was able 
to interest him in his schemes of exploration 
and settlement. Frontenac was a man of en- 
ergy and resource and gave great assistance to 
La Salle. Through his help and encourage- 
ment La Salle secured from the government 
of France certain grants of land in Canada, 
the income of which enabled him to carry on 
the work which he had undertaken. In the 

course of his negotiations lie made a trip to 
France and was able to interest many of his 
fi-iends in the work he was attempting to per- 
form. That work was a great and noble one. 
La Salle seems to have been one of the few 
men at that time connected with the colonies 
in this country, either French or English, 
who had a clear grasp of the situation and 
saw' the possibilities of the country. At the 
time the colonies of France were confined to 
Canada. The French were devoting their en- 
ergy to the exploration and .settlement of the 
country around the Great Lakes, to the fur 
trade with the Indians, and to the enjoyment 
of the wild and adventurous life of the woods. 
The country to which the French were de- 
voting their time and energies was a great 
and wonderful country in many respects. It 
contained the Great Lakes, and a wonderful 
.system of rivers and water-ways, the soil was 
fertile in places, and the Indian trade was 
most profitable and destined to grow for many 
years. But there was one great obstacle to 
the development of the French country and 
that was the severe climate. The winters 
w^ere long and very cold. Snow was plentiful 
and deep, for weeks the lakes and rivers we 
coated with ice, and the shortness of the sum- 
mer precluded the pos.sibility of growing 
many of the desirable food plants. It was not 
a country to develop rapidly, nor to support 
a large population. When La Salle came to 
Canada, the French had been in possession 
for nearly two generations, but had done lit- 
tle or nothing looking to securing land to the 
south of them. 

While the French were thus confining 
themselves to the region of the Lakes and ig- 
noring the other parts of the continent, the 
English were planted along the Atlantic coast. 
They, too, for many generations, were con- 



tent with the narrow strip which they held 
and made no efforts to secure the territorj- to 
the west. It was a ease of short-sightedness 
in both the colonizing nations, and yet not a 
surprising case by any means. The continent 
was so vast, the distances so great, the forest 
so unconquerable, the dangers from Indians 
so real that it was natural for both French 
and English to hesitate before attempting the 
conquest of the interior of the continent. To 
them the attempt seemed almost useless as 
well. The colonies grew slowly. New France 
seemed large enough for all the French who 
would ever live there. The problem as the 
men of that time saw it, was, not to secure 
and hold new lands, but to people and sub- 
due those they already held. The English 
were similarly situated. The Atlantic sea- 
board seemed ample for all the English there, 
or that were likelj' to come. Such were the 
generally accepted opinions of the times. It 
was, of course, the policy of short-sighedness, 
but then most men are short-sighted. 

Now, however, there had come to America 
and interested himself its future, a man who 
was not short-sighted, but on the contrary 
gifted with remarkable powers to see into the 
future. La Salle rejected the idea that 
Canada was large enough for the French. He 
saw clearly the expansion that must come, 
and he believed that the Ohio valley which he 
had discovered and explored, offered, by far, 
the best field for that inevitable expansion. 
The soil in that valley was rich, the climate 
very favorable for agriculture, the opportu- 
nities for trade with the Indians were tempt- 
ing. It must be remembered that at that time 
trade with the Indians was almost indispens- 
able in the opening up of a new section of 
the country. It was largely to this trade 
that settlers looked for support while they 

cleared away the forests and made the coun- 
try ready for the practice of agriculture. No 
part of the country offered any better oppor- 
tunities for trade than the Ohio valley, and no 
part of the country was more fertile or bet- 
ter adapted to agricultiire. Here, then La 
Salle believed he saw the seat of a New France 
more glorious than would ever be possible in 
Canada. He believed, too, that soon the Eng- 
lish would be forced to expand; that the At- 
lantic seaboard must soon be too contracted 
for them. Their natural expansion would be 
to the westward. This movement, when it 
came, would bring the English across the Al- 
leghanies and into the valley of the Ohio. 

To forestall this movement, to explore the 
country, to claim it for the king of France, to 
open it for settlers, plant chains of forts and 
fortified posts, secure the friendship of the 
Indians and develop trade with them, to make 
the power of France supreme in the new 
lands which he had discovered and render 
them forever outside the power of the English 
to possess — this was the dream of La Salle. 
It was not the dream of a visionary. La 
Salle could dream the most splendid visions, 
but he was no mere dreamer. On the con- 
trary he was one of the most active, tireless, 
and practical of men. His plan once formed 
he proceeded to put it into execution. He 
determined to organize an expedition, explore 
the great river to its mouth, found on its 
banks trading posts, and with the proceeds of 
this trade to open the country for settlement. 
He had a wonderful power of persuasion, and 
was able to make Frontenac see the greatness 
of his plans and secure his help in his under- 
takings. This help of the governor was al- 
most indispensable to him, for Frontenac was 
a powerful and energetic man, fond of bold 
and daring schemes and desirous himself of 
achieving riches and distinction in the work 



of trading and colonizing. But useful as was 
the aid of Froutenae to La Salle, friendship 
with the governor brought one drawback with 
it. It made Frontenac's enemies, La Salle's 
enemies. These enemies of the governor were 
by no means few nor powerless. In the first 
place he ha^ offended the traders of Canada, 
by embarking in trade on his own account and 
establishing posts for this purpose on the 
western lakes. He had been unfortunate 
enough, also, to incur the displeasure of the 
Jesuits by some opposition to their plans. 
The Jesuits were both numerous and power- 
ful and their opposition to the scheme of La 
Salle, induced in part by their dislike of the 
governor, was destined to cost La Salle very 
dear. The Jesuits had long had attention di- 
rected to the valley of the great river. Here 
they had planned to evangelize the Indians 
and to found a province like that of Paraguay 
in South America where they should be su- 
preme. La Salle's dream of colonization and 
settlement ran counter to this plan of the 
Jesuits and thej' were accordingly opposed to 
him and all that he attempted to do. 

In spite of all opposition, however. La Salle 
persisted in his work. In 1673 he received 
from Frontenac the grant of a new seignory 
in the west. This was called Port Frontenac 
and was situated near the present site of 
Kingston. This grant carried with it a prac- 
tical monopoly of the fur trade in that part 
of Canada. In 1674 and again in 1677 he 
visited France. Here his enthusiasm, his 
knowledge of the country of America, and 
above all persistence and determination won 
approval for his schemes. He received from 
the King of France a patent of authority, giv- 
ing him the right to explore the country at his 
own expense, to build and equip forts, and to 
exercise a raonopolj' of the trade in buffalo 

skins for a period of five years. Armed with 
this concession, La Salle made the greatest 
exertion to raise enough funds to equip his 
expeditions. In this he was successful, and 
returned to Canada after having organized his 
expedition. He arrived in Quebec in August, 
1678, and secured men and supplies for his 
projected expedition to the IMississippi. One 
man who accompanied him, and who was dest- 
ined to be closely associated with all his en- 
terprises, was Tonti. He also secured the 
friendship and help of Father Hennepin. 

On landing at Quebec, La Salle immediately 
set to making arrangements for the expedition 
and sent Father Hennepin and Tonti with 
men and supplies, as an advance guard. 
Starting on November 18th, from Fort Front- 
enac, they landed at Lewiston and continued 
up the Niagara river to the Falls. Here they 
concluded to wait, and arrange for the further 
course of the expedition. They were joined 
by La Salle in January, 1679. La Salle had 
come to Lewiston, in the vessel which he de- 
signed to use for the purpose of the expediton, 
but this vessel was wrecked in the attempt. 
The early part of 1679 was spent by the party 
in building a boat for use on the upper lakes. 
This boat was launched in the spring, above 
the Falls of Niagara. The party suffered very 
greatly from the hostility of the Iroquois In- 
dians. In fact it was almost impossible to 
prevent the destruction of the vessel which 
they were building. 

La Salle left the party in the spring, and re- 
turned to Fort Frontenac to secure further 
supplies and funds. He found that all of his 
property had been attached by his creditors, at 
the instigation of his enemies, for the pay- 
ment of his debts. Nevertheless, La Salle re- 
turned to Lake Erie to continue the expedi- 
tion, and on August the seventh, embarked on 
the new vessel which he had named the ' ' Grif- 



fon."' Tlie.v sailed through Lake Huron and 
down Lake Michigan to Green Ba}'. Here 
La Salle collected a cargo of valuable furs, 
with which he loaded the ' ' Griffon, ' ' and then 
sent the vessel back to Niagara, instructing 
the pilot to dispose of the furs, procure addi- 
tional supplies, and then return. 

La Salle, with the remainder of the expedi- 
tion, left Green Ba.y in canoes, and made their 
way to the mouth of the St, Joseph. Here 
they proceeded to build a boat and awaited 
the return of the "Griffon." Not having 
heard any news of this vessel by the beginning 
of December, La Salle was filled with appre- 
hension concei-ning her fate. The cargo of 
furs was necessary for a part of the expense 
of his journey. Notwithstanding this, he 
determined to continue, and on the 3rd of 
December the canoes made their way up the 
St. Joseph, and were carried over the five mile 
portage which separates the headwaters of the 
St. Joseph from those of the Illinois. They 
found the country of the Illinois practically 
deserted ; and, while there was abundant sign 
of deer and buffalo, they nearly starved owing 
to their failure to find food. Finally they 
found an Indian village at the great rock on 
the Illinois river, known as Starved Rock, 
Here La Salle held a council with represent- 
atives of many of the tribes of the Illinois 
country. He outlined to them his plans, one 
of which was an alliance with the Indians for 
the purpose of trade. 

The Indians discouraged his attempt, tell- 
ing him that it would be impossible to reach 
the mouth of the Mississippi, owing to the 
hostility of the tribes on its lower course, and 
warning him of the dangers of such an under- 
taking. This opposition of the Indians, as 
La Salle afterward found, was caused b.y a 
rumor which his enemies had started, that 
he was the secret agent of the Iroquois. How- 

ever, La Salle finally overcame their opposi- 
tion with the threat that if they did not con- 
sent to accompany and help him in his 
schemes, he would "go to the Osages who 
were. men and not women." This offer inter- 
ested the Illinois and gained their consent, 
for they were bitterly hostile to the Osages. 

Having- secured supplies from these In- 
dians, La Salle started down the river, reach- 
ing the place which he named Fort Creve 
Coeur in January, 1680, Here he was de- 
serted by a number of his men and received 
the message which told of the loss of the 
"Griffon" with all its cargo. He then began 
the construction of a vessel in which to navi- 
gate the Mississippi. He found it necessary 
to return to Canada for certain supplies for 
the building of this vessel, and on March 1st 
set out alone for Canada. His return .journey 
was one of the most terrible ever made ; but 
he reached Fort Frontenac in safety, and, 
having made provision for the necessary sup- 
plies, started on the return trip in August. 
He had left the expedition at Fort Creve 
Coeur under the command of Tonti, but when 
he reached that point he found the camp en- 
tirely deserted. There were abundant signs 
that the Indians had made an attack upon 
the camp, and destroyed it. Only a part of 
the vessel which had been built was left, and 
since it was impossible to proceed. La Salle 
returned to the St. Joseph. Here he held a 
great council with the Miamis and the Shaw- 
nees, and with them he formed a league for 
the furtherance of his purpose in regard to 
the Illinois Indians. He returned to Canada, 
meeting on the way with Tonti, who, after 
most remarkable dangers and struggles, had 
succeeded in escaping from the Indians and 
returning by wa.v of the upper lakes. 

This experience, which would have shaken 
the resolution of a less resolute man, but con- 



tinned La Salle in his iutention to explore tlie 
great river. In October, 1681, he returned to 
Lake Michigan, entered the Chicago river and 
reached the Blississippi, February 6, 1682. 
This time he did not attempt the construction 
of a large vessel, but made his way down the 
river in canoes. He reached the mouth oi 
the river, October 6th and took possession of 
the entire country in the name of the king of 

Having returned from this voyage of dis- 
covery, La Salle set out upon the execution of 
the remainder of his great scheme. This in- 
cluded the project of fur trade among the 
Illinois Indians. He had become convinced 
that this was possible only after organizing tlie 
Indians, and offering them protection against 
the raids of the Iroquois. He had selected as 
the site for his trading post, the great roLk 
known as Starved Rock. Here he planted a 
colony, and the Indians having fallen in with 
his scheme, he won their friendship and estaB- 
lished a flourishing trade in that territory. 
Leaving his little colonj-, he made his v,ay 
back to Canada to secure still further sup- 
plies, but here he found things changed. His 
friend, Prontenac had been superseded as gov- 
ernor of Canada, and the new governor was 
under the influence of La Salle's enemies. He 
did all he could to hinder and discourage La 
Salle who found it necessary once more to go 
to France. Here, in spite of the misrepresent- 
ations of the governor, he once more won the 
confidence of the kibg and his ministers and 
received still more valuable patents and grants 
in the new territory. 

He organized a new expedition. It was 
planned to sail to the Gulf of ^lexieo, locate 
the mouth of the river, and then proceed up 
its course to some suitable place where a 
colony would be founded. In this way he 

intended to take and hold all the valley of 
the Mississippi. 

The officer in command of the ships was 
both incompetent, and hostile to La Salle. He 
failed to find the mouth of the river, and 
after cruising back and forth for a time, he 
insisted on landing the expedition on the 
coast of the gulf some four hundred miles 
west of the mouth of the river. The ships 
then sailed away to France leaving La Salle 
and the members of the expedition helpless 
in an unknown and entirely unpromising re- 
gion. La Salle made the best of the situation. 
A colony was formed, houses and shelters 
erected and the beginnings of a settlement 
formed. It was La Salle's intention to search 
for and find the river from this place. After 
numerous attempts he became convinced that 
he was so far from the river and so ignorant of 
its position and direction that he could not 
any longer hope to be successful in his search. 
The colony in the meantime was in a deplor- 
able condition. Food supplies were limited ; 
the region in w'hich they were was barren and 
inhospitable. Many members of the expedi- 
tions were dissatisfied and hostile to their 

At last La Salle formed a desperate resolu- 
tion. He despaired of finding the river. He 
saw that the colony could not long survive. 
No help could be expected from France direct. 
He determined to go overland to Canada and 
there secure ships and provisions for saving 
his men. On foot, then, accompanied by a 
few members of the expedition to set out a 
walk a thousand miles through an unknown 
country, to cross rivers and lakes, to meet the 
Indians and to confront all the dangers of the 
wilderness. Nothing shows better the uncon- 
querable determination of the man than this 
last pro.jected .iourney. He had gone but a 
little way until he was shot and killed bv one 



of those accompanying him. This man had 
cherished a secret grudge against La Salle 
and had found an opportunity for satisf.ying 
his hatred. 

So there died, in the prime of his life and 
in the midst of the execution of great plans, 
the greatest of the French explorers. Had 
he lived to carry out his plans and had the 
French government cavight something of his 

idea and his enthusiasm, it is quite probable 
that the history of the ^Mississippi valley would 
have been quite different. It was long, how- 
ever, before the government of France came 
to have much appreciation of the great terri- 
tory of Louisiana. She regarded it with little 
care or concern; left it without attention, or 
granted it with careless indifference to vari- 
ous applicants. 



Importance op Indians in Our History — Indian Trade — Indians in Southeast Missouri 
When DeSoto Came — The Capahas — The Siouan Family and its Branches — The 
OsAGES — Their Homes — Their Farms — Osage Houses — Furniture and Clothing — 
Polygamy — Weapons — Peculiar Customs op the Osages — Painting of the Body ■ — 
Their Government — WiVRS With Other Indians — Defeated by Sacs and Foxes — Their 
Removal Prom the State — Dela wares and Shawnees — Their History Outside Mis- 
ouRi — Why the Spaniards Brought Them to Missouri — Character — Their Villages — • 
Tecumseh's Sister — Chilletecaux — Witchcraft Delusion — The AIashcoux Tribe — 
Treaties With the Indians — Indian Education. 

Constant reference has been made in earlier 
chapters to the Indians, as the aboriginal in- 
habitants of America were incorrectly named 
by Columbus, and other early explorers, be- 
cause they believed America to be the In- 
dies. These Indians are interesting as be- 
ing the earliest inhabitants of the country 
and also because they played a considerable 
part in its history after the white man came 
here. They were always to be taken into 
consideration. Whether friendly or hostile, 
whether disposed to help or hinder those who 
came, they were always to be reckoned with. 
It is difficult, perhaps impossible, for us who 
live in the security of the present, even to 
imagine the time when the savage warwhoop 
of the Indians was a sound of terror, often 
heard and always to be dreaded. We cannot 
reconstruct, except imperfectly, the condi- 
tions of life, here, when trade with the In- 
dians was one of the prime motives for the 
coming of white people to this part of the 

Vol. 1—3 

And yet, difficult as it is to realize these 
things, both of these conditions once existed 
There was a time in Southeast Missouri when 
every home was in some ways a fortress, 
when the inhabitants listened for the war- 
whoop, and when life and property were not 
safe from the savage attacks of the red men. 
It is true that the depredations committed 
here were not so extensive as those suffered 
by the people of the eastern part of this 
country, but they were sufficient in number 
to form a bloody chapter in our history. 

There was time, also, when trade with the 
Indians was very profitable. The western 
country was once the home of many fur- 
bearing animals. Perhaps nowhere else in 
the world did there ever exist such a great 
number of animals valuable for their fur or 
for their flesh as in the western part of 
North America. Until the coming of the 
white people the Indians bad done little to 
destroy these animals. It is true they lived 




largely by hunting, but they hunted only to 
supply the immediate needs for food, and so 
vast was the animal life of the country that 
its natural increase more than compensated 
for all the Indians killed for food and skins. 
But when the Indians found it possible to 
trade furs to the whites for those things 
which they desired, they became the agents 
for the destruction of the game of the coun- 
try. It was relentlessly pursued and vast 
quantities of furs were every year bartered 
away to the traders. The fur trade was ex- 
ceedingly profitable to the white men engaged 
in it, for it was possible to buy with a 
hatchet, a string of beads, some calico, or 
other inexpensive articles, valuable furs. To 
secure this trade and hold it became a prize, 
contended for, not alone by individuals and 
companies, but by nations themselves. A 
part of the colonial policy of France, of Eng- 
land, and of Spain was directed by a desire fo 
secure or hold the trade in furs. 

In order to accomplish these objects set- 
tlements were made, expeditions and wars 
carried on. Some of the early settlements in 
the state were made as trading points. This 
is true of Cape Girardeau. Here Louis Lori- 
mier early established himself to carry on 
trade with the Indians. New Madrid was 
originally a trading post of the La Sieurs. 

It is clear that much of the early history 
of this part of the state was determined and 
given course by the presence of the Indians. 
It is the purpose of this chapter to give an 
account of the various tribes that lived here, 
their character, habits, manner of life, rela- 
tion to the settlers, and the final disposition 
made of them. 

When DeSoto came to Southeast Missouri 
he found living within its borders at least 
three tribes of Indians. Those whose princi- 

pal place of dwelling was in the neighbor- 
hood of New Madrid he called Casquins. 
These we believe to have been identical with 
the Kaskaskias later found on the other side 
of the river in what is now the state of Illi- 
nois. If this is correct the Casquins were a 
part of the great Algonquin group of Indians 
who were formerly to be found scattered over 
a considerable part of the eastern portion of 
the United States. Their removal from New 
Madrid county to Illinois is not a matter of 
surprise, for such removals were not at all 
uncommon among the Indians. In fact it 
was a custom with most of them to change 
their place from time to time. This was due, 
in part, to their roving disposition and con- 
stant love of change ; in part, to the neces- 
sity of finding new hunting grounds where 
proper supplies of food might be had ; and, in 
part, to the constant and bitter warfare 
waged between Indians of difi'erent tribes. 

It was probably some such war which 
caused the Casquins to abandon their seat in 
Southeast Missouri and migrate to the other 
side of the great river. In fact we know that 
between them as Algonquins and the Siouan 
family (represented by the Osages, the Kan- 
sas, the Missouris and others) there was bit- 
ter hatred and constant warfare. It was the 
interference of DeSoto in the quarrel of the 
Casquins that bought him into contact with 
the Capahas. 

These Capahas were doubtless living in the 
neighborhood of Cape Girardeau. They be- 
longed, it seems, to the great Siouan family. 
It was a tradition among the Siouan 
Indians west of the river that their 
original seat was in the valley of the Ohio: 
that owing to trouble with other Indians they 
migrated down the Ohio to its mouth. Here 
they divided part of them turning to the 
south and others to the north. Those who 



went to the South were called Quapas, Ca- 
pahas, Pacahas, aud other similar names; all 
meaning "downstream Indians" and having 
reference to their going down the river from 
the time of their separation. Those who turned 
to the north were called Omahas, meaning 
"upstream Indians." These Omahas made 
their way to the Missouri river, where some of 
them settled and long remained. These were 
called Missouris. Others of them passed up 
this river toward the west. Some of them 
settled on that branch of the ]Missouri after- 
ward called for them the Osage. These were 
the famous Osage Indians whose doings till 
such a large part of the aboriginal history of 
Missouri. Still others of these Indians pressed 
their way further west to become known as 
the Kansas and Omahas. 

If this legendary account as preserved b.y 
the Indians themselves is correct, there ex- 
isted a close relation between all the Indians 
named. That this relation did exist is shown 
by the similarity of their langiiage. They 
spoke, it is true, different dialects, but these 
were not so dissimilar as to preclude all com- 
munication. Indeed it was possible for one 
speaking either of these various dialects to 
learn the others in a very short space of time. 

The third tribe of Indians found by DeSoto 
were these Osages, who at this time lived in 
the great bend of the Missouri, but whose 
hunting ground extended east to the Missis- 
sippi and south to the Arkansas. 

When the French came, the Casquins had 
migrated to a new seat on the Illinois river, 
if indeed the Kaskaskias of Illinois were 
identical with the Casquins described by De- 
Soto. The Capahas had moved down the 
^Mississippi to the Arkansas where they con- 
tinued to reside. Others think, however, that 
their principal seat was on the St. Francois 

and that one of their villages, called Tori- 
man, was in Dunklin county. This is the con- 
clusion of Houck who has given the matter 
very careful study. ( Houck 's "History of 
Missouri," Vol. I, p. 173). 

Of all these early aboriginal inhabitants of 
Southeast ^Missouri none are more interesting 
than the Osages. A part as we have seen of 
that great Siouan family which at an early 
date migrated from their original home in the 
valley of the Ohio to its mouth where they 
divided; the Osages. at the time of the 
French, were living on the ^Missouri and the 
Osage. From here their hunting parties 
went out to cover that great stretch of terri- 
tory extending east to the Mississippi and 
south to the Arkansas. They continued to 
reside on the Osage until, with the Missouris, 
the tribe which for a time lived near the 
mouth of the Missouri but which afterward 
moved up the stream and united with the 
Osages, they came into conflict with Sacs 
and Foxes. A deadly strife ensued between 
these Indians, and later, between the Osages 
and the Cherokees when the latter were 
moved to this side of the river by the govern- 
ment. The Osages resented the coming of the 
Cherokees to their hunting grounds and 
tried to drive them out. They gradually 
degenerated, however, and finally disap- 
peared from the Missouri country. 

During the time of their prosperity they 
had been induced by the Indian traders to 
found some settlements on the Arkansas, and, 
when the pressure of other tribes and the 
whites became too strong for them, the rem- 
nant made their way to the south. Some of 
their descendants reside yet in Oklahoma. 

These Indians lived principally by luint- 
ing, but they also cultivated little patches of 
soil. Usually each band of them had two or 
more places of residence. Near one of them 



they had some cleared land. Here, usually 
in April, they planted maize and squashes, 
or pumpkins and beans. When this planting 
was made, they then set out on a hunting ex- 
pedition which lasted for two or three 
months. Returning usually in August they 
harvested their crops which, during their 
absence, had been uncultivated. The corn 
was usually shelled and stored in pots or hol- 
low trunks of trees, the squashes and pump- 
kins were dried, the latter being cut into long 
strips and hung in the upper part of their 
houses. Beans were also kept by being 
shelled and stored.' The crop harvested and 
stored for winter, the Indians were accust- 
omed to depart again for another hunting ex- 
pedition. The meat procured on these expe- 
ditions, such as was not immediately used, 
was dried or jerked, or else was partly 
cooked and covered with grease from the fat 
of some animal, usually the bear or deer. 
The skins which they secured were prepared 
for trading at the nearest post, for beads, 
hatchets, calico, powder, guns, or whiskey. 
This hunt lasted until about January when 
the Indians returned to their villages to re- 
main during the colder wealther of winter, 
living principally upon the stores of food laid 
up during the summer. With the return of 
spring they engaged in still another hunt, 
coming back to the practice of their rude 

The houses of the Osages were rude cabins, 
not unlike a tent in shape and appearance 
but constructed of poles and matting. Two 
forks each about twenty feet high were 
stuck into the ground, a ridge pole laid 
across these, smaller forks put up on each 
side, and a framework of poles arranged to 
these, furnishing a support for the mats. 
These mats were often woven of rushes or 
reeds, sometimes skins or bark took the place 

of the matting, or even sod was sometimes 
used. Of course not all the houses were alike. 
Some of them were conical in shape. All 
were, without exception, rude in appearance, 
and greatly lacking in comfort. None pos- 
sessed a chimney, the fire being kindled on the 
earth floor in the center of the house, or 
upon a hearth of stones, and the smoke was 
allowed to escape through a hole in the cen- 
ter of the roof. 

The furniture was exceedingly limited, con- 
sisting principally of beds. These were made 
of skins or mats placed upon a shelf built 
along the walls. The beds served as seats in 
the day time, though the Indians, frequently, 
or most often, sat on the ground or on mats 
placed as a sort of carpet. Their household 
implements were those common to most 
American Indians and consisted of pottery 
vessels, stone knives, stones for grinding or 
pounding corn, and similar utensils, most if 
not all of them the product of the skill and 
industry of the Indian women. The men 
felt it to be beneath their dignity as war- 
riors and hunters to engage in manual labor 
of any kind and deputed practically all of 
it, including the building and care of the 
house, the construction of the necessary im- 
plements and the cultivation of the fields, to 
the women. 

These women were not uncomely in youth, 
but their life of toil and hardship brought 
upon them a premature old age. One custom 
concerning the women of the Osages is noted 
by many travellers among them and that is 
the way in which the married woman was 
distinguished from the unmarried. The In- 
dian maiden was accustomed to bestow great 
attention upon the arrangement and adorn- 
ment of her hair. It was arranged in two 
braids and ornamented with strings of wam- 
pum and such other beautiful objects as 



might be possessed. Upon marriage, liow- 
ever, the ornaments were laid aside to be kept 
for a daughter, and the hair was confined in 
one braid. 

A curious form of polygamy was practiced 
among them. When a man took a wife he ac- 
quired rights over the persons of her sisters, 
and might bestow them in marriage as he 
wished or else add them to his own household. 
In spite of this privilege, monogamy was not 
uncommon among them and there frequently 
existed between husbaud and wife a strong 
and lasting tie of affection. 

The Osages possessed the ordinary weapons 
of the Indians, the bow and arrow, the war- 
club, the tomahawk, and the scalping knife. 
They soon learned the superior power of the 
gun, and after coming into contact with the 
traders they equipped themselves, where pos- 
sible, with guns. In common with most of 
the Indians of the continent they looked upon 
bravery in war as the chief virtue. Scalping 
was the one act that conferred the greatest 
distinction on a brave, and next to this steal- 
ing the enemy's horses. The young braves 
often spent their leisure time in boasting of 
their skill and prowess in handling the scalp- 
ing knife and in carrying away horses. This 
latter accomplishment was held in high re- 
pute among tliem, for the Osages were dis- 
tinguished among Indians for their knowl- 
edge of and regard for the horse. They pos- 
sessed large numbers of them and held them 
as their chief riches. Nuttall ("Journal," 
p. 247) records the fact that once they pur- 
chased the temporary friendship of their bit- 
ter enemies, the Outagamies, by the present 
of a hundred head of horses. "A present," 
Nuttall remarks, "which though valuable was 
not costly to the givers, for in a raid under- 
taken immediately afterward they brought 
back three hundred horses either stolen from 

the Pawnees or else caught wild upon the 
prairies. ' ' 

According to Nuttall ("Journal," p. 238), 
who spent sometime with them, they pos- 
sessed some knowledge of the stars. They 
recognized the pole star and had observed 
that it was stationary in the heavens, they 
called Venus the harbinger of day, they knew 
the Pleiades and the three stars in Orion's 
belt, and they spoke of the Galaxy as the 
heavenly road or way. 

The religion of the Osages was not unlike 
that of many other of the American Indians. 
They believed in a Great Spirit, and looked 
forward to a Happy Hunting Ground after 
death. In accordance with this belief they 
frequently buried with the deceased warrior 
his hunting implements and his weapons of 
war, that he might enjoy his favorite pastime 
in the land of the dead. Coupled with this 
religion was a gross form of superstition 
which manifested itself in an observance of 
omens, a belief in the efficacy of charms and 
amulets, and a constant effort to propitiate 
evil spirits. Before going on the war-path 
they were accustomed to spend a night in la- 
mentation and in penitential exercises, in the 
course of which they inflicted upon them- 
selves sundry forms of punishments in an en- 
deavor to ward off misfortune in the time of 

One of their peculiar customs, seemingly 
unique, was a morning lamentation indulged 
in by some or all of the members of the tribe, 
each morning about sun rise. This custom 
prevailed to the very great annoyance of 
their white visitors. Long speaks also of "a 
vesper hymn of doleful sound," chanted at 
sun-down during one his visits. (Long's 
"Expedition," Vol. 4, p. 266). 

In common with other Indians they were 
exceedingly fond of tobacco and attached 



great importance to the pipe. It formed a 
part of all their great meetings, and no 
treaty was concluded and no formal act re- 
lating to the tribe ever performed without 
recourse to the pipe which was passed from 
hand to hand and smoked by each in turn. 

Their clothing was made from skins, prin- 
cipally deer-skins, which were tanned by the 
women and made into garments for both 
men and women. They also possessed the 
art of weaving, and utilized for this purpose 
lint from the bark of the mulberry, the elm, 
or the paw-paw. Sometimes they wove a 
sort of cloth from feathers, and after they 
began to secure cloth from the white people 
they would frequently unravel an old piece of 
cloth and use the thread again. The men 
usually wore the breech clout made of skins, 
leggings, and moccasins. The women wore a 
short skirt, leggings, and moccasins, and 
sometimes a covering for the upper part of 
the body, either a shirt made of their cloth 
or a blanket. They adorned themselves with 
feathers, worked various patterns into their 
cloth, wore shells and beads, and, as far as 
their conditions allowed, exhibited all the 
signs of vanity of dress found among civilized 
people. The men of the tribe were fond of 
paint. They sometimes painted the entire 
body, staining it with colors derived from 
clay. The face was especially treated and 
was sometimes streaked and painted in a 
dreadful and hideous manner. This was 
true of all who went upon the warpath. 
Indeed the hideous painting of the face 
was usually a sign of war, though some- 
times indulged in during their celebrations 
of various kinds. 

The Indian moccasin deserves a more ex- 
tended notice than any other part of their 
wearing apparel. Perhaps no other footgear 
ever devised, by either savage or civilized 

man, was quite so well adapted to the pecu- 
liar purposes for which it was intended, as 
this moccasin. Made of tanned deer-skin, it 
was soft and pliable, enabling its wearer to 
pass with wonderful celerity and absence of 
noise through the woods and over the rude 
trails, and yet it was durable and lasting. Its 
superiority is shown in the fact that all white 
men who have passed much time among the 
Indians have adopted it in preference to the 
shoe or boot of civilization. 

The government of the Osages was a 
patriarchal despotism. The leader was fre- 
quently, though not always, succeeded by his 
son. This right of heredity was often dis- 
regarded and never was vested exclusively 
in the eldest son. In fact they refused to re- 
gard the right of primogeniture. The chief 
was, first of all, the leader in war. He was 
usually the most daring and ruthless of the 
warriors of the tribe. His retention of the 
leadership depended upon his hold upon the 
respect and confidence of his fellows. This 
could not long be retained, in such a state 
of society as existed among the Indians, by 
any one not recognized as brave and skilful 
in war. The chief was supposed to exercise 
authority over his warriors in time of peace, 
also, but this authority was mainly shadowy 
and vague. The real fact of the matter was 
that the character of the Indians of almost 
every tribe prevented anything like a firm 
government. They could not submit them- 
selves to the rule of anyone else, even though 
he was chosen by themselves for that pur- 
pose. It was this fatal defect, coupled with 
their unreasonable delight in war that ren- 
dered all the resistance of the Indians to the 
encroachment of the white men so futile. 
Even the great chiefs, such as Pontiac and 
Tecumseh, found their influence often set at 
naught and their plans wrecked by the per- 



verse and unstable character of their fellows. 
jMany of their chiefs retained their hold upon 
their men by cunning and a practice of all 
the arts of the political demagogue. Brack- 
enridge, says of Sans Oreille, chief of the 
Little Osages, that he was, "as usual with 
the ambitious among these people, the poor- 
est man in the nation ; for to set the heart 
upon goods and chattels was thought to in- 
dicate a mean and narrow soul. He, there- 
fore, gave away everything he could get, even 
though he should beg and rob to procure it ; 
and this to purchase popularity. Such is 
ambition. Little they knew of this state of 
society, who believe that it is free from jeal- 
ousies, from envy, detraction, or guilty am- 
bition. No demagogue, no Cataline, ever 
used more art and finesse, ever displayed 
more policy than this cunning savag6. The 
arts of flattery and bribery by which the un- 
thinking multitude is seduced, are nearly the 
same everywhere, and passion for power and 
distinction seems inherent in human nature." 
(Brackenridge "Journal," p. 58). 

In person the Osages were perhaps the 
most finely developed of any of the Indians 
of North America. They were tall, above the 
average height of both whites and Indians. 
Few of the men were under six feet and they 
were large and strong in proportion to their 
great height. They were comely in appear- 
ance for Indians, and evoked the admiration 
of most travellers among them. They pos- 
sessed great powers of endurance. Nuttall 
("Journal," p. 246) speaks of their hunting 
and foraging expeditions extending for three 
hundred miles or more, and says that it was 
not uncommon for them to walk from their 
camp on the Verdigris river in Arkansas to 
the trading post on the Arkansas in a single 
day. This is a distance of sixty miles. 

As we have said, these Indians established 

themselves on the Osage river in ilissouri. 
They early separated into three bands the 
Great Osages living on the Osage and num- 
bering at time about one thousand warriors; 
the Little Osages who dwelt further west, 
numbering from two hundred and fifty to 
four hundred ; and the Arkansas band, which 
settled on the Verdigris, a tributary of the 
Arkansas river. These last were induced to 
make settlement there by Pierre Chouteau of 
St. Louis. One DeLisa had secured from the 
government of Spain a monopoly of the In- 
dian trade in Jli.ssouri, and Chouteau induced 
a part of the Osages to emigrate to Arkansas 
that he might trade with them. While thus 
the main camps of these Indians were out 
side the territory of Southeast Slissouri as 
here defined, they had much to do with the 
history of this section of the state, for they 
roamed over all this territory and were for 
many years the dread of all the inhabitants. 
The French were accustomed to deal with 
the utmost leniency with the Indians, and 
this policy was inherited by the Spanish 
when they came into possession here. As a 
consequence the Indians were not forced to 
submit to the authority of either government 
and for years committed many depredations 
upon the inhabitants. They were especially 
troublesome in the matter of horse-stealing. 
Their fondness for horses, as noted else- 
where, caused them to take possession of good 
horses without regard to the ownership of 
them. They had a custom, too, of resenting 
any intrusion on their chosen hunting 
grounds, and many a white hunter and trap- 
per was beaten, his property seized, or de- 
stroyed, because he was found by the Osages 
within territory which they claimed as their 
own. Often, too, these outrages did not stop 
short of the murder of the luckless hunter or 
trapper. This was almost certainly the fate 



of the man caught on their warpaths. These 
they held with tenacity and resented any in- 
trusion upon them. 

Constant struggle was carried on by the 
Osages with other Indians seeking to come 
into this territory. There was a general 
movement of the Indians from east to west. 
We have seen that the Osages themselves were 
the descendants of Siouan Indians who for- 
merly lived in the valley of the Ohio. Many 
causes impelled this migration toward the 
west. Chief of these was terrible ferocity 
and power of Iroquois or Five Nations of 
New York. These fierce Indians, the strong- 
est and most powerful of all the natives on the 
continent, carried on ruthless war against 
most of the tribes of the north and east. 
Many of these sought to escape this warfare 
by moving to the west. Those who came afte 
the settlement of white men in ^Missouri found 
their way barred by the Osages, but little in- 
ferior in prowess and ferocity to the dreaded 
Iroquois themselves. Against these new com- 
ers the Osages waged bitter war. The Peo- 
rias, a little remnant flying across the river 
to find homes, were compelled to live in con- 
stant fear. A little band of thirty of these 
took up their abode under the protection of 
the white men at Ste. Genevieve, but they 
hunted but little we are told, owing to their 
fear of the Osages. The Saukees and Out- 
gamies, or Sacs and Foxes, who settled in 
Iowa and north Missouri, attempted to ex- 
tend their territory south of the Missouri and 
became involved in a bitter and relentless 
struggle with the Osages. Coming from an- 
other direction were the Cherokees, a part of 
that great nation of the southern Alleghenies. 
With all of these, as well as with the Dela- 
wares and Shawnees, the Osages contended 
with varying fortunes. None of the invad- 

ers surpassed them in bravery, ferocity, or 
skill in warfare, but the Sacs and Foxes 
brought with them the arms of the white men, 
and in the end this superiority of arms pre- 
vailed, and the lessened remnant of the great 
and haughty tribe of Osages made their way 
to the west. A remnant of them stiU live in 

A melancholy interest attaches to these 
few and feeble descendants of a once power- 
ful and numerous race. The defects of In- 
dian character were many and grave. Their 
society and government was most primitive, 
they inflicted upon the settlers untold suf- 
fering and most barbaric cruelties. Their 
going made way for the civilization and prog- 
ress of the white race. No one would call 
back the Indians even if that were possible, 
but the chapter of history which records the 
dealings of our government with the Indians 
is a most painful one. We cannot forget that 
the Indian was flghting for his home, for his 
hunting grounds, for that state of life and 
society which seemed to him best and most 
desirable, and we cannot close our eyes to the 
fact that the treatment he received from those 
who took his land was often marked by the 
extreme of cruelty and treachery. Perhaps 
it was inevitable that he should disappear be- 
fore the superior gifts of the white man, but 
surely it was not necessary that bad faith and 
cruelty and even treachery should mark our 
treatment of him. 

The Osages were perhaps the most formid- 
able and troublesome of all the savage neigh- 
bors of the people of this section of the state, 
but they were by no means the only Indians 
who were here. The constant drift of the 
aborigines westward across the river brought 
many of them through Missouri or near its 
borders, and of these passing through, some 



remained. Thus we find constant reference 
in the annals of the time to Creeks and Che- 
rokees, Pawnees, Peorias and others of the 
many tribes of the western Indians. Some of 
these made their residence within the boi'ders 
of the section, others were only occasional 
visitors, whose hunting or trading parties 
came and went as the whim seized them. 
These, as they traded or hunted or pursued 
other and less legitimate occupation, entered 
little into the real life of the people and had 
but little influence on the development of the 
country, further than the indi^cement of set- 
tlers for their trade. 

Two other tribes than those mentioned, 
however, settled within the limits of South- 
east Missouri in considerable numbers, and 
they came into closer relations with the peo- 
ple of this part of the state and probably 
were more important in its early history than 
any others of the savages. These two tribes 
were the Delawares and the Shawnees. Both 
nees. Both of these are Algonquin Indians 
and closely related to each other. 

The Delawares were originalh^ found on 
both sides of the Delaware river in Pennsyl- 
vania and Delaware. They were the Indians 
who were dealt with by "William Penn and 
others of the early settlers in Pennsylvania. 
They early came into conflict with the Iro- 
quois, and were subjugated by them. Dur- 
ing the period of their subjugation they lost 
much of their former spirit and courage, and 
lived in a state of abject fear of their red 
masters. They finally moved further west 
into the present state of Ohio. Here they 
recovered their spirit and their love for war 
and became among the most formidable of the 
tribes. Part of them were converted to 
Christianity through the efforts of Moravian 

missionaries and became known as the Chris- 
tian Indians. Those who refused Christian- 
ity joined with the French in the French and 
Indian wars, and with the British during the 
Revolution. They committed great depreda- 
tions during the w-ar all along the western 
borders, until an expedition under "Mad An- 
thony" Wayne laid waste their country and 
destroyed their power. They gradually 
drifted further west into Indiana and Iowa. 
During the Spanish regime in Missouri they 
were invited to settle in Missouri, or in Up- 
per Louisiana as the country west of the river 
was then called. 

This invitation to settle under the power 
of Spain was prompted by two motives. The 
Spanish wished them to be a bulwark against 
the constant encroachments of the Osages 
whose thieving and plundering expeditions 
harried all of Upper Louisiana and kept its 
inhabitants in a state of constant alarm. 
Spain greatly feared for her colonies, too, be- 
cause of the American desire for the posses- 
sion of the IMississippi. There w^as a feeling 
along our western border at that time that 
the United States should seize the river, and 
perhaps some of the territory of the western 
side, and hold it. To have the help of the 
savage allies whom she had brought to her 
colonies was one of the motives which 
prompted Spain to bring the Delawares to 
this side. Louis Lorimier, the founder of 
Cape Girardeau, was one of the principal 
agents in the Spanish dealing with the In- 

The Shawnees who came to IMissouri at the 
same time with the Delawares were quite 
probably an offshoot of the Delawares, who 
had been for some time separated from them 
but who again united with them just before 
their emigration to the west. They resem- 



bled the Delawares in language and tribal 
habits and acted with them in many of their 
dealings with the white men. 

AVhen these Indians came across the Miv 
sissippi they settled principally in the terii- 
tory between the Cinque Homme and Flora 
creek. Their settlement extends west to 
"Whitewater river. Two large villages were 
located on Apple creek, on the north line of 
what is now Cape Girardeau county. There 
were also villages of these Indians along Cas- 
tor river, near the present site of Bloomfield 
in Stoddard county, and at Chilletecaux in 
Dunklin county. They settled at other places 
in various counties of the district, and most 
of the Indians known to the later settlers in 
this territory belonged to these two tribes, 
or else to the Cherokees concerning whose 
history some facts are given later. These 
Delawares and Shawnees were nearly always 
peaceful and inoffensive in their relations 
with the white people. Many of them culti- 
vated little patches of corn or pumpkins, the 
work as was usual with Indians being virtu- 
ally done by the women. They hunted and 
trapped, selling their furs to the various 
traders, using the flesh of animals for their 

Many places through the lower counties of 
the district have names which perpetuate the 
memory of these Indians. Chilletecaux river 
in Dunklin county, Jim Ease's camp in New 
Madrid, and Seneca slough are a few of them. 
Along Apple creek, where were located the 
principal villages of the Indians, are many 
traces of their residence. 

The largest of the villages on this creek 
contained about four hundred inhabitants. 
The houses were built of logs and the open- 
ings were filled with mud. They were supe- 
rior in some ways to many of the tribes of the 

west. j\Iost of them were fine looking well- 
made men, fond of war and the chase. They 
possessed considerable skill in war, and made 
even the fierce Osages respect the prowess of 
their arms. For a long time the Shawnees 
cherished a bitter hatred for Americans. 

This village called Chillecathee, was situ- 
ated on Apple creek in Cape Girardeau 
county. It was the largest village in the en- 
tire section. More than five hundred Indians 
made their homes here for many years. They 
were principally Shawnees and Delawares. 
Among these Indians was the sister of the 
celebrated Chief Tecumseh. This Indian wo- 
man, who is said to have been very beautiful 
and possessed of a great fluency of speech 
and considerable eloquence, during a visit to 
an Indian camp at New Madrid, formed the 
acquaintance of a creole named Francois 
Maisonville. They became attached to one 
another and were married after the Indian 
marriage customs, "\^'^len Tecumseh heard of 
this he came to New Madrid and forced his 
sister to leave ]\Iaisonville and return to the 
village of Apple creek. However, within a 
few months, while Tecumseh was absent in 
the south attempting to form his great al- 
liance of the soutbern Indians, his sister re- 
turned to New Madrid and to her husband. 
There are living today, in New Madrid 
county, some of the descendants of Maison- 
ville and his Indian wife. She outlived her 
husband and seemed never to recover from 
her grief for the death of her brother, who 
was killed by Colonel Johnson in Indiana. 

Another one of these Indian villages was 
called Chilletecaux. It was situated on a 
branch of the St. Francois river not far from 
the present site of Kennett, and a third vil- 
lage was located near the present site of 
Point Pleasant in New IMadrid county. 



The usual relation of the Indians and the 
white people was one of friendship and good 
feeling, but some times circumstances arose 
which led to trouble. Just before the earth- 
quake of 1811 a war party of Creek Indians, 
under the leadership of a chief named Cap- 
tain George, crossed the Mississippi river four 
miles below Little Prairie. They were on the 
warpath and showed great hostility toward 
the whites. They planned the capture of 
Little Prairie and subsequently New Madrid. 
They were foiled in their efforts by the ac- 
tions of a Delaware Indian. He was a friend 
of the whites, and having discovered the in- 
tention of the Creeks reported their purpose 
to Francois Lasieur and Captain George 
Ruddell. each of whom commanded a com- 
pany of militia. The militia were ordered 
out and all preparations made to repel the 
attack of the Indians. It was just at this 
time, when the whites and Indians were con- 
fronting one another, that the first shock of 
the earthquake was felt. The Indians were so 
alarmed by this that they tied across the 
river, and were doubtless among those wlio 
were chastised by General Jackson. 

Lasieur in his writing on the early his- 
tory of New Madrid (Xew Madrid Record. 
1893) calls attention to the fact that the In- 
dians were armed with good rifles which they 
had secured at Kaskaskia. and that they 
never bought any lead. In fact all Indians of 
this district were accustomed to secure their 
supplies of lead from some place in the im- 
mediate vicinity. The Indians remaining in 
the town of Chilletecaux would depart in the 
morning and return in the evening with bas- 
kets full of lead ore. They went in the direc- 
tion of the St. Francois river. The source 
of their supplies of lead in this part of the 
district has never been discovered. One of 
these Indians named Chookalee. or Corn 

Meal, returned from the reservation to which 
the Indians had been removed, and in 18.37 
came to Point Pleasant. He had been in- 
duced to return by the La Sieurs and had 
promised to show them the site of the lead 
mine. Unfortunately he died on the very day 
of his arrival at Point Pleasant and the se- 
cret of his mine died with him. One of tlic 
famous chiefs of these Indians was Captain 
^loonshine whose son. Billy ^loonshine. ap- 
peared in the battle of Big River during the 
Civil war. 

The Indians of this district were seized 
during the close of the eighteenth century by 
a belief in witchcraft. This belief, which was 
widely distributed among them, led to the 
same results as the belief in witchcraft 
among the white people in Salem. ^lassachu- 
setts. Many persons among the Indians suf- 
fered arrest, persecution and even death, be- 
cause they were accused of being witches. 
The most trivial circumstance was liable to 
draw suspicion upon a person, and. once be- 
ing suspected, he was almost certain to be 
convicted and put to death. It is difficult to 
say how far this delusion would have carried 
the Indians and how many xnctims it would 
have required had it not been for the fortu- 
nate visit of Tecumseh who was at this time 
organizing the Indians for an assault upon 
the whites, and in the course of his journeys 
for this purpose came to Southeast Missouri. 
Tecumseh had no belief in witches, and he 
was unwilling to see the lives of his people 
sacrificed to this delusion. He needed the 
energies of the Indians to assist him in his 
purpose. Such was his influence and power 
that he brought about the cessation of the 
punishment of those accu-sed of witchcraft. 

Outside of the Osages. the most trouble- 
some Indians to the people of Southeast 



Missouri were, very probably, the members 
of a band of Creeks. De Lassus, in a let- 
ter to Major Stoddard at the time of the 
transfer of Upper Louisiana to the United 
States, says that these Creek Indians had 
been expelled from their tribes on account of 
crimes and that they had spent about ten 
years wandering up and down on both sides 
of the Mississippi river, covering the terri- 
tory from New j\ladrid to the Jlaramec and 
constantly slaying, killing, and burning 
houses. De Lassus calls them the Mashcoux 
Indians. It was some of this band that killed 
David Trotter and burned his house. 

After the punishment of the Indians for 
the killing of Trotter, and some representa- 
tions made by De Lassus to their chief, the 
band seems to have given up the larger part 
of their depredations and no donger to have 
troubled the inhabitants. 

In 1808 the government made a treaty with 
the Osages, by which it was agreed that the 
boundary between them and the United 
States should begin at Fort Osage on the 
Mississippi river, run due south to the Ar- 
kansas river and down the Arkansas to the 
Mississippi. All the land east of this line 
was to pass from the Indians to the govern- 
ment of the United States. They also ceded 
to the government their lands north of the 
Mississippi river and two square leagues west 
of this line, to contain Fort Osage. This 
treaty left to the Osages only the western 
part of the territory now embraced in Mis- 
souri. In 1825 the Osages made another 
treaty by which they gave up their rights to 
all the lands in IMissouri. 

In 1793 Spain, by action of Baron Ca- 
rondelet, granted to the Shawnees and Dela- 
wares a tract of land situated between the 
Cinque Homme and Cape Girardeau. This 

tract extended as far uest as White river. 
This territory was claimed by the Osage In- 
dians and was relinquished by them in their 
treaty of 1808. The government of the 
United States, however, did not press this 
claim to this particular tract, for one of the 
clauses in the treaty by which Louisiana was 
ceded to the United States bound this coun- 
try to the fulfilment of all treaties and agree- 
ments between Spain or France and the In- 
dian tribes. In 1815 there began a move- 
ment of the Shawnees and Delawares to the 
west. They seemed to have been promised 
other lands in consideration of their removal. 
Some of them went to Castor and St. Fran- 
cois rivers; some of them settled on White 
river not far from Springfield. In 1825 a 
treaty was made with the Shawnees by which 
they exchanged their Spanish grants in the 
Cape Girardeau district for a tract of fifty 
square miles west of IMissouri. They removed 
to these lands in what is now the Indian ter- 
ritory. In 1829 the Delawares gave up their 
title to the Cape Girardeau lands and moved 
further west. In 1832 the allied Delawares 
and Shawnees made a treaty by which they 
relinquished the very last of their lands and 
improvements in Southeast Missouri. This 
act extinguished the last title held by the 
Indians to the territory of Slissouri. 

Wliile the Indians' lands were all trans- 
ferred by this date (1832), not all the In- 
dians themselves disappeared from this sec- 
tion of the state at that time. There are 
many persons now living who well remember 
when there were scattered bands of the In- 
dians in Southeast Missouri. One of the last 
of these bands was that at the village of Chil- 
letecaux, near Kennett. They remained here 
until game practically disappeared and it 
became impossible for them longer to live by 
hunting. Some of them died, and the sur- 



vivors moved away, a few at a time, to the 
west. Most of them went to the ludian ter- 

Some effort was made to educate the In- 
dians, even in the early time. Rev. John 
Picklin, a Baptist preacher of Kentucky, was 
sent by the Kentuckj- Mission Society to Mis- 
souri to secure some of the children in order 
to establish an Indian school in Scott county, 
Kentucky. He had an interview with the 
chief of a band of Shawnees and Delawares 
on the Maramec river. This chief was named 
Rogers. He was a white man, but had been 
taken prisoner by the Indians in boyhood and 
had been so trained by them that he was 
practically an ludian himself. He had mar- 
ried a young woman, a daughter of the chief, 
and because of his influence and talents had 
succeeded to the office. The Indians, under 
instructions of Captain Rogers, cultivated 
farms and opened a school in the village, 
which was attended by the children of the 
American settlers and of the Indians. These 
children studied their books in school hours 
and then engaged in shooting with a bow and 
arrow and other ludian pastimes, at inter- 
mission. One of the white children who be- 
gan his early education in this mixed school 
was Rev. Louis Williams, who afterwards be- 
came a distinguished minister. 

About the time of the cession Captain 
Rogers and his band had removed to Big 
Spring, at the head of the Maramec river. 
They intended to reside in this place, but the 
country was not suited to them and many of 
them died. They attributed these deaths to 
the influence of the evil spirit and moved 
away, settling in Franklin county, not far 
south of Union. The sons of Captain Rogers 
and Captain Pish, who succeeded him as 

chief, discussed with Reverend Ficklin the 
question of sending some of their children to 
Kentucky. Louis Rogers, a son of Captain 
Rogers, who could already read and write, 
offered to go to Kentucky, provided he were 
permitted to take his family with him. This 
was assented to, and some of the Indians went 
to Kentucky to this school. Peck ("Life of 
Peck," p. Ill) says that this band of In- 
dians w'ere very thrifty farmers and brought 
the best cattle to the St. Louis market that 
the butchers received. 

The Indian has now disappeared from 
Southeast Missouri. He no longer pursues 
the hunt through the forests, or causes the 
settler to tremble at the sound of the war- 
hoop. His wigwam, his lodge of poles and 
mats, his implements of wai'fare, his tools 
and utensils no longer exist, or are found 
only in museums and collections of relics. 
The very mounds he reared as places for the 
burial of his dead, as sites for home or tem- 
ple, are no longer sacred to the purposes for 
which he dedicated them, but are desecrated 
by the spade of the explorer and relic hunter, 
and his very erection of them is denied. 

Most of those now living within the bor- 
ders of the state never saw an Indian in his 
native haunts, and cannot reconstruct the 
life of the time when he formed an impor- 
tant part in the making of the history of the 
country. And yet we cannot give more than 
mere casual attention to the story of the de- 
velopment of Southeast Missouri, without 
discovering that the Indian once played a 
great part here. He has left ineffaceable 
traces of his life, and no one can ever hope to 
come to a complete understanding of our his- 
tory without a study of Indian life and char- 


Under France and Spain 



The Name Louisiana — The Illinois — The French and Spanish Districts With Their 
Limits — The Appearance and Character op the Country — Ste. Genevieve — Probable 
Date of First Settlement — "The Old Village of Ste. Genevieve" — Original Set- 

Troubles — Life of the French Pioneers — Population — Pittman's Account — Visit op 
Paul Allioy — As Peck savt the Tovpn — Impressions of Flag — Ferdinand Rozier — 
John James Audubon — John Smith T. — Henry Dodge — John Rice Jones — New Bour- 
bon — New Tennessee — Table of Settlements — First Settlers in Iron County — The 
Cook and ]\Iurphy Settlements — St. Michael's — Old Mines — First Settlers in Jef- 
ferson County — Perry County Settlements — Long's Account. 

La Salle applied to the territory along the 
Mississippi the name Louisiana. It was early 
divided by the French into two parts, Upper 
Louisiana which was north of the Arkansas 
river and Lower Louisiana which was south 
of the Arkansas. It should be said here 
that the whole territory on both sides of the 
river north of the Ohio was frequently 
called the country of the Illinois, and so va- 
rious settlements and rivers were spoken of 
as being in the Illinois. They applied differ- 
ent names, also, to the rivers of the district. 
They called the ]\Iississippi the river St. 
Louis, the Missouri they named the St. 
Philip, and the "Wabash was called the St. 

Upper Louisiana was divided into five dis- 
tricts: first, the district of St. Louis between 
the Missouri and the Maramec ; second the 
district of Ste. Genevieve between the Mara- 
mec and Apple Creek; third the district of 
Cape Girardeau extending from Apple Creek 

to Tywappity bottom; fourth the district of 
New Madrid which reached south to the Ar- 
kansas river; and fifth the district of St. 
Charles which lay north of the Missouri 
i-iver. All of these districts fronted on the 
Mississippi and extended an unknown dis- 
tance to the west. 

This country of Upper Louisiana, at the 
time the French began their settlements, 
was one of wonderful beauty and attractive- 
ness. All explorers and travelers who visited 
it were enraptured with the country and the 
prospects of its development. Its hills and 
forests, its streams and springs were all of 
unusual beauty. The openness of the woods, 
the comparative absence of undergrowth 
made the woods both attractive and easy to 
travel through. The alluvial plains not yet 
changed by the earthquakes with their wide 
stretches of level woodland, with their great 
trees, were esteemed by many of the early 
travelers as the choicest part of all Upper 




Louisiana. The country possessed many at- 
tractions for the French and especially for 
the French Canadians. The climate was 
milder than that of Canada, the rivers were 
open during the most of the year, and the 
forests abounded with game. Buffalo, deer, 
and turkeys were the most important of 
these. The streams were full of fish and the 

tracted by all of these opportunities for ac- 
quiring wealth, planted settlements. The 
earliest of these were grouped about the 
mines. They were transient in nature. The 
first permanent settlement was made at Ste. 

It is not possible to fix the exact date of 
the first settlement of Ste. Genevieve. Our 

First Brick House Built West of the Mississippi 
(Used as a Court House in 1785) 

whole country swarmed in season with almost 
incredible flocks of geese, ducks, swans, and 
wild pigeons. It was a hunter's paradise, 
and to it were attracted many men because of 
the abundance of wild game. But there were 
other more solid attractions for the settlers. 
The district of Ste. Genevieve was exceed- 
ingly rich in minerals ; that of New Madrid 
in fine soil and timber. 

Within Upper Louisiana the French, at- 

records are not sufficient for us to determine 
the precise year in which it was founded. 
But while this is impossible we are able to 
carry the history of the town back to a date 
previous to that of any other settlement in 
the state, so that it is evident that here was 
made the first settlement of white men within 
the limits of Missouri. Not only is this true, 
but it was, in fact, the first French settle- 
ment west of the river and one of the first in 



the valley of the Mississippi. Kaskaskia, 
Vinceniies, and a few others are older, but 
only a few of them. Before there was a set- 
tlement at St. Louis, or St. Charles, or Cape 
Girardeau, or New Madrid, Ste. Genevieve 
was a thriving and prosperous village. 

The original town was not located on the 
present site of Ste. Genevieve, but in the 
great common field about three miles south 
of the present town. This old town was 
called "le vieux village de Ste. Genevieve" — 
the old village of Ste. Genevieve. The site on 
which it stood has been swept away by the 
river. This old site was abandoned in 1785 
owing to an unprecedented rise in the river 
which overflowed the entire town. So great 
was the flood and so vivid the impression it 
made on the people that this year was ever 
afterward known as the year of the great 
flood. By 1791 the removal to the new site 
was completed and the place where the old 
village had stood was gradually washed a%vay 
by the river. 

It is a matter of regret that we cannot fix 
the precise time when the first settlement 
here was begun. This, as has been stated, is 
not possible. Several considerations, how- 
ever, enable us to fix the approximate date. 

In the year 1881 there was discovered an 
old well on the bank of the river in the Big 
Field of Ste. Genevieve. The river had eaten 
away the earth from about the well until it 
stood up like a stone chimney. On a stone 
in the top of this well was the date 1732. A 
part of the stone containing the date was 
chipped off by Leon Jokerst, who discovered 
the old well, and preserved by him. The re- 
mainder of the old well was swept away by 
the currents of the river. This old well evi- 
dently belonged to some house in the out- 
skirts of the old town, and the date is very 
probably the year in which the well was con- 

structed. If this is the case then the first 
settlement was made sometime prior to 1732.* 
There is still to be seen in the office of the 
recorder of deeds an affidavit made in 1825, 
by Julien Labriere, in which he deposes that 
he is fifty-six years of age, that he was born 
in the old village of Ste. Genevieve, that he 
remembered to have seen as a small child 
the first settler in the village, one Baptists 
La Rose, then very old. The affidavit sets 
out also the recollections of Labriere concern- 
ing the removal to the new site. 

Pittman who visited Ste. Genevieve in 
1765 says that the first settlers came to Ste. 
Genevieve about twenty-eight years ago from 
Cascasquias attracted by the goodness of the 
soil and the plentiful harvests.! 

Mrs. ilenard of Ste. Genevieve as late as 
1881 had in her possession what was perhaps 
the oldest legal document relating to the 
town. It was an account of the sale of a 
house and lot belonging to the estate of Lau- 
rent Gabouri. Jean Baptiste St. Gem was the 
purchaser. The property is described as lo- 
cated in the village of Ste. Genevieve which 
must have been an established village at the 
time of the transfer. The bill of sale is 
dated in December, 1754. The terms used in 
describing the property leave no doubt that 
the settlement was an old and well estab- 
lished one at that remote date and had been 
in existence for many years.J 

In the collection known as the Guibour 
Papers now in the Missouri Historical So- 
ciety files are to be seen copies of petitions to 
the commandants of the district for land. 
In one of these Francois Rivard asks for a 
grant of land, which from the terms of the 
petition, must have been located near the vil- 

*" History of Southeast Jlissouri," p. 241. 

t " Mississippi Settlements," p. 95. 

t Houek, ' ' History of Missouri, ' ' Vol. I, p. ?39. 


lage for the petitioner promises to set aside a 
certain part of it for a church. The grant 
was made as requested and is dated 1752. 
It appears' that at this time one Chaponga 
cultivated a part of what is now the Big Field 
of Ste. Gene\ieve. In the same year one 
Geneaux prays for a grant of land along the 
Saline Creek adjoining the land of one Dor- 
lac who must have been in the Big Field also. 
A fort named Fort Joachim was located in 
the old village during the year 1759. A ref- 
erence to this old fort is to be found in the 
register of the Catholic church of Ste. Gene- 
vieve. Numerous other references to old 
events are found scattered through church 
records, in court pi-oceedings and the letters 
and books of private persons. None of them 
give an exact date for the founding of the 
town, but all of them indicate that it was 
settled early in the eighteenth century. 

The original settlers of the old village of 
Ste. Genevieve were Francisco Valle, Jean 
Baptiste Valle, Joseph Loisel, Jean Baptiste 
Maurice, Francois Maurice, Francois Cole- 
man, Jaques Boyer, Henri i\Iaurice, Parfait 
Dufour, Joseph Bequette, Jean Baptiste Tho- 
mure, Joseph Govreau, Louis Boldue, Jean 
Baptiste St. Gem, Laurent Gabouri, Jean 
Beauvais, B. N. Janis and J. B. T. Pratte. 

Of these settlers the Valle family were very 
prominent, Francois Valle, Sr., and his sons 
Francois, Jr., and Jean Baptiste were all 
commandants of the post at various times. 
Francois, Jr., lived for many years in a large 
one story frame building on South Gabouri 
Creek. This house is still standing and is a 
typical French residence of that time. It is 
low but has large porches making it comfort- 
able. The wife of Francois Valle was Louise 
Carpentier whom he married in 1777. They 

reared a number of children. One of the 
daughters of the family married Robert T. 
Brown of Perry county, another married Dr. 
Walter Fenwick who was afterward killed 
in a duel, a third daughter became the wife 
of Joseph Pratte, and the fourth married 
Captain Wilkinson. Francois Valle, Jr., died 
March 6, 1804, and was buried under his 
pew in the old Catholic church. 

Jean Baptiste Valle, the brother of Fran- 
cois, Jr., married Jane Barbau. He was a 
prosperous merchant and lived in Ste. Ge- 
nevieve for a number of years. Another of 
the sons of Francois Valle, Sr., was named 
Charles. He married Pelagie Carpentier in 
1769, and Marie Louise Valle the only daugh- 
ter of Francois Valle, Sr., was married to 
Francois LeClerc in 1776. 

Another of the influential families of the 
old village was the St. Gems, or as they are 
frequently known St. Gem Beauvais a short- 
ening of St. Gem de Beauvais. Some mem- 
bers of the family finally discontinued the 
use of St. Gem in their name and became 
known as Beauvais. The founder of the fam- 
ily in this country was Jean Baptiste, who 
came to Kaskaskia about 1720 and was mar- 
ried in 1725 to Louise LaCrois at Fort 
Chartres. Their family consisted of five sons 
and two daughters. Two of the sons, Jean 
Baptiste, Jr., and Vital St. Gem, or as he 
was often called, Vital Beauvais, removed 
from Kaskaskia when that place was cap- 
tured by Clark, to Ste. Genevieve. The 
former of the two brothers built what was 
perhaps the first grist mill west of the Missis- 
sippi. The house in which he lived for many 
years is still standing in Ste. Genevieve. He 
was an office holder for a number of years be- 
ing one of the first judges of the Court of 
Common Pleas and Quarter Sessions remain- 



ing in office until his death. He was the 
father of six sons, Raphael, Joseph M. D., 
Bartholomew, Vital, John B. and August. 

Vital St. Gem, the brother of Jean Bap- 
tiste, lived for a time at the Saline but came 
to Ste. Genevieve in 1791, the house in which 
he lived until his death was afterward oc- 
cupied by Mrs. Menard and is still standing. 
He died in 1816. 

John B. Pratte, who came to Ste. Ge- 
nevieve about 1754, was one of the most suc- 
cessful merchants iu the early history of the 
town. He held a number of local offices 
among them the chairmanship of the Board 
of Trustees of the town. His sons were Ber- 
nard, Joseph, Antoiue, Bileron and Henry. 
The Pratte family now prominent in Ste. 
Genevieve county are descendents of John 
B. Pratte. 

The Janis family, manj' of whose descend- 
ants are still to be found in Ste. Genevieve, 
came to the district very early in its historj\ 
The founder of the family was Nicholas 
* Janis, who lived for a time in Kaskaskia. 
His sons ■were Francois, Antoine and Bap- 
tiste, his daughters were Felicite, who mar- 
ried Vital St. Gem; Catherine, who married 
Stephen Bolduc, and Franeoise w-ho became 
Madam Durocher. 

The population of Ste. Genevieve in- 
creased very rapidly after the delivery of the 
territory east of the river from France to 
England. The French of Kaskaskia, Fort 
Chartres, Prairie du Rocher and Cahokia, 
unwilling to live under the government of 
England removed in large numbers across 
the river to St. Louis and Ste. Genevieve. 
This was from the years 1765 to 1769. Of 
course at this time the territory of Upper 
Louisiana had been transferred to Spain, 
but this change was not known to the French 
in this country, and accordingly they be- 

lieved they were moving back under the flag 
of France. The first legal proceedings at 
Ste. Genevieve were had on the 19th day of 
May, 1766. In that year Rocheblave was 
Commandant, and M. Robinet was the notary 
and greffier. They were both officers of 
France and held office until November 22, 
1769, when they gave way to the officers of 
Spain. This first legal proceeding was the 
drawing up of a marriage contract between 
Pierre Roy and Jeauette Lalond. 

The court records and the official corre- 
spondence of the French and Spanish officials 
both at St. Louis and at New Orleans contain 
abundant evidence that Ste. Genevieve was a 
prosperous and flourishing village during 
the latter half of the eighteenth century. In 
1769 Rui in a report to Governor O'Rielly 
says that the town contains fifty-five or sixty 
citizens, and Piemas in the same year says 
the population is about 600. Other state- 
ments made from time to time to the various 
Spanish Governors indicate that the town 
grew- steadily, especially after its removal to 
its present site. 

Among early officials was Phillip Roche- 
blave, who had been commandant at Kaskas- 
kia at the time that post was taken by the 
Americans under George Rogers Clark, and 
after a somewhat adventurous life had made 
his way to St. Louis ; he was there appointed 
commandant both civil and military of the 
post of Ste. Genevieve. He was succeeded 
by Francois Valle a member of one of the 
oldest and most influential families of Ste. 
Genevieve. Valle was succeeded by Fran- 
cisco Cartabona de Oro, and he by Henri 
Peyroux De La Coudeniere. In 1796 Fran- 
cois Valle, Jr., became commandant with 
both civil and military authority. He was 
succeeded by his brother Jean Baptiste who 
held the post until the transfer to the United 



States and was continued in olBce by Gover- 
nor William Henry Harrison. This Jean 
Baptiste was one of the most interesting char- 
acters in the early historj' of the town. He 
lived to a very great age and his descendants 
still occupy the old homestead in Ste. Gene- 

The early settlers in Ste. Genevieve, while 
the town occupied the old site in the big field 
and which has long since been swept away by 
the river, were engaged principally in the 
cultivation of the soil of that big field. They 
had been attracted there largely by the rich- 
ness of that soil, and in part by the oppor- 
tunities for trade with the Indians, and in 
part also because of the nearness to the new 
mines then being opened up by Renault 
and his agents. These mines were situ- 
ated on the Maramec river in what is now 
Washington county and at Mine La Motte. 
The lead produced by these mines was car- 
ried on horseback to Ste. Genevieve for 
transportation either down the river to New 
Orleans or else up the river to the Spanish 
post at St. Louis, which was then called Pain- 
court. Owing to the peculiar manner by 
which the pigs of lead were carried to Sto. 
Genevieve they were not east in the usual 
shape but were moulded into a form resem- 
bling the collar of a horse and were then hung 
on the neck of the horse for transport. One 
of these peculiar pigs of lead was found 
some years ago by the side of the old road 
leading from the mines on the Maramec to 
Ste. Genevieve. It seems that some of the in- 
habitants of the town were engaged in min- 
ing and in the transportation of the lead. 
Others of them were early engaged in mill- 
ing. They shipped flour and meal by way of 
the river to all the posts about them and as 
far south as New Orleans. In 1771 Matthew 

Kennedy, a merchant at Ste. Genevieve, 
shipped 1200 pounds of flour to a post on the 
Arkansas River. This shows that the trade 
of Ste. Genevieve, even at that early date, 
was extensive. It is a remarkable fact that 
the merchants and traders at St. Louis were 
accustomed to purchase a considerable part 
of their supplies in Ste. Genevieve. 

In common with other settlers in Southeast 
Missouri, the people of Ste. Genevieve were 
much troubled by the Osage Indians. These 
Indians, whose principal camp was on the 
Osage river, extended their hunting and 
plundering operations over all the section, 
and were exceedingl.y troublesome. They 
were great thieves, being especially fond of 
horse stealing. They were accustomed to 
make raids upon the exposed farms and even 
upon houses in the outskirts of the village, to 
seize the horses and other property which at- 
tracted their attention and to carry it away. 
If resisted they frequently murdered the 
owner and burned his house. To assist in 
protecting themselves against these unpleas- 
ant raids the people of Ste. Genevieve pro- 
cured the settlement of the old band of Pe- 
orias. These Indians from Illinois lived for 
many years in the vicinity of the town and 
took part in the resistance to the raids of the 
Osage Indians. They of course incurred the 
deadly hatred of the fierce and savage Osages 
and lived themselves in constant fear of them. 
They were afraid to venture on hunting ex- 
peditions which took them away from the 
immediate vicinity of the town and bewailed 
the fact that they were compelled to live like 
women on fish and the produce of the soil 
instead of living the life of men and warriors. 
The French, so long as they remained in con- 
trol of the territory treated the outbreaks 
and outrages of the Osages with a great deal 
of leniency, but the Spanish on taking over 



the territory dealt with a firm hand with 
these matters and so we find that Baron 
Caroudelet while in command in St. Louis 
organized the inhabitants of the various posts 
throughout his territory into companies of 
militia for the purpose of resisting and chas- 
tising the Indians. One of these companies 
was organized at Ste. Genevieve and we find 
records of its actual participation in the In- 
dian troubles. On one occasion induced by 
a particularly flagrant outrage committed 
near New Madrid, all the companies of 
Southeast Missouri assembled for the pur- 
pose of inflicting punishment on the authors 
of the outrage and we find the little army 
composed of companies from St. Louis, Ste. 
Genevieve, Cape Girardeau and New iladrid 
assembling at Cape Girardeau and making 
its way to the south where the murderers 
were apprehended and summarily dealt with. 
Life in Ste. Genevieve in these early years 
was not very difi'erent from pioneer life in 
other parts of the country. It was at first a 
typical French village. Some of the inhabit- 
ants were members of the old French fam- 
ilies, but the greater part of them were of the 
peasant class. They were so shut oft" from the 
world, in the midst of a vast continent their 
nearest neighbors being sixty-five miles 
away at the little village of St. Louis, that 
they were • dependent, almost entirely, upon 
themselves. News reached them from Europe 
only after the long voyage across the Atlan- 
tic and the almost equally as long and tedi- 
ous voyage up the i\Iississippi, and so cut 
off from the world in an isolation difficult 
for us to comprehend, there developed the 
characteristic life of the frontier. The people 
were happy and industrious. They were re- 
ligious by nature and provided liberally for 
the church. Their priests were held in hipli 
esteem and religion entered into all the af- 

fairs of their daily lives. They lived the free 
open life of a new country. They tilled the 
soil or voyaged on the river, they hunted or 
trapped in the great woods, or traded with 
the Indians, and somehow from it all they 
managed not only to live in considerable 
comfort, but to accumulate property. We 
find that Lambert La Fleur, who died in 
1771, left an estate of about .$14,000.00, all 
of which had been accumulated while a resi- 
dent in Ste. Genevieve. But their industries 
and even their religion did not form all, or 
perhaps even the greatest part, of the life of 
the people of Ste. Genevieve. Being French 
they were fond of pleasure and amusement 
and they found both, even in the midst of the 
life in a frontier town. Their games, their 
social meetings, their dancing, their jests 
amused some of the courtly travelers who 
visited them direct from the King's court at 
Paris. They, no doubt, found all these things 
crude and even disagreeable to cultivated aiid 
refined tastes. Some of these travelers who 
were received by Ste. Genevieve with open- 
hearted hospitality were rude enough to for- 
get the duties of a guest and to write of tlieir 
entertainment in a most sarcastic and cutting 
way. In spite of this, however, the people of 
the town found in their simple amusemeut 
and pleasure that relaxation from toil and 
care which is necessary to a healthy and sane 

The first legal proceedings under Com- 
mandant Rocheblave were had on the 19th 
of May, 1766, it was the drawing up of a 
marriage contract between Pierre Roy and 
Jeanette Lalond. After that there was a rec- 
ord of the sale of land, the first sale of land 
was made by Pierre Aritfone to Henri Car- 
pentier, another land sale was by Joseph Le- 
Don to Le Febre du Couquette. In the same 
year there is a record of the sale of salt 



works on the Saline river with ten negroes 
and a lot of cattle by John LaGrange to one 
Blowin. In the year 1767 an appeal was 
prosecuted from the decision of the Comman- 
dant to the Cabildo at New Orleans. 

One of the peculiar customs of old Ste. 
Genevieve was that of bringing all persons 
charged with crime to church on Sunday 
and exhibiting them before the congregation 
after the service in order that they might be 
known and recognized by the whole com- 

The first baptism in the old village of Ste. 
Genevieve was performed by a Jesuit Mis- 
sionary named P. M. Watrin, February 24, 
1760; the first religious marriage was cele- 
brated on October 30, 1764, by Father J. L. 
Meurin the parties were Mark Canada and 
Susan Henn, both of these persons had lived 
among the Indians, the woman for five years 
as a prisoner. This marriage was witnessed 
by Jean Ganion and T. Tebriege. 

The great common field south of Ste. Gene- 
vieve was the most valuable possession of the 
inhabitants, this land was fenced at the ex- 
pense of the entire town and at the beginning 
of each year a portion of the field was as- 
signed to each resident who was expected to 
cultivate this and keep the fence in repair 
near his part of the field. If any one aban- 
doned his land it was sold at a public sale 
at the church door. Plowing was done with 
a wooden plow and horses were seldom used 
but generally oxen were attached to the plow. 
Horses were used for pulling the charrette or 
cart ; this cart had no iron fastenings or iron 
tires, the wheels were usually made of sea- 
soned white oak with the hub of gum. From 
one to three horses were driven to the cart; 
when more than one horse was used they 
were driven tandem, the traces being of 
twisted rawhide. This cart was used for all 

kinds of work as Avell as for family use ; when 
women traveled in them they were seated in 
chairs that were tied to the rail of the cart.* 

Ste. Genevieve had a population of 945 in 
the year 1799 and 1,300 in 1804, one-third of 
the population were slaves. The trade was 
fairly large in early times, principal things 
bought and sold were lead and furs. The 
commercial men of Ste. Genevieve during the 
period from 1804 to 1820 were remarkably ac- 
tive and successful in their business pursuits. 
Ferdinand Rozier was one of the early mer- 
chants and was very successful in business; 
Louis Bolduc was another merchant who be- 
came very wealthy. It is said that at one 
time an American named Madden, who was 
also rich, ofi'ered to wager that he had more 
money than Bolduc; the latter, however, re- 
torted by asking Madden to bring a half 
bushel measure in order to measure the sil- 
ver money in Bolduc 's cellar. Another 
wealthy trading firm was Menard & Valle. 
This firm was established in 1817, the year 
that the first steamboat made its way up the 
IMississippi river. Pierre I\Ienard, one of the 
partners of this firm, was the Indian agent 
and controlled a great amount of trade 
throughout the west. 

Pittman, who visited Ste. Genevieve in 
1769 says that the town was settled 28 years 
previously by persons from Kaskaskia at- 
tracted by the goodness of the soil and the 
plentiful harvest and describes the situation 
of the village as very convenient, being within 
one league of the salt spring, which was for 
the general use of the French subjects. There 
were a number of works at the spring and 
large quantities of salt were made for the 
Indian hunters and other settlers. He says 
also that a lead mine which supplied the 
* Eozier, ' ' History of Mississippi Valley, ' ' p. 123. 



Louis Boulduc's House, Ste. Genevieve 

Louis Guibourd's House, Ste. Genevieve 



whole country with shot was about 15 leagues 
distant. He further sa.ys : "The village of 
St. Louis is supplied with salt and other pro- 
visions from here. An officer appointed by 
the French Commandant as the entire regu- 
lation of the police here, is a company of 
militia commanded by a ]Mons. Vallet, who 
resides at this place and is the richest in- 
habitant of the country of the Illinois; he 
raises great quantities of corn and provisions 
of every kind, he has a hundred negroes be- 
sides hired white people constantly employed. 
The village is about one mile in length and 
contains about seventy families. Here is a 
very fine water mill for corn and plants be- 
longing to Mons. Vallet."* 

It is possible that the Vallet mentioned 
was a member of the family afterwards 
known as Valle. 

In 1803 Paul Alliot visited Ste. Genevieve 
and says of it: "It is inhabited by twelve 
hundred people who are especially engaged 
in the cultivation of wheat and in the chase ; 
they own lead mines from which they derive 
great profits. In their forests they find 
bears prodigiously fat and large, the oil from 
which is much sought after by the inhabi- 
tants, even by those of New Orleans. They 
raise good vegetables and make excellent but- 
ter and cheese. That city is large enough 
and rich enough to support a priest, yet it 
does not have any and the people are dying. 
They are governed by a Commandant who 
always terminates in a friendly manner the 
quarrels which arise among them.f 

Peck, who visited the place in 1819, gives 
the following account of the place. 

Ste. Genevieve is the oldest French Villaare 
in jMissouri. Wlien Laclede and the Chouteaus 

* Pittman, " Jlississippi Settlements," p. 96. 
+ Eobertson, "Louisiana," Vol. I, p. 103. 

came from New Orleans to establish a trad- 
ing-post at St. Louis, in 1763, they stopped 
at Ste. Genevieve, which contained about 
twelve or fifteen families, in as many small 
cabins, but finding no warehouse or other 
building in which they could store their 
goods, they went on to Fort Chartres and 
wintered. We date the commencement of 
Ste. Genevieve as a village from the period of 
the erection of Fort Chartres, the second, 
about 1756. Verj' probably there were pre- 
vious to this, as there were in the lead- 
mining districts, what are called in patois 
French, cabanes, a term expressing the idea 
of "shanties," a cluster of shelters for tem- 
porary purposes. Such cabanes were in the 
lead-mining district when Philip Francis 
Renault had his exploring parties out at va- 
rious points in the upper valley of the Mis- 
sissippi. And, by the Avay, I find no evidence 
that lead-mining was followed in the mining 
country after Renault, disappointed, and a, 
"broken merchant," quit the business about 
1740, until the possession of Illinois by the 
British about twenty-five years thereafter. 
Many of the French inhabitants who held 
slaves left the Illinois eountrj- ; some went to 
the newly established town of St. Louis; 
others to Lower Loiiisiana. Many families 
also went to the lead mines in Missouri, 
while others stopped at Ste. Genevieve and 
New Bourbon with their servants. This gave 
an impulse to the former town, which before 
1770 became the depot and shipping-port for 
the lead business. The French at St. Louis, 
as a nom-de-nique, called Ste. Genevieve 
Misere, as they did Cardondelet, Vide Poche ; 
and in their turn received the nick-name of 
Pain Coui-t, to indicate they were short of 

The old town of which I am writing was 
near the Mississippi, and about one mile be- 



low the ferry and landing. From this point, 
where the rock forms a landing, for seven 
miles down the river, was an extensive tract 
of alluvial bottom about three miles in width. 
On this rich alluvial the French of Ste. 
Genevieve and New Bourbon made one of 
the largest "common fields" to be found 
along the Upper Mississippi. It contained 
within the common enclosure from three 
thousand to four thousand acres. The re- 
peated inundations of high water, and es- 
pecially the great flood of 1784, drove the in- 
habitants to the high ground in the rear, 
where they built the old residences of the new 
town, or the existing Ste. Genevieve. Each 
successive flood tore away the rich bottom 
along the river, until that of 1844 about 
"used up" the great common field of the vil- 
lage. No passenger in passing up or down 
the great expansive bend of the river would 
hardly realize that the largest steamers now 
float in a channel that is more than two miles 
from the ilississippi river as it ran in 1780.* 
When Flagg visited the Ste. Genevieve dis- 
trict in 1836, he says that the town then con- 
tained about eight hundred inhabitants 
though its population was once said to have 
exceeded two thousand. Among the persons 
■whom he met at that time was Jean Baptiste 
Valle who w'as one of the chief proprietors 
of Mine La Motte, and though at that time 
more than ninety years of age, was almost 
as active as when he was fifty. Flagg gave 
this description of Ste. Genevieve at that 
time : ' ' Ste. Genevieve is situated about one 
mile from the Mississippi, upon a broad allu- 
vial plain lying between branches of a small 
stream called the Gabourie; beyond the first 
botton rises a second stepped and behind this 
is a third attaining an elevation of more than 
one hundred feet from the water edge. Upon 
•"Life of Peck," p. 7S. 

this elevation was erected some twenty years 
since a handsome structure of stone com- 
manding a noble prospect of the river, the 
broad American bottom on the opposite side 
and the bluffs beyond Kaskaskia. It was in- 
tended for a literary structure but owing to 
unfavorable reports with regard to the health 
of its situation, the design was abandoned 
and the structure was never completed, 
is now in a state of ruins and enjoys the 
reputation, however, of being haunted, in 
very sooth its aspect viewed from the river 
at twilight, with its broken windows out- 
lined against the western sky is wild enough 
to warrant such an idea or any other. The 
court house and Catholic chapel constitute 
the public buildings. To the south of the 
village and looking upon the river is situated 
the common field originally comprising two 
thousand arpents, but it is now much less 
in extent and is yearly diminishing from 
the action of the current upon the alluvial 
banks. These common fields were granted 
by the Spanish government as well as the 
French to every village started under their 
domination. A single enclosure at the expense 
of the villagers, was erected and kept in re- 
pair; the lot of every individual was separ- 
ated from his neighbors by double furrow. 
Near this field the village was formerly lo- 
cated but in the inundation of 1785, called 
by the habitants, L'annee des grandes eaux, 
when so much of the bank was washed away 
that the settlers were forced to secure a more 
elevated site. The Mississippi was at this 
time swelled thirty feet above the highest 
water mark before known and the town of 
Kaskaskia and the whole American bottom 
was inundated, "t 

Flagg says that at the time he visited, in 
1836, the immense caves of pure white sand, 

t Flagg 's ' ' Far West, ' ' p. 95. 



at not a great distance from Ste. Genevieve, 
were being opened and quantities of sand 
sent to Pittsburg for the manufacture of 
flint glass. He speaks also of a number of 
beautiful fountains in the neighborhood, one 
of them of surpassing loveliness. 

Flagg also comments on the shot factories 
at Herculaneum and speaks with very great 
delight of the great rocks above Herculaneum 
called "Cornice" rocks. 

One of the prominent citizens of Ste. Gene- 
vieve was Ferdinand Rozier. He was born in 
the city of Nantes, France. He had been in 
the French navy and came to America, set- 
tling first in Philadelphia, afterward in Ken- 
tucky, and finally removing to Ste. Gene- 
vieve in 1812. Rozier engaged in trade im- 
mediately upon his arrival, and continued in 
business to the end of his life. He was a 
man of enterprise and ability and had branch 
stores at Perryville and Potosi. Many of the 
goods bought and sold in those days came 
from the East and in the course of his trade 
Rozier made six trips between Ste. Genevieve 
and Philadelphia on horseback. A single 
trip of this kind at the present date would 
be considered a very great undertaking, to 
say nothing of six of them. Rozier left a 
large family, many of whose members have 
been, and are still, prominent in Missouri. 

Associated with Rozier, for a number of 
years, was the famous naturalist, John James 
Audubon. Like the family of Rozier, his 
family lived in Nantes; the naturalist was 
born, however, in Louisiana, where the fam- 
ily resided for a short time. When John 
James Audubon was but a child, the family 
returned to Prance, and he was educated in 
the French schools. One of his teachers was 
the famous painter, David. Audubon and 
Rozier entered the navy together during the 

French Revolution. They served in the navy 
for only a short time and finally decided to 
emigrate to America. They first lived in 
Pennsylvania, then in Kentucky, visiting in 
Springfield and Louisville, and spending in 
this state the time from 1807 to 1810. In 
1810 they purchased a keel-boat, loaded it 
with provisions and whiskey and voyaged in 
it to Ste. Genevieve. Audubon's account of 
this voyage up the Mississippi river is a very 
interesting one. He pictures the scenes on 
the river and the slow progress of the keel- 
boat in a very remarkable manner. The two 
men embarked in business in Ste. Genevieve, 
together, and were very successful. The suc- 
cess of the business, however, depended en- 
tirely upon Rozier, for Audubon had no taste 
for business at all, but spent his time in the j 
woods hunting and painting birds. In 1811 J 
he sold his interest in the business and re- ' 
turned to Kentucky. Here he devoted him- 
self for a time to business, but finally gave 
up entirely to the study of nature, becoming 
one of the greatest ornithologists of the 

One of the famous men of this period in 
Missouri was the celebrated John Smith T. 
He was a native of Georgia, but had lived 
in Tennessee before coming to Missouri. He 
removed to Ste. Genevieve about the year 
1800 and afterwards lived at a little town 
called Shibboleth, in Washington county. 
Smith was a tall, slender man, of the mildest 
appearance and the most courteous manners, 
the very last man, judging by his appearance 
only, to be considered at all dangerous. He 
was, however, a man of terrible passions and 
when aroused he was one of the most danger- 
ous men in the history of the state. He was 
famous for his skill with the pistol and the 
rifle, and he had many encounters of a most 
serious and bloody character. His house re- 



sembled an arsenal, for it was tilled with 
arms and weapons of every kind. He, him- 
self, was a skilled mechanic, and kept slaves 
who were expert in the making of weapons. 
Smith's principal business was that of min- 
ing. He had at first entei-ed into Burr's 
schemes for invading Mexico, but withdrew 
from that when they were warned by the 
proclamation of President Jefferson. Col. 
Smith was selected at one time to visit "Wash- 
ington, and represent the people of the ter- 
ritory before Congress. In 1806 he was ap- 
pointed one of the Territorial Judges of the 
court of General Quarter Sessions. In spite 
of his numerous difficulties and duels, and in 
spite of the enemies which he had. Smith 
finally died a natural death, and was buried 
in St. Louis. 

Henry Dodge was born at Vincennes, Oc- 
tober 12, 1782. He was the son of Israel 
Dodge and his wife, Nancy Hunter. Isi-ael 
Dodge, it will be remembered, was one of the 
first American settlers in Upper Louisiana, 
liaving come to the Ste. Genevieve district 
prior to 1800. The family engaged in the 
manufacture of salt on Saline creek. Henry 
Dodge was a very prominent and influential 
man. He served for a time as sheriff of Ste. 
Genevieve county; his greatest service, how- 
ever, was rendered in a military way. On 
the breaking out of the Indian troubles, 
about the time of the war of 1812, Dodge was 
appointed as a general in the territory of 
militia. During that time he was exceedingly 
active in protecting the frontiers from the 
Indians. He lived in Ste. Genevieve until 
the year 1827, when he removed to Wiscon- 
sin. During the Black Hawk war, he was in 
command of some of the American troops, 
and defeated Black Hawk and the Indians. 
He also served in the army during the cam- 
paign against the Indians in the south and in 

1835 was in charge of the expedition of the 
west. He was appointed Governor of Wis- 
consin territory for two terms and afterward 
was elected to the senate from Wisconsin. 
During his residence in Missouri he served as 
a member of the constitutional convention, 
and was prominent among those who helped 
to frame the constitution. 

The first resident of Washington county, 
during this period, was a native of Wales. 
This was John Rice Jones, who was born in 
Wales in 1759. He was a soldier in the Revo- 
lutionary army, and assisted George Rogers 
Clark in the capture of Vincennes. Before 
coming to Missouri, he lived for a time in 
Vincennes and also in Kaskaskia. In 1804 
he removed to Ste. Genevieve where he con- 
tinued in the practice of law. He afterward 
fixed his residence at Potosi. He acquired a 
large practice, for he was a good lawyer, and 
full of energy and devotion to his clients. He 
was one of the prominent members of the con- 
stitutional convention, representing Wash- 
ington county. He lived to the age of sixty- 
five, and two of his sons, John Augustus 
Jones and Hon. George W. Jones, were very 
prominent in public life, the latter being, at 
one time, United States senator from Iowa. 

As we have seen Ste. Genevieve was the ad- 
ministrative center of a district and the resi- 
dence of a commandant. This district in- 
cluded a large territory. Within it were the 
present counties of Ste. Genevieve, Perry, 
Jefferson, Washington, Madison, and Iron. 
During the period with wliich we are now en- 
gaged, extending from the visit of DeSoto to 
1804, settlements were made in all these coun- 
ties. All these settlements were under the 
authority of the commandant of Ste. Gene- 
vieve. Within the present county of Ste. 
Genevieve only two settlements besides Ste. 
Genevieve itself were made at this time. 


They were "Xovelle Boiirbou" or New Bour- 
bon and New Tennessee. 

odist church. This settlement was made 
about the year 1800. 

New Bourbon was situated about two and 
one-half miles from the old village of Ste. 
Genevieve. Its site was on a hill which over- 
looked a strip of plain about one league in 
width, lying between it and the river. The 
settlement here was made in 1793 by order ol" 
Baron Cardondelet. Cardondelet was at this 
time lieutenant governor of Upper Louisiana 
with headquarters at St. Louis. He founded 
this colony and made it a separate adminis- 
trative division in order to give a place to_ 
Pierre De Hault De Lassus De Luziere who 
was made the commandant of New Bourbon. 
It was the intention to bring to this new set- 
tlement the colony of French nobles who had 
emigrated from France during the Revolution 
and had formed a settlement in Ohio caller! 
Gallipolis. The scheme for bringing these 
French nobles was never carried into effect 
fully, but some of them came and made their 
home here near Ste. Genevieve. The author- 
ity of the commandant at this place extended 
west to INline La ilotte. At New Bourbon 
there was a small mill erected in 1793 on the 
creek now called Dodge's creek. The mill 
was built by Francois Valle and afterward 
sold to Israel Dodge. It was the first mill 
west of the ^Mississippi river. 

The settlement called New Tennessee was 
made in what is now Saline township. The 
first settlers here were Peter Bloom and 
Thomas ]\Iadden. Both of them had formerly 
lived at Ste. Genevieve. Others who lived 
in the vicinit.y were Nicholas Counts, Joseph 
Hughes, Jesse Bryant, "William Painter, John 
and Edward Walsh, Elder "Wingate Jackson. 
who was a Bapitst preacher, and John Mc- 
Farland, who was a minister of the Meth- 

The following table gives the larger num- 
ber of the settlements in the Ste. Genevieve 
district made before the transfer to the United 
States in 1804. The dates are as accurate as 
can now be given: 

Ste. Genevieve 1735 

Old Mines in "Washington county 1748 

INline a Breton near Potosi 1775 

In Bois Brule Bottom 1787 

On the Cinque Homme in Perry countj^ . 1788 

New Bourbon near Ste. Genevieve 1793 

Ally's ilines on Big River in St. Fran- 
cois county 1797 

On the Aux Vases in Perry county 1797 

On the Brazeau in Perry county 1797 

On E.stablishment creek in Perry county. 1797 
The Fenwick Settlement on Apple creek.1797 

In Bellevue Valley 1798 

JIurphy Settlement now Farmington. . .1798 

Herculaneum 1798 

Cook's Settlement southwest of Farm- 
ington 1799 

On Joachim creek in Jefferson county. .1799 

St. :\Iichael now Frederiektown 1800 

On the Saline in Perry county 1800 

Between Joachim and the Plattin 1801 

"William Reed was the first settler in the 
Bellevue Valley in Iron county. He came in 
1798. having received permission of De Lu- 
ziere the Spanish official in charge at New 
Bourbon. Solomon George canie about the 
same time and made his home on the Little 
St. Francois. Elisha Baker came to the same 
settlement from the Bois Brule Bottom in 
1798, being accompanied by his son Elijah. 
Joseph Reed, a nephew of "William, was an- 
other of the early settlers. Near the vicin- 



ity of Big River iMills in St. Francois county, 
a settlement, was begun in tlie year 1796. 
The men who located there at that time 
were John Ally, Andrew Baker, Francis 
Starnater and John Andrews. They had 
marked out their claims two years earlier than 
this. At first they did not erect houses, but 
lived for a time in camps. This settlement 
grew rapidly and soon became one of great 
importance. On the first day of March, 1797, 
Henry Fry and Rebecca Baker, two inhabi- 
tants of this settlement, accompanied by a 
number of their friends, set out for Ste. 
Genevieve; they intended to be married at 
that place. There was no one nearer than 
Ste. Genevieve who was authorized to per- 
form a marriage ceremony. While on their 
way in the vicinity of Terre Blue, they were 
met bj^ a party of Osage Indians who stopped 
them and robbed them of everything they 
possessed. These circumstances compelled 
them to return to the settlement and post- 
pone the intended marriage for one year. 
In 1798, Reverend "William Murphy, said 
to have been a Baptist minister, living in 
Tennessee, together with his son William and 
a friend named Cyrus George, came to Upper 
Louisiana and received permission from the 
authorities to form a settlement in St. Fran- 
cois count.y. The site chosen by them is that 
of the present town of Farmington. William 
IMurphy returned to Tennessee and died while 
there. In 1801 other sons of William ]Mur- 
ph.y came to the settlement and began to open 
farms on the land granted to them. Sarah 
Murphy, the widow of the minister, deter- 
mined to make the trip from Tennessee to 
Louisiana and to take possession of the land 
which had been granted to her husband : 
this she did in 1803. The part.y with whom 
she came consisted of three sons, Isaac, Jesse 
and Dubart, a daughter, a grand-son, and a 

negro woman. The .journey was nuule in a 
keel-boat down the Teunessee river and then 
up the Mississippi to Ste. Genevieve. It was 
a most arduous undertaking aud it was only 
after very great difficulty and dangers that 
the party arrived at the settlement which 
came to be called Murphy's. Mrs. Murphy 
was a sister of David Barton, afterward 
LTnited States senator from Missouri, and was 
a woman of great intelligence and force of 
character. She organized and taught the 
first Sunday school west of the Mississippi 
river. This was probably in the year 1807. 

Some others who early settled in the vi- 
cinity were Jlichael Hart and his son Charles, 
his son-in-law Davis F. ilarks, Isaac Mitchell, 
Isaac Burnham, James Cunningham and 
John Robinson. 

The settlement which came to be called 
Cook's in the southeast part of St. Francois 
county, still bears the same name. The first 
settler here was Nathaniel Cook who came 
in the year 1800. Cook was a prominent and 
influential man, having been one of the first 
judges of the court of Quarter Sessions held 
at Ste. Genevieve and was also elected Lieu- 
tenant Governor of the state at the first elec- 
tion for state officers. He afterward resided 
in Madison county near Fredericktown. 
Others of the early settlers here were James 
Caldwell, William Holmes, Jesse Black^vell, 
Elliott Jackson, and James Davis. 

The first people who came to Madison 
county were miners and their stay was ordi- 
narily transitor.y ; the first men who came to 
settle on a farm within the county was John 
Callawa.y. who came from Kentucky in 1799, 
and obtained a grant on Saline creek near the 
head of the Little St. Francois about the 
same time the sons of Nicholas Lachance set- 
tled on Castor creek. Their father lived at 



New Bourbon in Ste. Genevieve county. 
Other early settlers were William Easum and 
James and Samuel Campbell, who at some 
time before 1803, built cabins near the St. 
Francois and cultivated the land. John AVal- 
ther came to the county in 1882 as did Chris- 
topher Anthony, John L. Pettit, Daniel Phil- 
lips and William and Thomas Crawford. 

In 1800 the Spanish authorities granted 
four hundred arpents of land to thirteen in- 
dividuals, the land lying between Saline 
creek and the Little St. Francois. On the 
land so granted a settlement was soon made 
which was called St. Michael; it is now the 
town of Fredericktown. The early residents 
were Peter Chevalier, Paul, Andrew and 
Baptiste De Guire, four brothers, whose 
name was Caillot, called also Lachance, Ga- 
briel Nicollo, Pierre Variat and three others 
whose names are not known. These settlers 
all came from other settlements in this dis- 
trict. They engaged in farming and also in 
lead mining at Mine LaMotte which is only 
a few miles distant. 

The first settlement in Washington county 
was made at Mine a Breton about 1763. 
Those who made this settlement were miners 
interested in working the mine discovered by 
Breton. Near the same time work was be- 
gun in the mines known as Old ]\'Iines and a 
little settlement of miners sprung up there. 
Most of the settlers at both these places came 
from Ste. Genevieve, New Bourbon and Kas- 

In 1799 the Spanish government made a 
grant of a large tract of land to Moses Aus- 
tin covering a part of Mine a Breton. On 
his part he was to erect a smelter for the re- 
duction of lead ores. By 1804 there were 
about twenty families living in the village 
on his grant. They mined and farmed but 

had no grants from the government. They 
seemed to have been either squatters on gov- 
ei'nment land or else tenants of Austin. Aus- 
tin brought his family to Mine a Breton in 
June, 1799, and says of the country at that 
time that the whole number of inhabitants 
on Renault's fork of Grand river did not ex- 
ceed sixty-three or sixty-four persons. In 
1802 fifteen French families settled at Old 
Mines and reopened the work there which 
had been suspended. One year later thirty- 
one residents of this place received from Gov. 
Delassus a grant of 400 arpents of land each. 
Other mines were opened in the county about 
the same time and a shifting and unstable 
population grew up around each of them. 

Perhaps the first permanent settlement of 
persons intending to make the country their 
home and to engage in agriculture was made 
near the present town of Caledonia in 1798. 
In that year Ananias McCoy, Benjamin 
Crow, and Robert Reed, all from Tennessee, 
settled in the Bellevue valley about twelve 
miles south of Potosi. Others followed them 
and the settlement prospered. These men 
were farmers and the products of their soil 
were carried to Ste. Genevieve on horses or in 
carts. They soon built mills for themselves 
and became unusually prosperous. Their 
situation was very good and they enjoyed the 
advantages of fertile soil, plenty of water 
power and proximity to the mining region. 
By 1822 the county had a population of 2,769. 

The first settler in Jefferson county was 
John Hildebrand, Avho was of French de- 
scent and who made a settlement on the 
Maramec near the farm of Isaac Sul- 
lens, in 1774. Hildebrand received a 
grant of a considerable tract of land 
from the Spanish government which was 
afterward confirmed by the United States. 



In 177S this grant passed into the pos- 
session of Thomas Tyler, another of the 
early settlers of the county. In 1776 the King 
of Spain began the opening of a road to ex- 
tend from St. Louis to Ste. Genevieve and 
afterward to New Madrid; this road, which 
came to be called the King's highway, 
crossed the Maramec river not far from its 
mouth, passed near Kimswick, Sulphur 
Springs, Pevely, Horine, Rockfort Hill and 
on to Ste. Genevieve. In order to provide a 
ferry across the Maremec river a grant was 
made by the government to Jean Baptiste 
Gomache. In 1776 Gomache located 1,050 ar- 
pents of land at the mouth of the Maramec 
river and established a ferry about one mile 
above the mouth, which he operated for h 
number of years. In 1779 a settlement was 
made near Kimswick and in the same year 
one near Montesano SiDrings, the latter one 
was made for the purpose of obtaining salt. 
In 1786 Benito Vasquez located at the mouth 
of Saline creek. 

By the close of the 18th century there 
were a number of settlers living along the 
Maramec river; west of the river near the 
settlement made by Hildebrand were John 
Boli, Benito Vasquez, John Cummins, Jac- 
ques Glamorgan, Antonio Soulard, John 
Charpenter, Levi Theel, John Seindre, John 
Romain, James Steward, Baptiste Raniller, 
August Gomache, Jean Baptiste Gomache 
and Hardy Ware; east of the river were 
William Boli, Gabriel Cerre, Joachim Roy, 
Pierre Tanot, Charles Jones, Joseph Ney- 
bour, Baptiste Riviere, Sophia Shafer and 
Phyllis Bocarie. 

The tirst mill in Jefferson county was built 
in 1802 on Big river about three-quarters of 
a mile above Morse's mill, by Francis Wide- 
ner. Some of the logs in the old dam are 
still to be seen. 

Vol. 1—5 

The first town laid out in the county was 
New Hartford, which was situated not far 
from Riverside on the Mississippi river, the 
settlers were Christian Witt and John 
Honey, who in 1806 opened a store and built 
a shot tower on tlie site of their proposed 

Other early settlers in the county besides 
those mentioned, were Peter McCormack who 
settled on the Plattin in 1802, James Head, 
who built a cabin near House's spring in 
1805. A year later Head sold his cabin and 
claim to Adam House for whom the spring 
was afterward named; House was later bm- 
tally killed by some Indians during their raid. 
William Null settled Hematite in 1800 and 
John Boli on Romin's creek in 1788. 

The first Protestant services within Jeffer- 
son county were held at Bates Rock on the 
Mississippi river in 1798 by John Clark, 
Clark was at that time an Independent Meth- 
odist preacher who lived in Illinois, he after- 
ward became a Baptist and preached for 
many years in Missouri and Illinois. The 
first church house was a log cabin erected by 
the Baptists on the land of John Boli at the 
headwaters of Saline creek; in what is now 
known as Maramec settlement, this was not 
far from the place located by John Hilde- 
brand. The date of the building of the first 
meeting house cannot now be determined bnl 
it was probably about 1825. In 1836 th*^ 
Baptists built another log meeting house in 
Upper Sandy settlement and used it until 

The oldest Catholic church in the county 
is the church of the Immaculate Conception 
at Maxville, and it was established in 1845. 

A Lutheran church known as St. Johns 
was organized in Rock township in 1843 ; both 
these churches are still in existence. 



The settlements in Perry count}' were made 
in the Bois Brule Bottom opposite Kaskas- 
kia, along the Cinque Homme, the Saline, the 
Brazeau, the Aux Vases, on Establishment 
creek, and on Apple creek. The Bois Brule 
Bottom is one of the most fertile pieces of 
territory in the district of Ste. Genevieve. 
It was the fertility of this soil which at- 
tracted the early settlers. Some of these 
were John Baptist Barsaloux, who came in 
the year 1787, William Lowry, and on the 
Cinque Homme, Levy Wiggins, John Duval, 
William Boyce, Isadore Moore. Over on the 
Saline were a number of settlers from Ken- 
tucky. In memory of their Kentuckj^ home 
they called the open territory on which they 
settled "The Barrens." Some of these set- 
tlers were Tuckers, Laytons, Moores, Hay- 
dens. Israel Dodge and his son who have 
been mentioned in connection with New 
Bourbon were operating a salt works at the 
mouth of the Saline in 1804. These salt 
works had been in operation more or less 
continuously for a long time, even at that 
early date ; they probably were begun before 
the first permanent settlement in Upper Louis- 
iana. Others on this stream were Thomas 
Madden, Job Westover and John Hawkins. 

Thomas Dodge was, perhaps, the first man 
who lived on the Aus Vases. Other claims 
have been located on this stream before his 
time, but he seems to have been the first 
actual settler. He bought his claim from De 

The Fenwick settlement was made on 
Brazeau creek ; this is not far from the pres- 
ent town of Wittenberg ; the grant was made 
to Joseph Manning, but the first settler was 

George A. Hamilton. General Harrison, who 
moved here from New Madrid, also had a 
grant on which is now located the town of 

A little below the mouth of the Kaskaskia 
is a creek called the Saline entering on the 
west side a grant of a tract of land one 
league square made by the Spanish govern- 
ment in favor of a Frenchman named Pe- 
greau, the founder of the deserted town called 
New Bourbon. The tract included a valu- 
able brine spi-ing near the mouth of the 
creek. The proprietor built a house near the 
bank of the Mississippi where he resided a 
long time and where he carried on the manu- 
facture of salt, but having occasion to go to 
France he rented his works to a man who for 
want of funds or for some other reason, failed 
to keep them in operation.* 

Long sayst that when he visited Missouri, 
which was in 1819, that the important pop- 
ulous part of the section was the country 
immediately below the mouth of the Mis- 
souri including the town of St. Louis and the 
villages of Florissant, Carondelet, Hercula- 
neum, Ste. Genevieve, Bainbridge, Cape 
Girardeau, Jackson, St. iMichaels and the 
country in their immediate vicinity. The 
lead mine tract, including Mima, Berton, 
Potosi and Bellevue were also populous; be- 
sides these he says there were a number of 
other settlements and small villages in this 
part of the territory. This visit to New Mad- 
rid was made in 1811 just before the earth- 

*" Long's Expedition," p. 99. 
t ■'Long's Expedition,'" p. 126. 



Its Limits — Life of Lorimier — FiasT Settlement at Cape Girardeau — Influence With 
THE Indians — Grants of Authority and Land — Lorimier's Tomb — Name of Cape Gir- 
ardeau— Cousin — Early Settlers — The Town Laid off — Some of the Early Btttt.p- 
iNGS— First Incorporation, 1808 — Early Settlers Within the District — The Ramsays 
— The Giboneys — Other Early Families — Settlements in Various Parts of the 

The district of Cape Girardeau was estab- 
lished about the year 1793, but its bound- 
aries were not clearlj- defined. It was sup- 
posed to extend from Apple creek to Tywap- 
pity Bottoms. Its western boundary was not 
fixed. Considerable difficulty arose between 
commandants at Cape Girardeau and those 
at New Madrid concerning the boundary be- 
tween their respective districts. The com- 
mandant at New Madrid insisted that the 
Cape Girardeau district extended west only 
to the St. Francois river, and that his author- 
ity extended west of that stream. The south- 
ern boundary of the Cape Girardeau district 
was also iu dispute for a number of years. 
The Governor General of Louisiana finally 
fixed this bouudaiy at a point five miles be- 
low the present town of Commerce. This line 
was afterward surveyed by Anthony Soulard 
the Surveyor-General of Louisiana. 

The first settlement within the district as 
thus marked out was made early in the year 
1793, by Louis Lorimier. 

Little is known of the early life of Lor- 
imier. For a long time it was not known 
where he was born. We now know that he 

was born near the city of Montreal, Canada. 
Just before the breaking out of the Revolu- 
tiouar}^ war, a man whose name was spelt 
"Loromie" and also "Laramie" came from 
Canada to Shelby county, Ohio, and estab- 
lished a trading station between the Miami 
and the Maumee. This station was called 
Pickawilly. It was also called from its 
founder, Laramie Station. Here was carried 
on an extensive trade with the Indians. Furs 
were bought from them, and fire-arms, food, 
ammunition, and whiskey sold to them. The 
man, Loromie, was a Tory and his place in 
Ohio became the headquarters for plots 
against the Americans. The Indians were 
incited here to make raids against the 
Americans. Loromie had great influence 
with them, having married an Indian 
woman and being possessed of gi-eat in- 
sight into Indian character. So well known 
was the place as the headquarters for plots 
and raids that, iu 1782, General Clark of the 
American army came up from Kentucky with 
a force and destroyed the place. The follow- 
ing account is taken from the history of 




' ' At the time of the first settlement of Ken- 
tucky, a Canadian Frenchman, named Lo- 
ramie, established a store or trading station 
among the Indians. This man was a bitter 
enemy of the Americans, and it was for a 
long time the headquarters of mischief to- 
ward the settlers. 

"The French had the faculty of endear- 
ing themselves to the Indians, and no doubt 
Loramie was in this respect fully equal to 
any of his countrymen, and gained great in- 
fluence over them. So much influence had 
Loramie with the Indians that, when Gen. 
Clark, from Kentucky, invaded the Miami 
valley in the autumn of 1782, his attention 
was attracted to the spot. He came on, burnt 
the Indian settlement there, and plundered 
and burnt the store of the Frenchman. Soon 
after this Loramie with a colony of the Shaw- 
nees immigrated to the Spanish Territory 
west of the Mississippi and settled in the spot 
assigned them, at the junction of the Kansas 
and Missouri rivers, where the remaining 
part of the natives from Ohio have at dif- 
ferent times joined them." 

This account agrees with the following from 
"Knapp's History of the Miami Valley:" 

"In 1769 a Canadian French trader, named 
Peter Loramie, established a store at Picka- 
willany, situated on the west side of the Great 
Miami river, at the mouth of Loramie 's creek. 
He was a man of energy and a good hater of 
the Americans. For many years he exercisied 
great influence among the Indians. After 
his arrival the place was called ' Loramie 's 
Station.' During the Revolution Loramie 
was in full fellowship with the British. Many 
a savage incursion to the border was fitted 
out from his supply of war material. So 
noted had his place become as the headquai'- 
ters of spies, emissaries, and savages, that 

Gen. Clark, of Kentucky, resolved to pay it 
a visit, which he did with a large party of 
Kentuckians in the fall of 1782. The post 
was taken by surprise, and Loramie barely 
escaped being made a prisoner. His store 
was rifled of its contents, and burned to the 
ground, as were all the other habitations in 
the vicinity. Poor Loramie shortly after- 
ward removed with a party of Shawnese to a 
spot near the junction of the Kansas and 
Missouri rivers where he closed his days." 

It wiU be seen that these two accounts 
agree in saying that this man, whose name is 
given as Peter Loramie, after the loss of his 
property in Ohio removed to Louisiana and 
settled on the Kansas and the Missouri. We 
find, however, that no Peter Loramie was 
known in Louisiana, and no man of that name 
lived at the junction of these two rivers. 
Doubtless these statements are erroneous, but 
they seem to refer to Louis Lorimier. The 
identity of Louis Lorimier with the man who 
had a trading post at Loramie 's Station 
seems to be conclusively established by the 
following letter on file in Ste. Genevieve, in 
connection with the suit brought by Lorimier 
against a certain tradins: companv : j 

' ' MiAMis, 4th May, 1787.— Dear Sir : We ' 
learn from common report that you had left 
Port St. Vincents, with an intention to seize 
Mr. Louis Lorimier 's goods. We have re- 
ceived from him about eight packs, and on 
our arrival here Mr. Sharp went to see him, 
on purpose to know his reasons for leaving 
this country. His reasons appeared to him 
pretty good, and as he had no property along 
with him, on purpose to get his peltry and 
gain his good will, we were induced to ad- 
vance a few things, as he says, to assist him. 
A few days after Mr. Sharp left him, he got l 



intelligence of j'our going to seize his goods, 
and he wrote a letter expressing his surprise 
at our duplicity. 

"What we have to say on the subject is 
neither more nor less than this, that the 
Spaniards have invited the Delawares and 
Shawnese to their side of the Mississippi. 
With a tribe of the latter Mr. Lorimier goes, 
and expects the Spaniards will allow him to 
follow them. If this is the case and he well 
inclined, we think he may do better than was 
expected, and as the company means to have 
somebody there to do this business, it might 
in some measure atone for the loss of the Port 
Vincent's (Vincennes) trade, which will 
never be renewed. 

"We wrote you yesterday at some length. 
You will be the best judge how to act in re- 
gard to Lorimier, but we think his intentions 
are honest. 

"Sir, your very humble servants, 

George Sharp. 
Thomas Shepherd. 
"To Hugh Heward, Mouth Illinois." 

We are unable to give many of the details 
of Lorimier 's life previous to his coming to 
Missouri, but after that time we have reason- 
able grounds for believing that we know most 
of events in his life. In 1787 he settled on the 
Saline in Ste. Genevieve county where he 
made his home for six years. 

The Spanish authorities soon recognized 
him as a man having great influence with the 
Indians, resulting in part from his long life 
of trading with them, in part from the real 
power and energy which he possessed. They 
saw in him a fit agent for carrying out their 
plans, which were to induce the Indians to 
settle west of the river. They wanted these 
Indians here because Spain and France were 
engaged in war, and Spain feared very 

greatly that the United States would take 
part in this war on the side of France. The 
Spanish officials hoped by securing the help 
of the Indians that they could use them to 
harass the Americans in such a way as to 
prevent their giving any assistance to the 
French and they further expected that their 
Indian allies would be very useful to them 
in securing information of hostile movements. 

In 1792, the Spanish were in great fear of 
an invasion from across the river and Lori- 
mier was employed to concert with the Span- 
ish officials plans for defense. He was or- 
dered to New JIadrid in that year to confer 
with Portelle the commandant of the post of 
New ^Madrid. Lorimier had had some un- 
pleasant experiences with Portelle arising 
over some of Lorimier 's trading operations. 
He was reluctant to trust himself within Por- 
telle 's power at New Madrid and it was dif- 
ficult to persuade him to do so. Finally he 
consented, however, and went to New Madrid 
where steps were taken to protect Spanish 
territory. He spent the fall and winter of 
that j'ear engaged in these matters. He 
crossed the Mississippi, visited Indian chiefs, 
and induced many of them to come to this 
side. In all of this work he displayed great 
adaptability, energy, and loyalty. He was 
successful in his efforts with the Indians and 
large numbers of his friends, the Shawnees 
and Delawares came to Upper Louisiana. 

In recognition of this service the following 
grant of authority was made to him, the text 
being a translation: "Baron of Carondelet, 
follower of the religion of St. John, Colonel 
of the royal armies, Governor, Intendant 
General, Vice-Regent of the Province of 
Louisiana and Western Florida. Inspector of 
the Army, etc. 

"Know all men by these presents, that in 
consideration of the true and faithful serv- 



ices which Louis Lorimier has rendered to 
the state since he became a subject of her 
Catholic Majesty, we permit him to establish 
himself with the Delawares and Shawnese 
who are under his care, in such places as ho 
may think proper in the province of Louisiana 
on the west bank of the IMississippi, from the 
Missouri to the River Arkansas, which may 
be unoccupied, with the right to hunt, and 
cultivate for the maintenance of their fam- 
ilies, nor shall any commandant, officer or 
other subject of the king hinder them, nor oc- 
cupy of the land for him and the said In- 
dians, sown, planted or laid out, so much as 
is judged necessary for their maintenance : 
and be it further understood that in case 
they should remove elsewhere, the said lands 
shall become vacant and as for the house, 
which the said Sir Louis Lorimier has built 
at Girardeau, it will remain in his posses- 
sion, nor can he be removed for any causes. 
except those of illicit trade or correspond- 
ence with the enemies of the State. 

"In testimony of which we have given 
these presents, signed with our hand am' 
the countersign of the secretary of the Gov- 
ernment, and caused to be aiifixed our official 
seal at New Orleans, the 4th of January, 

"The Baron of C.vrondelet. 

"By order of the Governor, Andres Lopez 

This grant of authority was accompanied 
by the following letter from Zenon Tnideai; 
the Lieutenant-Governor : 

"St. Louis, Mo., May 1, 1793.— The within 
is a permit which the Governor-General gives 
you to make your trade with the Delawares 
and the Shawnese, so extended that there may 
be nothing more to desire, without fear that 
you will be troubled by any officer of the 

king as long as you do as you have heretofore 
done. He recommends you to maintain or- 
der among the savages, and to concentrate 
them, so that he may be sure that they will 
take position more on the frontier of our set- 
tlements in order to lend us help in case 
of a war with the whites, and they will thus 
also be opposite the Osages, against whom 
I shall declare war forthwith, a thing I have 
not yet done, because I have to take some 
precautions before that shall reach them. In- 
form the Delawares, Shawnese, Peorias, 
Potawattomies and the other nations which 
presented a memorial, last September, that 
it is on account of the bad treatment that they 
have suffered, that the Governor-General 
has determined upon the war, in order to 
procure quiet for our land ; the Osages are at 
present deprived of aid and harassed by us 
and by them, they will surely be open to 
reason; that consequently all the red na- 
tions must agree to lend a hand; it is their 
good which the Government seeks; and 
it is of that that you must convince 
them, so that the offended nations will 
take some steps toward the others to se- 
cure their aid, and particularly that the 
lowas. Sacs and Foxes shall not consent to 
let the Osages come so far as to trade on the 
river Des Moines, and that still less shall they 
allow the English to introduce themselves bj' 
that river, which is a possibility. 

"Protected by the Government, you owe it 
your services in closely watching over all that 
tends to its prospei'ity. and averting every- 
thing which is to its detriment. At this mo- 
ment we fear nothing from Congress, but 
from the ill-disposed which depend upon it, 
posted in advantageous places, to give advice 
of the least assemblage. I am confident that 
as soon as you are cognizant of it you will 
make it known to the commandants with 




whom j'ou are connected, as much for our 
safety as for our defense. 

"The Governor lias approved of the dis- 
tribution of the twenty thousand beads which 
I have given the Delawares, and to which 
you have contributed. It has been my in- 
tention to reimburse you, and to-day I can do 
it with greater facility, because they have 
offered me the means without looking for 
them elsewhere, so you may draw on me at 
the rate of six per thousand, which the king 
has agreed for me to pay. 

"I am told that you are coming to St. 
Louis with your savages. Because I am de- 
prived of all merchandise, their visit will be 
a little embarrassing. Therefore I ask you 
to come by yourself (when your presence 
here is necessary) and attend to it, that when 
the boats arrive you are here to make a suit- 
able present to the savages. 

' ' May God take you in His holy keeping. 
"Zenon Trudeau. 

' ' P. S. — I keep your permit for an occasion 
to which I can intrust it. It states that you 
shall not be troubled from the Missouri to 
the Arkansas in your trade, also in the set- 
tlements or encampments which you have 
formed with the savages, the Shawnese and 
Delawares, etc. and that you shall be pro- 
tected at Cape Girardean." 

It will be seen that this grant conferred 
great privileges upon Lorimier. In the 
spring of 1793, in anticipation of this grant, 
he had removed from the Saline to Cape 
Girardeau. Here he built a house and estab- 
lished himself with his Indian friends and 
allies. They settled on unoccupied lands and 
engaged in hunting over a large part of Mis- 
souri and Arkansas. 

In 1796, Lorimier made another trip east 
of the river gathering more Indians who were 

brouglit to this side of the river. He was an 
active and energetic man, and was moved not 
onh' by devotion to Spain, but also by hatred 
to the Americans. He had never forgotten 
nor forgiven the destruction of his property 
in Ohio, and he seemed to take great pleasure 
in doing everything he could to injure the 
people of the United States. In recognition 
of this and other services he received from 
time to time grants of land which, by the 
year 1797, aggregated 8,000 arpents. This 
land included the site of the city of Cape 
Girardeau. It will be seen that the Spanish 
had been liberal in their dealings with him. 
He was the owner of large bodies of produc- 
tive land, and he had exclusive right to con- 
trol of the Indians. This meant, of course, 
a monopoly of Indian trade. The only condi- 
tions annexed to the grants of land were that 
the land should be settled within a reasonable 
time and that roads and other public im- 
provements should be made. In 1799 he was 
engaged in building a new house called The 
Red House on the present site of St. Vincent 's 
church. Near his house, at the corner of the 
present "William and Lorimier streets, was a 
large spring. The hills were covered with 
trees, and on these wooded hills in the vicin- 
ity of this spring, the Indians were accustomed 
to camp when they came for conferences 
with Lorimier. He was appointed comman- 
dant of the post of Cape Girardeau, holding 
this place until the transfer to the LTnited 
States in 1804. He was held in high esteem 
by the Spanish officials, as is shown in the fol- 
lowing letter written by De Lassus : " M. 
Louis Lorimier, the commandant at Cape 
Girardeau can neither read nor write, but he 
has a natural genius, since he has always had 
the .judgment to have some one near him 
able to assist him in regard to his correspond- 
ence. He signs nothing without having it 



read to Mm two or three times, until he 
comprehends it, or it must be read again. He 
has maintained order in his post with in- 
credible firmness against some inhabitants 
who designed to mutiny against him without 
cause. He is extremelj- zealous when em- 
ployed. Although supposed to be interested, 
I have known him to neglect all his business 
to execute a commission which would cause 
him rather expense than profit. He is much 
experienced in Indian matters, particularly 
with the Shawnese and Delawares. It was 
through his infiuence with the latter tribe 
that the Delaware Indian, who had killed a 
citizen of the United States on the road to 
the Post Vincennes, was taken by his nation 
to Kaskaskia. I had an incontestible proof 
of his talent with the Indians at New Madrid, 
where, without his mediation, I would have 
been obliged to employ force to execute the 
Mascoux Indian. He is brave, and extremely 
well posted in the Indian method of war- 
fare, feared and respected by the savages." 
In 1799 he presented a petition to De Lassus, 
setting out the service he had rendered to 
Spain, the expense and worry he had suf- 
fered, and the hardships and dangers he had 
been forced to undergo. He declared that 
for fifteen years he had faithfully served the 
Spanish government in every possible way, 
and that his services had been practically un- 
rewarded. He called to mind the fact 
that it was owing to his efforts and his in- 
fluence with the Indians that Upper Louis- 
iana had received a large influx of Indian 
population. He asked that the governor 
should grant him 30,000 arpents of land, to 
be surveyed when he chose, and to be se- 
lected in any place whatsoever, so long as the 
selection did not interfere with persons hav- 
ing grants already established. This peti- 

tion was granted by De Lassus and the land 
prayed for was given to him. 

In 1798, Lorimier had a law suit concern- 
ing this land with Gabriel Cerre. Cerre 
was the trader who had sent the La Sieurs 
to New Madrid. He had extensive dealings 
with the Indians and considerable influence 
with them. The Spanish government recog- 
nized his service and was willing to reward 
him; however, his claim to the land of Lori- 
mier was denied. In the decision, which was 
in Lorimier 's favor, the Governor-General 
said that he was unwilling to deprive Lori- 
mier of his land for the reason that his serv- 
ices had been so valuable. He ordered, how- 
ever, that Cerre should be given an equal 
amount of land in another place. 

Lorimier continued to trade with the In- 
dians up to the time of his death. He bought 
the goods, which he sold them, in Kaskaskia. 
Besides trading, he engaged in farming and 
also in the operation of mills. He built a 
water mill on Cape La Croix creek, not far 
from where the Scott county road crosses this 
stream ; later he built another mill on Hubble 
creek. Lorimier claimed as his right all the 
ponies and horses found in the woods on his 
extensive grants. After the cession of Louis- 
iana to the United States an attempt was 
made to deprive him of his land. This grant, 
was afterward confirmed to Lorimier 's heirs 
by the United States by an act dated July 
4, 1826. 

Lorimier was not an educated man; he 
could not read though he could write his 
name. His signature, which has been pre- 
served on a large number of documents, is 
bold and firm, evidently the writing of a man 
of determination and character. All of his 
dealings were characterized by energy and 
perseverance, and he evinced a high degree 



of executive ability. He so conducted af- 
fairs in his district that it became rich and 
populous; he governed the Indians well and 
displayed at various times a great deal of 
military ability. Lorimier was buried in the 
3ld cemetery, called after him, in the city of 
Cape Girardeau. The graves of him and his 
wife are side by side. They are covered with 
flat slabs of stone and are most interesting 
relics of the old times. The slab above Lori- 
mier 's tomb has this inscription : 

To the Memory of 
Major Louis Loriraier, 
A native of Canada and first settler and 
commandant of the post of Cape Girardeau 
under the government of Spain. He departed 
this life the 26th day of June, 1812, aged 64 
years three months. 

Ossa Habeant pacem tumulo cineresque 
sepulti: Immortali animae lueeat alma dies. 

These words may be translated : ' ' Peace 
bo his bones and his ashes interred in this 
grave ; may the eternal day illumine his im- 
mortal soul." 

The tomb of his wife bears this inscription : 

' ' To the Memory of 
Charlotte P. B. Lorimier, 
Consort of Major Louis Lorimier, who de- 
parted this life on the 23rd day of March, 
1808, aged 50 years and 2 months, leaving 4 
sons and 2 daughters. 

Vixit, Chaoniae praeses dignissima gentis; 
Et decus indigenum quam lapis iste tegit ; 
Ilia bonum dedicit natura — magistra. Et, 
duee natura, sponte seeuta bonum est. Talis 
honos memorium, nullo eultore, quotannis Ma- 
turat frustus mitis oliva suos. " 

These words may be translated: "She 
lived the noblest matron of the Shawnese 
race, a native dignity covered her as does this 
slab. She chose nature as her guide and vir- 
tue, and with nature as her leader spontane- 
ously followed good, as the olive, the pride 

of the grove without the planter's care, nat- 
urally brings its fruit to perfection. ' ' 

This was Lorimier 's first wife, if, indeed, 
he was married to her at all. He spoke of 
her in his will as the Indian woman with 
whom he had lived and whom he regarded 
with affection. They were probably married 
after the Indian custom. After her death he 
married Marie Berthaume. She was an In- 
dian, or at any rate a half breed. After Lori- 
mier 's death his widow was married the sec- 
ond time to John Logan, the father of Gen- 
eral John A. Logan. General Logan, how- 
ever, was the son of another woman, his 
father's second wife. 

Cape Girardeau was possibly named for 
one Ciirardot who was an ensign in the com- 
pany of French soldiers stationed at Kas- 
kaskia in 1704. He was a trader with the In- 
dians and it seems probable that he came to 
the site of Cape Girardeau and traded at 
that place, from which circumstance it was 
called after him. Houck says that the church 
records at Ste. Genevieve show that one 
Girardeau was at Fort Chartres in 1765. It 
should be noted that the name of the place 
in early years was various ways spelled, 
sometimes it was written Girardot. sometimes 
Girardo, and again Girardeau. AVe may not 
be certain, biit it seems quite probable, that 
it received its name from one of these two 
men. It had been named, it seems, before 
Lorimier settled here in 1793. 

The site for the settlement was well chosen. 
The city is located on the foot-hills of the 
Ozarks and lies also on the border of the al- 
luvial plain. The country about it possessed 
wonderful resources; there was an abundance 
of the finest timber ; there were a great many 
fur bearing animals and many varieties of 
game ; and more than all there was a great 



deal of the finest and most fertile soil; the 
district was well watered, having an abun- 
dance of creeks and springs and bordered on 
the Mississippi river. No other site along 
the river surpassed this as the place for a 
town. Nature seems to have destined it as 
the site of a considerable city. 

It is a remarkable thing that the settlers 
of Cape Girardeau district were nearly all of 
them Americans. It is said that in 1804 there 
were onlj^ five French families in the dis- 
trict. One of the most remarkable of the 
French settlers was Barthelimi Cousin. He 
was the secretary for Lorimier and the offi- 
cial interpreter and surveyor. He was, per- 
haps, one of the most remarkable men ever 
in the district. He was a native of France 
and probably came directly to Cape Girar- 
deau when he emigrated to this country. He 
was a highly educated man, spoke a number 
of languages fluently, was polished, culti- 
vated, and knew the world. He had ability 
to meet people and to make friends with 
them. All the new settlers applied to Cousin 
for assistance. He drew up their petitions 
and their permits and was the means of in- 
ducing many of the early settlers to come to 
the district. He lived near the corner of 
the present Main and Themis streets. He was 
granted a large tract of land on White Water 
and Byrd's creek. It was said of him that 
he was a careful student of mathematics 
and physics; that he continued his mathe- 
matical studies during his entire life. One 
evidence of his knowledge of physical laws 
was the fact that he built a water mill on two 
flat lioats which were anchored in the iMissis- 
sippi, the action of the current generated the 
power to drive the mill. He died in 1824. 

Some of the other settlers were Steinback 
and Reinecke who formed a partnership in 

trade. Their house was north of Cousin's, 
standing near the site of the Union ilills. 

Solomon Thorne was a gun-smith, he also 
lived in the town ; the town 's blacksmith was 
John Rishe; David Wade was the carpenter 
and John Patterson and David Seavers were 
some of the other settlers in town. 

Cape Girardeau was laid off as a town in 
February or March, 1806, by Barthelimi 
Cousin. At this time the entire town was 
owned by Louis Lorimier. As surveyed then, 
and its limits fixed, it extended from North 
street on the North to William street on the 
South, and from the river west to Middle 
street. The streets within its area were the 
same number and width as they are at the 
present time. The first lots were sold at $100 
each. Among the early purchasers were 
John Risher, John Randol, Solomon Ellis, 
William Ogle, Ezekiel Abel, John C. Harbi- 
son, William White. Some of the other early 
residents were: B. & F. Steinback, Robert 
Blair, Dr. Erastus Ellis, James Evans, Fred- 
erick Gibler. Levy Wolverton. Robert Worth- 
ington, Frederick Reinecke, Joseph IMcFer- 
ron and George Henderson. 

Louis Lorimier lived in a long, low frame 
house which had been constructed before the 
laying out of the town, on the lot now occu- 
pied by St. Vincent's academy. This house 
was called "The Red House" and was re- 
ported to be haunted. There were four or 
five brothers of the Ellis family who came to 
the district from Georgia. Charles G. Ellis 
built a large, two-story, log house on the 
corner where the Opera House now stands. 
This was for a good many years the leading 
hotel in the town. Ellis was also a merchant 
and carried a general stock of goods. He was 
also instrumental in organizing the Cape 
Girardeau Milling Company. This company 


built a small mill iu the north part of the 
town. It followed the plan first used by 
Cousin in being built out over the water, and 
was propelled by a screw turned by the ac- 
tion of the current. Dr. Erasmus Ellis, an- 
other one of the brothers occupied a log 
house which stood at the side of the Baptist 
Church on Lorimier street. Solomon Ellis 
built a brick residence at the corner of Lori- 
mier and Bellevue. D. P. Steinback, who was 
a son-in-law of Louis Lorimier, lived on the 
corner where the Sturdivaut Bank now 
stands. He and Frederick Reinecke opened 
one of the first stores in the town. Robert 
Blair was another one of the prominent cit- 
izens. He was Judge of the Court of Quarter 
Sessions. He was a native of Ohio, and 
came to Cape Girardeau about the time of the 
establishment of the town. After his death, 
iu December, 1810, his widow married George 
Henderson. Henderson, afterward, became 
Judge of the Probate Court, Recorder, Au- 
ditor, Treasurer, and was for a time the 
Judge of the County Court. 

Ezekiel Abel w-as another one of the prom- 
inent citizens of the old town. By trade he 
was a blacksmith, but his principal busi- 
ness during the j'ears he lived in Cape Girar- 
deau was trading in land and laud grants. He 
erected the first pviblic buildings iu this dis- 
trict. He had some financial difficulties, but 
finally became wealthy. In 1811 he con- 
structed the first brick house in the town. It 
was finished just in time to be badly dam- 
aged by the earthquakes of that year. He 
left a large familj', consisting of four sons 
and two daughters. His eldest daughter. 
Mary, became the wife of Gen. W. H. Ashley. 
The younger daughter. Elizabeth, married 
W. J. Stevenson. 

The town was incorporated in 1808. The 

petition which was presented to the Court of 
Common Pleas, is as follows ; 

"Limits of the town of Cape Girardeau: 
The town of Cape Girardeau extends in front, 
3,058 feet and 9 inches from Botany Street 
(North Street), the northern boundary, to 
the Street of Fortune (William Street), 
the southern limit, inclusively ; and its 
depth is 1,773 feet 2 inches exclusive of Water 
Street, i. e. from the front of Water 
Street to the Street of Honor (Middle 
Street), inclusively, containing 126 acres and 
%, nearly, the divers parts and divisions of 
the town to be more particularly designated 
in the plan of the same. 

"July 23rd, 1808. 

(Signed) "Louis Lorimier." 

"To the Honorable Court of Common 
Pleas, For the District of Cape Girardeau : 
Your Petitioners pray that the court will ap- 
point commissioners agreeable to a law, 
passed by the Legislature of the Territory of 
Louisiana, for the incorporating of towns 
and villages within the state. Territory 
agreeable to the above metes and bounds. 
John Randol, John C. Harbison, 

James Evans, William White. 

A. Haden, Isaac i\I. Bledsoe, 

Rob't Worthington, Joseph White, 
Charles G. Ellis, J. Morrison, Jr., 

D. F. Steinback, Ezekiel Abel, 

Le\^' Wolverton, Frederick Gibler, 

John Van Gilder." 

The court granted the petition, and or- 
dered that an election be held for the selec- 
tion of five trustees for the town. This elec- 
tion was held August 13th. 1808. at which 



time Joseph JMcFerron, Anthony Haden, 
Robert Blair, Daniel F. Steinbaek and Isaac 
M. Bledsoe were elected. These trustees im- 
mediately entered upon their duties, and 
under their direction the town continued to 
grow and prosper for a number of years. It 
received its first blow in the establishment of 
the county seat at Jackson. This took away 
from the town a great deal of its importance 
and built up a rival near it. It did not re- 
cover from this disaster until the develop- 
ment of the steamboat trade at a later time. 
In ]S1S it had only two stores and about 
fift.y houses. 

Flagg visited Cape Girardeau in 1836 and 
describes the mills put in motion by a spiral 
water-wheel acted on by a current of the 
river ; these are doubtless the wheels of which 
it is said that Barthelimi Cousin was the 
inventor. These wheels floated upon the sur- 
face of the water parallel to the shore rising 
and falling with the water and were con- 
nected with the gearing in the mill house by a 
long shaft. At the time of Flagg 's visit there 
was a pottery in operation in Cape Girar- 
deau using the clay from Tywappaty bottom. 

Long, who visited Cape Girardeaii in 1819, 
gives this description of the town and its 
site:* "The town comprises at this time 
about twenty log cabins, several of them in 
ruins, a log jail no longer occupied, a large 
unfinished brick dwelling falling rapidly into 
decay and a small one finished and occupied, 
it stands on the slope and part of the summit 
of a broad hill elevated about 150 feet above 
the Mississippi and having a deep primary 
soil resting on a strata of compact and sparry 
limestone. Near the place where boats 
usually land is a point of white rock jutting 
into the river and at very low stage of water 
* ' ' Long 's Expedition, ' ' p. 87. 

pi'oducing a perceptible rapid, these are of 
white limestone abounding in the remains of 
marine animals; if you travel some distance 
they will be found to alternate with the com- 
mon blue limestone so frequently seen in sec- 
ondary districts. Through the substrata of 
this sparry lime-stone the rock is literally di- 
vided by seams and furrows and would un- 
doubtedly effect a valuable marble not unlike 
the Daring marble cjarry on the Hudson. 

"The streets of Cape Girardeau are marked 
out with form of regularity intersecting each 
other at right angles but they are in some 
parts so gullied and torn by the rains as to 
be impassable ; others overgrown with such 
thickets of gigantic vernonias and urticlas as 
to resemble small forests. The country back 
of the town is hilly covered with heavy for- 
ests of oak, tulip tree and nyssa intermixed in 
the valleys with the sugar tree and the syl- 
vatica and on the hills with an undergrowth 
of American hazel and the shot bush. Settle- 
ments are considerably advanced and many » 
well cultivated farms occur in various direc- 
tions. ' ' 

The principal population of the district 
however was outside the town itself. The dis- 
trict was large, embracing the present coun- 
ties of Cape Girardeau, Bollinger, "Wayne, 
and parts of others. The land, too, on which 
the town of Cape Girardeau was situated be- 
longed to Lorimier who refused to dispose 
of it for a long time and thus kept away some 
settlers who might otherwise have come. 

Besides Cape Girardeau the principal set- 
tlements within the limits of the present 
county of Cape Girardeau before the transfer 
to the United States in 1804 were the Ram- 
say settlement near i\It. Tabor, a chain of 
settlements extending from the Big Swamp 
south of Cape Girardeau around to the Jack- 



son road, the Byrd settlement on Byrd's 
creek, the Rodney settlement near Gordon- 
ville, the Randol settlement on Randol creek, 
Gordonville on Hubble creek, a settlement 
near the headwaters of Cape La Crux creek, 
one on the river north of Cape Girardeau, 
the Daugherty settlement south of Jackson, 
and the settlement on Whitewater, now called 
Burfordville, but long known as Bollinger's 
Mill. An account of these various settlements 
is hei'e given. 

One of the earliest settlers outside the town 
was Andrew Ramsay who in 1795 settled 
land near Mt. Tabor and immediately adjoin- 
ing Lorimier's grant. Ramsay was a Vir- 
ginian, coming to Cape Girardeau from the 
neighborhood of Harper's Ferry. He was re- 
lated by marriage to Daniel ]Morgan of Vir- 
ginia. He had been a soldier, was among the 
Virginia troops at the time of Braddock's 
defeat, and it is quite probable that he was 
a soldier in the Revolution. He was induced 
to settle in the Cape Girardeau district by 
his acquaintance with Cousin whose scholarly 
ability and friendliness attracted him. Ram- 
say was followed by members of his family 
and friends. 

William Daugherty and Samuel Tipton 
were sons-in-law of Ramsay. They came to 
the district soon after him. Daugherty set- 
tled near his father-in-law and Tipton near 

Among the friends of Ramsay who settled 
near him were Nicholas Seavers, Jeremiah 
Simpson, Alexander Giboney and Dr. Blevins 
Hayden. These settlers were very naturally 
followed by their friends and by the year 
1804 their settlements reached from the Big 
Swamp south of the town around to the Jack- 
son road. Stoddard, who visited the district 
in that year said that it was the richest set- 
tlement in Upper Louisiana. 

Ramsaj' was a leader among these settlers 
and his place became the headquarters for all 
persons who came to the district. They made 
their way first of all to Ramsay's farm. He 
assisted many of them to secure good loca- 
tions in the near-by country. In fact, it 
seems to have been a custom for the American 
settlers to gather at Ramsay's place, espe- 
cially on Sunday, where the day was spent 
in the amusements that the country afforded. 
Ramsay became rich, owning the largest tract 
of land in the settlement and having also 
manj' slaves. He was interested in education 
and was influential in establishing the first 
English school west of the Mississippi river. 
This school was founded in 1799 at Mt. Tabor. 

Ramsay's family was a large one. Besides 
the two married daughters who came with 
their families soon after his location, he had 
three other daughters and five sons. Mar- 
garet Ramsay married Stephen Jones and 
moved to Arkansas ; Mary became the wife of 
Peter Craig who was afterward killed at the 
battle of the Sink Hole; Rachael married 
John Rodney. 

Ramsay's sons were John, who married 
Hannah Lorimier; Andrew and James, who 
married two sisters, Pattie and Rebecca 
Worthington; William, who married Eliza- 
beth Dunn and Ellen. The first three sons 
here mentioned subsequently removed to Mis- 
sissippi county. 

Among the settlers the Giboney family was 
prominent and numerous. The.y came to the 
district prior to 1797. The head of the fam- 
ily was Alexander Giboney. He was a Vir- 
ginian and a man of great ability and influ- 
ence. He died, however, shortly after his 
removal to the district, and the care of the 
family fell upon his widow Rebecca (Ramsay') 
Giboney. Mrs. Giboney was a remarkable 
woman, possessing a high degree of intelli- 



gence, great energy and enthusiasm, and no 
small amount of executive abilit.y. She con- 
tinued to reside upon her plantation which 
was granted by the Spanish in 1797 until her 
death in 1840. 

This plantation is now called Elmwood, and 
is the home of Honorable Louis Houck. Mrs. 
Houek is a grand-daughter of Rebecca Gibo- 

Alexander Giboney left seven children, four 
sons and three daughters. One of the sons, 
Robert, lived on an adjoining grant, which 
is still occupied by his descendants. Of his 
daughters, one married Judge W. C. Ram- 
say, and another Dr. Wilson Browne, who 
was prominent in Missouri politics, having 
been at one time state auditor, and at the time 
of his death was Lieutenant Governor of the 

Another son, Alexander, was killed at the 
battle of the Sink Hole; a third son, whose 
name was John, lived a mile west of the grant 
to his father. His descendants are very nu- 
merous and still live in Cape Girardeau and 
adjoining counties. One of the daughters of 
John Giboney married Doctor Henderson of 
Scott county and another married Colonel 
Solomon G. Kitchen of Stoddard county. The 
youngest son of Alexander Giboney was 
named Andrew, he lived to the age of 82, dy- 
ing in 1874. He was married in 1832 to 
Mary Hunter ; Mrs. Louis Houck is a daugh- 
ter of these two. 

Of the daughters of Alexander Giboney, 
Arabella married John Jacobs ; their descend- 
ants lived in Pemiscot county. Isabella be- 
came the wife of Doctor Ezekiel Fenwick and 
lived in the north part of Cape Girardeau 
county. Margaret Giboney married Lindsay 
De 'Lashmutt. 

IMrs. Louis Painter, who lived for many 
vears in Jackson, was a niece of Andrew 

Ramsay. Her father, John Ramsay, came to 
Cape Girardeau accompanied by a large num- 
ber of relatives and friends, but later removed 
to Scott county. She was an intelligent and 
interesting woman. 

Another family that came in early times to 
the district was the Byrd family. Amos 
Byrd, the head of the family, was a native of 
North Carolina. He was born in 1737 and 
lived for a time in Virginia and in Tennessee. 
In the latter state he located Byrd's Station 
on a fort on the frontier of Knox county. 
One of the neighboring families in Tennessee 
was that of the Gillespies. The acquaint- 
ance between these two families grew until 
no fewer than three sons of Amos Byrd had 
married into the Gillespie familJ^ In 1799 
Amos Byrd accompanied by his family came 
to Upper Louisiana and settled on Bryd's 
creek. He was, doubtless, attracted by the 
easy terms on which land could be secured 
from Spain. The spot chosen by him for the 
settlement was an exceedingly attractive 
one. The sons of the family were Abraham, 
Stephen, John, and Amos, Jr. "With them 
came the daughters, Pollie, who had married 
William Russell, Clarissa who afterward 
married James Russell, and Sallie, who after- 
ward became the wife of George Hays. All 
of these settled on, or near, Byrd's creek.. 
John Byrd conducted a mill, cotton gin, a 
still, and a blacksmith shop. Abraham and 
Stephen became prominent in political life 
after the transfer to the United States, both 
of them holding at various times important 
offices under the government. They both 
left large families and inter-married with the 
Birds of the New Madrid district and with 
the Horrels, Aliens, Jlartins and Mintons. 

William Russell, who became the husband 
of Pollie Byrd was a native of Scotland. Be- 
fore coming to Cape Girardeau he had lived 



Inr a time in Virginia and in Tennessee. It 
was in Tennessee that he became acquainted 
with the Byrd family. He was the father of 
Honorable James Russell at one time sheriff 
of Cape Girardeau county, and member of 
the state legislature. William Russell was a 
man of education, a teacher, and conducted 
the first school in the Byi-d settlement. 

The Rodney family was another prominent 
and influential one. They settled about two 
miles southwest of Gordonville. They were 
Germans, the original form of the name seems 
to have been Rodner. The head of the family 
in this country was Martin Rodney, who came 
about 1801 or 1802. One of his sons mar- 
ried a daughter of Louis Lorimier. 

The first settlement of Randol creek was 
made in 1797 by Enos Randol. His family 
consisted of himself and ten children, seven 
sons and three daughters. ]\Irs. C. B. Houts 
who lived for a long time in Cape Girardeau 
was a daughter of Anthony Randol the eld- 
est son of Enos. Samuel Randol married 
Pollie Pierrpont. He was an influential 
man, one of the syndics under Louis Lori- 
mier. He built one of the first mills in the 
county. iMedad was the second son, and for 
his second wife he married Thankful Stout, 
in Scott county. After his death she pur- 
chased a farm on JMatthews Prairie, and be- 
came a part owner of the city of Charleston ; 
other members of the family continued to re- 
side in the county. 

In 1797 the first settlement was made on 
Hubbell Creek. The creek was then known 
as Riviere Zenon, having been so named in 
honor of Zenon Trudeau, lieutenant governor 
of Upper Louisiana. This settlement was 
made by Ithamar Hubbell, where the town of 
Gordonville is now located. Hubbell had 
been a soldier in the Revolutionary army from 
New York. Andrew Sumners located near 

the head waters of Hubbell creek and in 1800 
Christopher Hays settled on a grant about 
eight miles north of Gordonville. 

Cornelius Arent made an early settlement 
at the mouth of Indian creek. Joseph Chev- 
alier from Kaskaskia settled on the river 
north of Cape Girardeau in 1799, and south 
of Chevalier George Henderson settled in 

William Denny, a native of Wales, came to 
Cape Girardeau from Tennessee in 1808. He 
settled near Gordonville. He was a gun- 
smith and a very fine workman. There were 
seven children in the family; these settled in 
Cape Girardeau, in Stoddard, Scott and New 
Madrid counties. 

South of Jackson in 1798, there came the 
family of Daughertys. There were four 
brothers of them and they located on adjoin- 
ing farms. William Daugherty was the hus- 
band of Elizabeth Ramsay. He was an orig- 
inal abolutionist and would own no slaves of 
his own and controlled only those inherited 
by his wife. His son, Ralph Daugherty, was 
a son-in-law of George F. Bollinger. 

The first settlement in Bollinger county 
was made by George Frederick Bollinger, a 
native of North Carolina, of Swiss descent. 
He came from North Carolina about 1796 or 
97 and selected a location on Whitewater. 
Lorimier promised him a large tract of land 
on condition that he would bring a certain 
number of settlers to the district. In fulfil- 
ment of this agreement he made a trip back 
to North Carolina and on his return he was 
accompanied by twenty families. They 
crossed the Mississippi river at Ste. Gene- 
vieve on the first day of January, 1800, and 
later settled along Wliitewater. Some of the 
men who came with him were Matthias, John, 
Henry, William, Daniel, and Phillip Bol- 
linger, Peter and Conrad Statler, Joseph 



Neiswanger, Peter Crites, Frederick Lim- 
baugh, Leonard "Welker and Frederick Slink- 
ard. They were all Protestants, being mem- 
bers of the German Reformed church. In 
1804 Colonel Bollinger induced Reverend 
Samuel Weiberg or Whybark, to come to the 
settlement and to become the minister of the 
colonists. Reverend Whybark remained un- 
til his death in 1833. He preached over very 
extensive districts in Illinois and Missouri. 

Among these settlers Colonel Bollinger was 
a leader, and was appointed by Don Louis 
Lorimier as captain of the militia. He or- 
ganized a very effective company, which was 
said by Lorimier to be a model company. 
Bollinger erected a mill after his arrival, 
which was the only one in the section, and it 
served farmers for a long distance around. 

Bollinger was a large and powerful man, 
of generous disposition and very popular. 
He was a member of the Territorial assembly, 
and after the admission of ^Missouri to the 
Union he became a member of the state senate 
in 1828. and was president of the state sen- 
ate, and a presidential elector in 1836. As 
was elsewhere stated, his only daughter, 
Sarah, became the wife of Ralph Daugherty. 
It is said that she was educated in North 

Carolina and that she was a musician and 
the owner of the first piano brought to Cape 
Girardeau county. 

The next settlement in Bollinger county 
seems to have been made in 1800 on Castor 
river near where Zalma now stands. Irvin 
Asherbramer was probably the first settler 
and he erected a water-mill at this place which 
is still in operation. Other early settlers in 
the same neighborhood were: Daniel Asher- 
bramer, Phillip and "William Bollinger, Jo- 
seph Watkins, Robert Harper and Edward 

The first settlement in Wayne county was 
made in 1802 ; this was where the village of 
Patterson now stands and the settlers were: 
Joseph Parish, Thomas Ring, David, Charles 
and Robert A. Logan. Ephraim Stout receiv- 
ing a grant on the St. Francois, below the set- 
tlement made by the Logans, but removed in 
a few years to Iron county and was the first 
settler in Arcadia valley. Jacob Kelly was 
one of the wealthy and influential settlers and 
was the first justice of the peace. Others who 
are mentioned as having lived here in early 
times were: Tilman Smith, James Caldwell 
and Francis Clark. 



Its Boundaries — "L'Anse a la Gkaise" — The LeSieurs — Situation of New Madrid^ 
Colonel George Morgan — Grant to Morgan — His Expectation op Profit — His De- 
scription OF THE Site — The Survey of the Town — Opposition op Wilkinson and Miro 
— New Madrid Falls into Hands of Miro — Letter op La Forge — The Commandants 
OP THE Post — Emigrants Who Came With Morgan — The LeSieur Family — The La 
Forges — Joseph Michel — Robert McCoy — Richard Jones AVaters — Tardiveau — Other 
Settlers — Robert Goah Watson — Military Companies — Other Settlements in New 
Madrid County — Little Prairie — Settlements in Scott County — Town Near Sikeston 
— Benton — Joseph Hunter — Tywappity Bottoms — Mississippi County Settlements — 
Spanish Land Grants — The King's Highway. 

As originally defined by the Spanish in the 
grant to Morgan, the District of New Madrid 
extended from the Cinque Homme, south to 
the mouth of the St. Francois, and west a 
distance of ten or fifteen miles, though the 
western boundary was not exactly located. 
Out of the north part of this district was 
carved the District of Cape Girardeau and 
after this was done New Madrid District was 
bounded on the north by Tywappity Bot- 
toms. The exact line between Cape Girar- 
deau district and New Madrid district was, 
however, for a long time a matter of dispute. 
It was finally settled by the governor-general 
and located at a point about five miles south 
of the present town of Commerce. The west- 
ern boundary was left unsettled ; however, 
the district was generally understood to ex- 
tend as far west as there were settlements. 
As we have seen in discussing the boundary 
of the District of Cape Girardeau, there was 

an attempt made by the commandants of 
New IMadrid to extend their authority over 
all the territory west of the St. Francois river 
and to confine Cape Girardeau district be- 
tween the St. Francois and the Mississippi. 
The southern boundary of the District of 
New Madrid was generally understood as 
about the present southern boundary of the 
state. It was fixed not by any order or en- 
actment but by the fact that settlements ex- 
tended only about that far to the south. 

The first settlement in this district was 
made in 1783 by Francois and Joseph Le- 
Sieur, two Canadian trappers and traders 
who had been accustomed to come to the ter- 
ritory about the present site of New Madrid 
for the purposes of hunting and trading 
with the Indians. Other hunters and traders 
also visited this place which is situated in a 
great bend of the river. Before any settle- 




ment existed there, while it was onlj' a tem- 
porary trading post, it was called "L'Anse a 
la Graise. " This name, which means the 
"cove of grease," was given it by those who 
came there to trade. Just what reason there 
was for the name is a question. Some have 
said that it came from the fact that stores 
of bear meat were kept there for sale to the 
passing boats; others said that it was named 
because of the fact that the hunters there 
killed an abundance of game, among which 
were manj^ bears. A third suggestion is that 
the name was applied because of the richness 
of the soil. 

"Whatever the reason for the earl.y name, 
the settlement was made by the LeSieurs. 
It was situated on the east bank of the Cha- 
poosa creek; this was the early name of St. 
John's Bayou. The situation was a splendid 
one for the town; the great ridge which ex- 
tends from the foot of the Scott county hills 
to the mouth of the St. Francois river is one 
of the most fertile and desirable parts of all 
of Southeast Missouri. This ridge touches 
the river at several places, among them New 
Madrid and Caruthersville. In early times 
it formed a most attractive place for settlers. 
It had immense quantities of timber of the 
finest sorts; within a short distance of New 
Madrid there was a lake of clear, limpid wa- 
ter; the woods swarmed with game; the cli- 
mate was mild ; the soil was exceedingly rich 
and productive. Those who visited the place 
believed it to be the most attractive site 
along the whole course of the river. These 
advantages had not been overlooked in the 
early times. The whole country about New 
Madrid is dotted over with Indian mounds. 
There are so many of these that it has been 
conceived by those who believed the mounds 
to have been built by a race preceding the In- 

dians, that New Madrid was perhaps the seat 
of government for the extensive empire which 
they believed to have been organized at that 
time. Whatever the truth may be about this, 
there can be no doubt that great numbers of 
people lived here at the time the mounds were 
being built. It was near this place, perhaps, 
that De Soto camped on his expedition. An 
Indian village was situated here at that time 
and even when the French began to come 
here to trade there seems to have been an In- 
dian village still in existence. Along this 
ridge was one of the great Indian roads which 
led from the crossing at Commerce to the 
south as far, perhaps, as the mouth of the St. 

The LeSieurs lived and traded here for 
several j'ears and other hunters and traders 
came, attracted by the advantages of the 
place, until there was ciuite a settlement. The 
most remarkable thing connected with its 
early history was the attempt of Colonel 
George ^Morgan to found a great city which 
should be the capital of a principality. 

Morgan was an American; he was fond of 
the life of the woods : had an adventurous 
spirit; was bold and daring and far-sighted. 
He visited the "West about the time of the 
transfer from France to Spain, paddled up 
and down its rivers, selected promising sites 
for settlements, and doubtless dreamed of an 
empire which irught be established in Upper 
Louisiana. He took part in the Revolution- 
ary war and was a man of considerable in- 
fluence and high position in the United 
States. However, he became indignant at the 
treatment accorded him by the government 
of the United States. He had acquired from 
the Indians a large tract of land, enough to 
make him independently wealthy, hut the 
policy of the United States government was 



uever to recognize the validity of an Indian 
transfer. In the view of the government, the 
Indians had no power or authority to alienate 
any lands. This invalidated Morgan's claims 
and he became practically penniless. He ap- 
plied to the congress of the United States for 
redress, but this was denied him. He then 
conceived the plan of founding a settlement 
within Spanish territory. He seems to have 
been moved by a desire for wealth, and 
partly by a desire to revenge himself on the 
United States by helping to build up the 
power of Spain. He came into correspond- 
ence with Don Diego Gardoqui the Spanish 
minister at Washington. He pointed out to 
the minister the immense importance to Spain 
of colonizing her territory west of the Missis- 
sippi river and of inducing settlers from 
America to emigrate there. His familiarity 
with the West and his real ability caught the 
fancy of Gardoqui who entered into his 
scheme. Under the arrangement entered into 
between these persons, Jlorgan was to receive 
a grant of land reaching from the Cinque 
Homme to the mouth of the St. Francois 
river, a distance of about three hundred 
miles. The grant was to extend some twelve 
or fifteen miles westward from the river and 
thus to include between twelve and fifteen 
million acres of land. jMorgan pointed out 
.to the minister that if Americans were to be 
induced to settle on these lands certain things 
must be granted to them. It was accordingly 
agreed that Americans should be exempt from 
taxation and that they should have the right 
to self-government. In addition to these in- 
ducements Mr. Morgan held out to prospec- 
tive colonists cheap land for he expected to 
sell parts of his enormous holdings for very 
small sums. 

It was a part of Morgan 's scheme to induce 
India.n.s from east of the river to settle in 

Spanish territory. This was to be done, in 
part, on account of ti-ading with the Indians, 
and, in part, so that they might serve as a 
protection for the Spanish territory, espe- 
cially against the Osage Indians who lived 
on the Alissouri river. He promised Gar- 
doqui that if the grant should be made on the 
terms agreed upon between them that within 
a very few years the population of the dis- 
trict should be at least one thousand persons. 
Morgan seems to have been deceived as to 
the authority of the minister to make the 
grant; he undoubtedly believed that he had 
secured from the Spanish government the 
grant of the lauds mentioned. In the winter 
of 1789, he descended the Ohio i-iver with a 
numerous party consisting of Americans and 
of Indians and selected for the site of his 
town the place now known as New Madrid. 
He was led to do this by the beauty of the 
situation and the probabilities that it would 
be a most desirable place for a prosperous 
trading village. Here he left a large part of 
the expedition while he, himself, in company 
with some other members of the party, made 
his way up the river to St. Louis to meet 
the lieutenant-governor of the district who 
resided there. The lieutenant-governor re- 
ceived him with great favor and entered into 
all of his schemes. He then returned and 
proceeded to carry out his plans for the set- 
tlement of the country. 

Morgan's hope of wealth was founded on 
the expectation that a considerable trade 
would soon be developed at his post, which he 
named New Madrid, and that he would be 
able to dispose of large bodies of land. He 
evidently expected, also, to engage in the cul- 
tivation of the soil and in addition to this 
he had received a promise that if his scheme 
turned out successfully the Spanish govern- 
ment would grant him a pension in reward 



for his services. He proceeded to lay out the 
site of his village and to have the surround- 
ing lands surveyed. The surveyors who did 
this work were Col. Israel Shreve, Peter 
Light, and Col. Christopher Hays. It seems 
that his instructions to these surveyors was 
really the beginning of the present system of 
land survey, and that the United States gov- 
ernment adopted the method devised by Mr. 
Morgan, in a subsequent survey of the public 

* Morgan thus describes the site which he 
had chosen for his town of New Madrid: 
"We have unanimously resolved to establish 
our new city above-mentioned with the date 
(of this letter) some twelve leagues below the 
above-mentioned Ohio, at the place formerly 
called L'Ance la Graisse, below the mouth of 
the river called Chepousea or Sound river in 
Captain Hut chins 's map. Here the banks of 
the Mississippi, for a considerable distance, 
are high, dry, and delicious, and the terri- 
tory west of the San Francisco river is of 
the most desirable quality for corn, tobacco, 
hemp, cotton, flax, and indigo, although ac- 
cording to the opinion of some, too rich for 
wheat, in such manner, that we truly believe 
that there is not a single arpent of uncultiv- 
able land, nor does it show any difference 
throughout the space of one thousand square 
miles. The country rises gradually from the 
Mississippi and is a fine, dry, agreeable, and 
healthful land, superior, we believe, in beauty 
and qiaality to those of any part of America. 

"The limits of our new city of Madrid 
will extend about four miles south on the 
bank of the river, and two to the west of it, 
so that it is divided by a deep lake of the 
purest fresh water, 80 varas wide and many 

* Houck, "History of Missouri," Vol. II, p. 64. 

leagues long, running north and south and 
empting by a constant and small current into 
the Mississippi after flowing through the 
center of the city. The banks of this lake, 
which is called Santa Anna, are high, beau- 
tiful and pleasant ; its waters are deep, clear, 
and fresh; its bottom is of clean sand, with- 
out logs, grass, or other vegetables; and it 
abounds in fish. 

' ' On each side of this fine lake, streets, one 
hundred feet broad, have been marked out, 
and a road of equal width about the same. 
Trees have been marked, which must be pre- 
served for the health and recreation of the 

"Another street, one hundred and twenty 
feet wide, has been marked out on the bank 
of the Mississippi, and also the trees noted 
which must be kept for the above-mentioned 

"Twelve acres have been kept in the center 
of the city for the purpose of a public park, 
whose plan and adornment the magistrates of 
the city will look after ; and forty lots of one 
and one-half acres apiece, have been consid- 
ered for those public works or uses which the 
citizens may request or the magistrate or 
chief order, and another twelve acres reserved 
for the disposition of the King. A ground- 
plot of one and one-half acres, and a lot of 
five acres, outside the city will be given to 
each one of the first six hundred settlers. 

"Our surveyors are now working on the 
extensive plan and proving up the ground 
plots of the city and the outside lots, and 
measuring the lands into sections of 320 acres 
apiece, in addition to those which they choose 
for the settlement of the people who may 
come (here). These portions and the con- 
ditions of the settlements are also in accord- 
ance with a plan universally satisfactory, 



which will avoid the interminable lawsuits 
which a different method has caused in other 
countries to the posterity of the first settlers. 

"We have constructed cabins and a store- 
house for provisions, etc., and we are making 
gardens und clearing one hundred acres of 
land in the most beautiful meadow in the 
world, in order to sow corn, hemp, flax, cot- 
ton, tobacco, and potatoes. 

"The timber here is different in some 
kinds of trees from those in the central states 
of America. However, we have found white 
oak, high and straight, of extraordinary size, 
as well as black oak, mulberry, ash, white 
poplar, persimmon, and apples in abundance, 
and larger than those which we have hitherto 
seen. Also hickory, walnut, etc. The sassa- 
fras, very straight and of extraordinary size, 
is commonly 24 inches in diameter. The 
shrubs are principally cane and spice-wood. 

"The timbers unknown to you gentlemen, 
are the cypress, pecan, coffee (sic), cucum- 
ber, and some others. The cypress grows on 
the lowlands at the edge of the river; its 
quality is equal to that of white cedar. We 
have a fine grove of these trees in our neigh- 
borhood which Colonel Morgan has had di- 
vided into shares of a suitable size, in order 
to assign them to each farm. 

"We are satisfied with the climate, and we 
have reason to congratulate ourselves that we 
have at last found a country which conforms 
to our most ardent desires." 

* Morgan gives this account of the way the 
town is laid out and the manner in which lots 
are to be disposed of: "The first six hun- 
dred persons applying for city and out lots, 
who shall build and reside thereon one whole 
year, or place a family who shall so reside, 
shall have one city lot of half an acre, and 
* Houek, "Spanish Eegime, " Vol. I, p. 137. 

one out lot of five acres, gratis; paying only 
one dollar for each patent. All other city 
and out lots shall be reserved for sale, to fu- 
ture applicants according to their value. In 
the choice of the city and out lots the first 
applicant shall have the first choice of each; 
the second applicant shall have the second, 
and so on. Forty lots of half an acre each 
shall be reserved for public uses, and shall be 
applied to such purposes as the citizens shall 
from time to time recommend, or the chief 
magistrate appoint ; taking care that the same 
be so distributed in the dift'erent parts of the 
city that their uses may be general, and as 
equal as possible. There shall be two lots of 
twelve acres each laid out and reserved for- 
ever ; viz. : one for the King, and one for pub- 
lic walks, to be ornamented, improved and 
regulated by or under the direction of the 
chief magistrate of the city, for the time be- 
ing, for the use and amusement of the citizens 
and strangers. So soon as these lots shall be 
laid off, the timber, trees and shrubs, now 
growing thereon, shall be religiously pre- 
served as sacred; and no part thereof shall 
be violated or cut down, but by the personal 
direction and inspection of the chief magis- 
trate for the time being, whose reputation 
must be answerable for an honorable and 
generous discharge of this trust, meant to 
promote the health and pleasure of the citi- 
zens. There shall be a reserve of one acre at 
each angle of every intersection of public 
roads or highways, throughout the whole ter- 
ritory, according to the plan laid down for 
settlement of the country; by which means, 
no farm house can be more than two miles 
and a half from one of these reserves, which 
are made forever for the following uses, viz. : 
one acre on the northeast angle or the use of 
a school ; one acre in the northwest angle for 
a church ; one acre on the southwest angle 



for the use of the poor of the district, and the 
remainiug angle in the southeast angle for the 
use of the King. 

"In laj'ing out the city, all streets shall 
be at right angles and four rods wide, includ- 
ing the foot-paths on each side, which shall 
be fifteen feet wide, and shall be raised 
twelve or fifteen inches above the wagon road. 
No person shall be allowed to eucroach on the 
foot-paths, with either porch, cellar door, or 
other obstruction to passengers. 

"All the oblongs, or squares of the city, 
shall be of the same dimensions, if possible; 
viz. : extending from east to west eighty rods 
or perches, and from north to south twelve 
perches, so that each oblong or square will 
contain six acres, which shall be subdivided 
by meridian lines, into twelve lots of half an 
acre each; by this means every lot will have 
at least two fronts, and the end lots will 
have three fronts. The lots' shall be num- 
bered from No. 1 upward, on each side of 
every street; extending from east to west; 
commencing at the east end. 

"The streets shall be distinguished by 
names in the following manner: the middle 
street shall be a continuation of the middle 
range or road, extending from the first me- 
ridional line to the ]\Iississippi river, aud 
shall be called King street; and the streets 
north of this, extending from east to west, 
shall be called first North street, second 
North street, and so on, reckoning from 
King's street or Middle street. In like man- 
ner all the streets south of Kings street or 
Middle street, extending from east to west, 
shall be called first South street, second 
South street, and so on, reckoning from King 
street ; so also, all the streets extending North 
and South shall be distinguished by the 
names of first River street, second River 

street, and so on; reckoning the space be- 
tween the eastmost squares and the river, as 
first or front River street. 

"The space between the eastmost squares 
aud the river, shall not be less than one 
hundred feet at any place, from the present 
margin or bank of the river, to be kept open 
forever for the security, pleasure and health 
of the city, and its inhabitants ; wherefore re- 
ligious care shall be taken to preserve all the 
timber growing thereon. 

"The lots of each square shall be num- 
bered from the above space fronting the 
river. The eastmost lot of each square being 
No. 1, and so on, to the westmost lot of the 
whole city ; liy which means every lot in the 
city may be easily known and pointed out by 
any person. 

"The two lots No. 1 on each side of King 
street are hereby given forever to the citi- 
zens for market places. The two lots No. 13 
on each side of King street are hereby given 
forever to the citizens ; viz. : that on the south 
side for a Roman Catholic school, and that on 
the north side for a Roman Catholic church.. 

"The two lots No. 13 in the fifth North 
street are hereby given forever to the citi- 
zens, viz : that on the south side for an Epis- 
copal school, aud that on the north side for 
an Episcopal church. 

"The two lots No. 13 in the fifth South 
street are hereby given forever to the citi- 
zens, viz. : that on the south side for a Pres- 
byterian school, and that on the north side 
for a Presbyterian church. 

"The two lots No. 18 in the tenth North 
street are hereby given forever to the citizens, 
viz. : that on the south side for a German 
Lutheran school, aud that on the north side 
for a German Lutheran church. 

"The two lots No. 13 on the fifteenth North 
street are hereby given forever to the citizens 



— that on the south side for a German Cal- 
vanistic school, and that on the north side for 
a German Calvanistie church. 

"In like manner the two lots No. 13 in 
every fifth North street, and in every fifth 
South street throughout the city, shall be re- 
served and given for churches and schools, to 
be governed by such religious denominations 
as shall settle in New Madrid, on their re- 
spective plans. 

"All these lots, thus given, or reserved to 
be given are to be esteemed so many of these 
forty promised as before mentioned. 

"Every landing on the river opposite the 
city shall be equally free for all persons ; un- 
der regulation, however, of the magistrates 
of the police. 

"No trees in any street of the city, nor in 
any road throughout the country, shall be 
injured or be cut down, but under the direc- 
tion of the magistrates of the police, or an of- 
ficer of their appointment, who shall be ac- 
countable in the pi-emises; and no timber in- 
.iured or cut down in any street or road, shall 
be applied to private uses under any plea 

"The banks of the Mississippi, throughout 
the territory, including a space of four rods 
in breadth, shall be a highway and kept open 
forever as such ; and the trees growing there- 
in shall not be injured, nor be cut down, but 
by the magistrates of the police or their or- 
der, for the reasons given above in relation to 
other roads. 

"No white person shall be admitted to re- 
side in this territory who shall declare him- 
self to be a hunter by profession, or who shall 
make a practice of killing buffaloes or deer 
without bringing all the flesh of every carcass 
to his own family, or to New Madrid, or 
carrying it to some other market. This regu- 
lation is intended for the preservation of 

those animals, and for the benefit of neigh- 
boring Indians, whose dependence is on hunt- 
ing principally — this settlement being wholly 
agricultural and commercial, no encourage- 
ment shall be given to white men hunters. 

"No person shall be concerned in contra- 
band trade on any account. Care will be 
taken to instruct the inhabitants what is con- 
traband, that thej^ may not oifend innocently. 

"Every person having permission to settle 
in this territory shall be allowed to bring 
with him his family, servants, slaves and ef- 
fects of every kind, but not to export any 
part thereof, deemed contraband to any other 
part of his Majesty's dominions. 

"Every navigable river throughout the 
territory shall be esteemed a highway ; and no 
obstruction to the navigation shall be made 
therein for the emolument of any person 

"No transfei'of lands within this territory 
shall be valid unless acknowledged, and a rec- 
ord thereof be made in an office to be erected 
for that purpose in the district. This is 
meant to prevent fraudulent sales, and not 
to obstruct those made bonafide to any per- 
son whatsoever, being a Spanish subject. 

"All mortgages must in like manner be 
recorded at the same office for the same pur- 
pose ; the fees of the office shall be reasonable, 
and the books, with alphabetical tables kept 
of the buyer and seller, and of the mortgagor 
and mortgagee, shall be open for examin- 

"The foregoing regulations and directions 
are meant as fundamental stipvilations for 
the government and happiness of all who 
shall become subjects of Spain, and shall re- 
side in this Territory. 

Given under my hand at New Madrid this 
sixth day of April, 1789. 

George ]\Iorgan." 


A number of settlers were attracted by the 
generous conditions on which land was 
granted and by the real desirability of the 
site of New Madrid, and Morgan steered well 
on the way to the accomplishment of his de- 
sire. He came in conflict however with plans 
that had been formed by Governor Miro the 
Spanish governor of Louisiana whose head- 
quarters were at New Orleans and who was 
engaged in intrigue with General James Wil- 
kinson. Wilkinson was an officer in the army 
of the United States in command of the dis- 
trict along the Mississippi river. He had 
planned with Miro to incite a rebellion among 
the people of the United States west of the 
Alleghanies, with the intention of separating 
this territory from the United States and of 
joining it to the Spanish territory. Wilkin- 
son was drawing a pension from the Spanish 
government and had hopes that his efforts in 
securing a part of the territory of the United 
States for Spain would result in his receiving 
some very great reward. Of course Morgan's 
plan of drawing settlers to New Madrid and 
making that a prosperous and flourishing 
center of trade for Upper Louisiana was in 
direct opposition to the hopes of Wilkinson. 
He saw in Colonel Morgan a rival and set to 
work to thwart his plans. He wrote Governor 
Miro that he had applied for a grant in the 
Yazoo country in order to destroy the place 
of a certain Colonel Morgan. He told Miro 
that Jlorgan was a man of education and in- 
telligence, but a thorough speculator. He 
also said of Morgan that he had been twice 
in bankruptcy, and that he was very poor, 
but also very ambitious. He also said that 
he had had a spy searching out information 
concerning Morgan and his agreement with 
Don Diego Gardoqui and that he was con- 
vinced that ]\Iorgan's scheme would be suc- 
cessful unless steps were taken to counter- 

act it. He assured Miro that their plans 
would be greatly hindered if Morgan would 
be allowed to carry on his settlement. 

Acting on this information Governor Miro 
proceeded at once to try and put an end to 
the operations conducted by Morgan. On 
the 20th of May, 1789, he wrote to the Span- 
ish government protesting against the grant 
that had been made to Morgan. He said that 
it formed a state within a state and asked the 
government to cancel this grant ; at the same 
time he wrote to Morgan himself and charged 
him with having exceeded his powei"s and 
with having acted toward the government of 
Spain in bad faith. He said that ]\Iorgan had 
no authority to lay out a town and provide 
for a government. He informed Morgan that 
it was his intention to construct a fort at 
New Madrid and to place a detachment of 
soldiers there to control the situation. Mor- 
gan saw that this interference would very 
likely work the ruin of all of his hopes. He 
replied to the letter in a most apologetic man- 
ner, saying that if he had, indeed, exceeded 
his authority he had done so because of his 
zeal in the service of the King of Spain. He 
was unable to conceal the fact, however, from 
those colonists who had come and were com- 
ing to New Madrid, that he had fallen into 
disfavor with the government and they im- 
mediately began to fear that he would be 
unable to carry out his promise. It seems 
too that an emissary of Miro visited New Jla- 
drid and succeeded in stirring up some ill 
feeling against Morgan and his rule. The col- 
onists complained about some of the regula- 
tions and finally sent an agent, one John 
Ward, to present a petition to Governor Miro. 
Acting on this petition IMiro carried out his 
threat and sent a company of soldiers with 
orders to construct a fort at New Madrid and 



to take entire charge of the government of 
the post. This practically destroyed Mor- 
gan's influence, and with its loss went all his 
hope of making a settlement at New Madrid. 
The post was continued under the govern- 
ment of Spanish officials. 

The officer whom Miro sent with the com- 
pany of thirty soldiers to take charge of the 
post was Lieutenant Pierre Forcher who laid 
off a town between Bayou St. John and the 
Decyperi. The fort which he built on the 
bank of the river he named Fort Celeste, in 
honor of the wife of Governor Miro. Com- 
mandant Forcher was a man of energy and 
administrative ability and under his rule or- 
der and prosperity reigned in the community. 
He was succeeded after about eighteen months 
by Thomas Portell. Portell was a man well 
suited to the place, governed with justice, 
and was able to satisfy most of the people. 

A letter is here inserted which was written 
in 1796 by Pierre Antoine La Forge to 
Charles DeHault De Lassus. De Lassus had 
been appointed militar.y and civil command- 
ant of the post and district of New Madrid. 
La Forge was a resident of the post and thor- 
oughly acquainted with the entire situation. 
His letter cannot fail to be of interest as it 
covers the conditions at New Madrid at that 

New LIadrid, Dec. 31, 1796.— To Mr. Chas. 
Dehault DeLassus, Lieutenant-Colonel ad- 
mitted into the Stationary Regiment of Lou- 
isiana and ]\Iilitary and Civil Commandant 
of the Posts and Districts of New ^Madrid — 
Sir, the Commandant : — Before handing you 
the first census of New Jladrid under your 
commandment, I have ventured upon a sketch 
of the origin of the settlement of this post, 
and the courses which have retarded its 
growth and chiefly its cultivation. If former 

defects have kept it until this time in a spe- 
cies of stupefaction, your sagacious views and 
the zeal you exhibit to second the good will of 
Mr., the Governor General of this Province, 
towards this settlement, can in a little while 
efface the trouble it experienced in its birth. 

I was present, Mr. Commandant, when 
you pronounced with effusion these words, 
which I wish that all of the inhabitants might 
have heard ; words which depicted so frankly 
your kind intention, and the interest which 
Mr., the Governor, takes in us. 

"The Governor," said you, "is surprised 
at the langour exhibited by this settlement 
and its little advance; he desires its pros- 
perity. I will reflect upon its failure," added 
you, "and will endeavor to remedy it; I ask 
your assistance. If the inhabitants need en- 
couragement, if they stand in need of help, 
let them inform me of their wants, and I will 
convey them to the Governor General. ' ' This 
offer was appreciated by those near you ; lit- 
tle accustomed to hear the like, they won- 
dered at j'ou, and appeared to rest content. 

Nevertheless different statements were 
spread among those who heard you. Why so 
long a silence since your generous offer? Is 
it distrust on their part ? Is it mistrust of 
their own misunderstanding? Is it profound 
reflection to better further your views? or 
may it be self interest that induces some to 
remain silent? I am ignorant of their mo- 
tives, and limit myself to the hope that they 
will eventually break their silence and make 
kno^vn to you their solitary reflections. 

If my knowledge equalled my desires, I 
would hasten with all my power, sir, the 
commandant, to tender you the homage of my 
services, but they fall too far short to allow 
me to hope that they could be of any utility 
to you. I will confine myself solely to com- 
municate to you siich knowledge as I have 



acquired, and my reflections thereon since I 
have been at this post, and may a series of 
these reflections assist in your benevolent 
heart some happy idea that may tend to the 
advantage and prosperity of this colony. 

Some traders in pursuit of gain, came to 
I'anse a la graissse (cove of fat or grease), 
a rendezvous or gathering place of several In- 
dian nations, and where, as we are told by 
tradition, they found abundance of game, 
and especially bears and buffaloes, hence the 
name of I'anse a la graissse. A first year of 
success induced them to try a second, and to 
this others. Some of them, determined to es- 
tablish their homes where they found a sure 
trade and unlimited advantages, divided 
there among themselves the land. The bayou, 
named since St. John, was the rallying point, 
and the land the nearest to this then became 
settled, therefore we find that Messrs. Fran- 
cis and Joseph Lasieuer, Ambrose Dumay, 
Chattoillier, and others, divided among them- 
selves this neighborhood; property which Mr. 
Foucher, the first commandant, considered as 
sacred, and which he did not disturb. The 
profits of the trade of 1 'anse a la graissse hav- 
ing been heard of as far as the Post Vinceu- 
nes, the St. Maries, the Hunots, the Racines. 
the Barsaloux, etc., of that place accom- 
plished for some years very advantageous 
trips. They congratulated themselves, more- 
over, that the Indians of I'anse a la graissse 
traded with them amicably, whilst those of 
the United States were treacherous towards 
them, and made them averse to inhabit a post 
where their lives were in constant danger. 

Nevertheless an unfortunate anarchy, a 
singular disorder, prevailed, at I'anse a la 
graissse: all were masters, and would obey 
none of those who set themselves up a heads 
or commandants of this new colony. A mur- 
der was committed by an inhabitant on an- 

other — then their eyes were opened, they be- 
gan to feel the necessity of laws, and some one 
at their head to compel their observance. 
They bound the culprit and sent him to New 
Orleans. Everything tends to the belief that 
the commandants of the posts of Ste. Gene- 
vieve and of St. Louis had, during these 
transactions, apprised the Governor-General 
of what was occuring at I'anse a la graissse; 
but a new scene was in preparation. 

One Morgan, having descended the Ohio 
the first year that traders settled at I'anse a 
la graissse, examined, in passing, the land, 
and found it suitable to fix here a settlement 
Returning to America (U. S.), he removed 
and succeeded in bringing down to this post 
several families. He selected for the village 
the elevated ground, where at present are the 
habitations of Jackson and of Waters, near 
the Mississippi. They built some houses on 
the land, and, full of his enterprise and the 
success he expected from it, Morgan de- 
scended to New Orleans to obtain, not encour- 
agement simply in his plans, but proprietary 
and honorary concessions beyond measure. 
He was baffled in his pretensions, and did not 
again set his foot in the colony. 

These various occurrances determined the 
Governor General to send a commandant to 
this post, and M. Forcher was selected. Men 
are not gods, they all possess in some respects 
the weaknesses of human nature; the pre- 
dominant one of the first commandant was 
self-interest; and who in his place would not 
have been so sent to a desert in the midst of 
savages, to bring the laws of a regulated gov- 
ernment to new settlers as barbarous as the 
Indians themselves? What recompense would 
he have received for neglecting his personal 
interests? What obligation would the new 
colony have been under to him ? None. 

Mr. Forcher was the man that was wanted 



for the creation of this new colony. Biis.y- 
ing himself at the same time with his own in- 
terests as of those of the inliabitants ; with his 
own amusements as well as theirs, but al- 
ways after having attended first to his busi- 
ness ; and by a singular address, if he some- 
times plucked the fowl, he not only did it 
without making it squall, but set it dancing 
and laughing, il. Forcher remained but a 
very short time at this post, and did a great 
deal. In eighteen months he divided out the 
country, regulated the laud necessarj' for the 
village and that of the inhabitants. He built 
an imposing fort, promulgated the laws of the 
King and made them respected. He was the 
father and friend of all, lamented, regretted 
and demanded again, from the Governor Gen- 
eral down, by the unanimous voice of all the 

In all his labors was Mr. Forcher assisted 
by anyone ? Had he overseers at the head of 
the works he presented ? Not at all ; he alone 
directed everything; he laid out the work, 
penetrated the cypress swamps to select the 
useful trees ; he walked with the compass in 
hand to align the streets and limit of lots; he 
demonstrated by his example to the perplexed 
workmen how nuich men with but little main 
strength, but with intelligence and dexterity, 
can multiply the extent of the same, and sur- 
mount olistacles. His administration was too 
brief to ascertain the good he might have 
done, had it continued the ordinar.v period. 
What is certain is that, during the eighteen 
months that he was in command, there came 
to New Madrid the largest portion of families 
that are still there, and it was he that at- 
tracted them there. 

M. Portell, successor to M. Forcher, com- 
manded this post during five years; the popu- 
lation did not increase under his administra- 

tion, and the growth of agricultural labors 
was but slightly perceptible. 

jM. Portell did not value the inhabitants 
sufficiently to do them a substantial favor, 
nor did he use the proper means to improve 
the condition of the colony. He was not a 
man of the people, and when by chance his 
interest recpiired him to assume the charac- 
ter, he was extremely awkward in it; they 
perceived that he could not play his part, 
and that a residence in court would have 
infinitely better suited him than one in a 
new settlement mostly ill composed. JM. Por- 
tell had a good heart, he was by nature noble 
and generous, but his mind was somewhat 
mistrustful and suspicious, and his age 
placed him in a position to be influenced by 
his surroundings. I am convinced that if 
]\I. Portell had come alone to this colony, he 
would have exhibited much less weakness 
and that his time would have been much more 
to him for the public good than it had been. 

The little progress made by the colony 
must not, however, be attributed to the ap- 
parent indifference which seemed to form the 
base of M. Portell 's character; phj'sical and 
moral courses retarded its advancement. 

At the period when IM. Portell assumed 
command he found the inhabitants of this 
post made up of traders, hunters and boat- 
men. Trade was still pretty fair for the first 
two years of his residence here, so that nearly 
everyone, high or low, would meddle with the 
trade and not a soul cultivated the soil. 
It was so convenient, with a little powder 
and lead, some cloth and a few blankets, 
whicli they obtained on credit at the stores, 
to procure themselves the meat, grease and 
suet necessary for their sustenance, and pay 
off a part of their indebtedness with some pel- 
tries. Some of them, but a verv few, seeded. 



equally as well as badly, about an acre of 
corn, and they all found time to smoke their 
pipes and give balls and entei-tainments. 
How often have I heard them regretting those 
happy days, when they swam in grease, and 
when abundance of every description was 
the cause of waste and extravagance, and the 
stores of fish from their dragnets gave them 
whiskey at four or five reaux (bit of 121/2) 
a gallon, and flour at four or five dollars a 
barrel, maintained and kept up these fes- 
tivals and pleasures, which only came to an 
end when their purses were exhausted. 

Mr. Forcher, a young man who, during his 
command of the post, never neglected his 
work or business for amusements, yet found 
time to be at them all, and often was the first 
to start them, but M. Portell was not so soci- 
able in this respect. He found fault with this 
giddiness and folly, and .judged that a col- 
ony, peopled by such individuals, could not 
attain a very brilliant success. 

At last, game in these parts becoming 
scarcer, the Indians removed themselves fur- 
ther off, and were seldom here; the traders 
knew very well where to find them, but the 
inhabitants waited for them in vain; then 
grease, suet, meat and peltries being no 
longer brought by the Indians, it was only a 
few resident hunters and the traders them- 
selves who provisioned the village ; the un- 
fortunate habit of not working had gained 
the day, it was too difficult to overcome it, 
so great distress was often seen in the coun- 
try before they could snatch a few gi-een ears 
of corn from a badly cultivated field. Three 
or four Americans, at most, as far back as 
1793, had risqued the settlement of farms 
on large tracts of land. The Creoles under- 
valued them, did not eat their fill of dry corn 
bread, and smoked their pipes quietly. They 
were, however, surprised to see that, with sev- 

eral cows, they often had not a drop of milk, 
while these three or four Americans gorged 
themselves with it, and sold them butter, 
cheese, eggs, chickens, etc. 

By dint of looking into the matter, and 
waiting in vain for the Indians to supply 
them with proAasions, it struck them that the 
most prudent thing they could do would be 
to become farmers. It became, then, a species 
of epidemic, and the malady spreading from 
one to another, there was not a single one of 
them but who, without energy, spirit, animals 
or ploughs, and furnished only with his 
pipe and steel, must needs possess a farm. 

It was towards the close of the year 1793 
that this disease spread itself, and towards 
the spring of 1794 all the lands in the vicin- 
ity of New Madrid were to be broken up and 
torn into rags, to be seeded and watered by 
the sweat of these new farmers. Who can 
tell how far this newly awakened enthusiasm 
might have been carried? It might have pro- 
duced a salutarj' crisis, and self-love and nc 
cessity combined, we should be supplied with 
farmers at all hazards, and whose apprentice- 
sliip might, perhaps, have resulted in some 

An unlooked for occurrence calmed this 
effervescence ; all were enrolled into a militia 
to be paid from January 1, 1794, and they 
found it much pleasanter to eat the King's 
bread, receive his pay, and smoke his pipes, 
than to laboriously grub some patches of 
land to make it produce some corn and po- 
tatoes. These militiamen were disbanded 
about the middle of 1794; their pay was al- 
ready wasted. They found it a great hard- 
ship to be no longer furnished with bread by 
the King, the largest portion of them had 
neglected their planting, they found them- 
selves at the year's end in want, and clam- 
ored as thieves against the King, saying it 



was all his fault. M. Portell knew his people 
and disregarded these outcries. 

In the meantime five gallies had oome up 
in the course of this year, and had passed all 
the summer at New Madrid, and they had 
caused a great consumption of food. il. Por- 
tell found nothing in the village for their sub- 
sistence, and drew his supplies for them in 
part from Illinois and from Kentucky. He 
did not let pass the opportunity of making it 
felt by those of the inhabitants of long resi- 
dence, that should have been in a condition 
to have furnished a part of these supplies, but 
the blows he .struck came too late, and made 
but little impression — the hot fever which 
had occasioned the delirium, where every one 
saw himself a farmer, had now subsided; no 
one thought any more of it, some of them who 
had made a trial of their experience at Lake 
St. Isidor, had so poorly succeeded, that the 
laugh was not on their side, and it needed 
but little for hunting, rowing, and smoking 
the pipe, to resume their ancient authority 
over nearly all the colony. 

In 1795 a new fit of the fever struck the 
inhabitants. The settlement of Ft. St. Fer- 
nando occasioned a hasty cleaning out of the 
little corn there was in the colony. Ken- 
tucky furnished a little, and Ste. Genevieve 
supplied a great deal, even to New iladrid, 
that fell short after having consumed her 
own .supply. This example struck the in- 
habitants ; they saw that if they had harvested 
extensively, they could now well have dis- 
posed of their surplus — new desires to go on 
farms to raise stock and to make crops. 

During these occurrances several Ameri- 
can families came to New IMadrid ; some of 
them placed themselves at once on farms, and 
like children our Creoles, from a state of 
jealousy, clamored against the Americans, 
whom they thought too wonderful. Jealousy 

stinuilated them, and they would also place 
themselves on farms. 

It is in reality, then, only since the year 
1796 that we may regard the inhabitants of 
this post as having engaged in cultivation, 
and that it is but yet absolutely in its in- 
fancy; a new scarcity they have just experi- 
enced before the last crops has convinced 
them of the importance of raising them, not 
only to provide against such alHiction, to en- 
able them also, \vith the surplus above their 
own consumption, they may procure their 
other indispensable ' necessaries. 

The population of the years 1794, 1795 and 
1796 is nearly about the same, but the crops 
have increased from year to year, and all 
tends to the belief that this increase will be 
infinitely more perceptible in future years. 

In the year 1794 the corn crop was 6,000 
bushels; in 1795, 10,000, and in 1796, 17,000. 

It was in this condition of things that M. 
Portell left his command. 

It was, perhaps, impossible, from the fore- 
going facts, that the settlement at New Ma- 
drid could have made greater progress than 
it has up to this time. It was not husband- 
men who came and laid the foundation, it 
was tradesmen, cooks, and others, who would 
live there with but little expense and la- 
bor, who, being once fixed there, having their 
lands and their cattle, the Indians having re- 
moved them.selves to a distance, and trade no 
longer within the reach of all the world, ne- 
cessity taught them that to procure the means 
necessary to live, thej' must resort to tilling 
the soil. The first attempts were difficult, but 
the inducement of disposing with ease of 
their crops determined them to labor. 

The first steps have been taken ; nothing 
remains for a wise commandant, but to man- 
age everything with prudence, according to 
the views of the government, to firmlj- repel 



idleness and laziness, to welcome and encour- 
age activity, and exhibit to the industrious 
men that he is distinguished above others and 
has earned the protection of the government, 
in giving him tangible proof, either by pref- 
erence in purchasing from him or some 
other manner of recompense. The honest 
man, the active and industrious man, is sen- 
sible of the slightest proceeding on the part 
of his superior, and it is to him a great ex- 
pansion to reflect that his labors and fatigues 
have not been ignored, and that they have 
given him a claim on the good will and be- 
nevolence of the heads of a Providence. 

What a vast field is open to a commandant 
who would reap advantage by these means, 
and gain the benediction of all the worthj' in- 
habitants of a colony. 

I stop here, Mr. Commandant ; what I 
might say further would add but little to the 
good purposes you design for the progress 
and success of the place. I have made a con- 
cise narrative of the origin of the post of 
New Madrid, and the reasons of its slow 
growth in agriculture. The census which 
follows, will give you a correct view of its 
present situation. It will prove to you that 
courage and emulation need but a slight sup- 
port to emerge from the giddiness where they 
have so long remained. But for certain the 
Creoles will never make this a flourishing set- 
tlement, it will be the Americans, Germans 
and other active people who will reap the 
glory of it. 

Observe, if it please you, sir, that amongst 
the habitations granted long since, those 
given by Francis Racine, by Hunot, Sr., the 
Hunot sons, Paquin, Laderoute, deceased, 
Gamelin, Lalotte, etc., have not yet had a 
single tree cut on them; that those of the 
three brothers. Saint Marie, Meloche and 
other Creoles are barely commenced. 

You will see, on the contrary, that the 
Americans who obtain grants of land have 
nothing more at heart but to settle on them 
at once and improve them to the extent of 
their ability, and from this it is easy to draw 

Another observation which will surely not 
escape you, sir, is that the total head of fam- 
ilies amount, according to the census I ex- 
hibit to you, to 159, and that in this number 
there are fifty-three who have no property. 
This, I think, is an evil to which it would be 
easy for you to apply a remedy. In a county 
destined to agricultural pursuits, and to the 
breeding of domestic animals, it is too much 
that one-third of the inhabitants should 
stand isolated from the general interest, and 
that the other two-thirds should be exposed 
to be the victim of a set of idle and lazy peo- 
ple, always at hand at their slightest neces- 
sities to satiate their hunger by preying on 
the industrious. 

I think, Mr. Commandant, that several 
habitations left by persons who have ab- 
sented themselves from this post for a long 
time should be reunited to the domain. 

The following are of this class : 

One Enic Bolduc, absent for over two 
years, had a place at Lake St. Francis No. 2. 

One John Easton, absent for over three 
years, had a place at Lake St. Eulalie; it is 
now abandoned. One Mr. Waters says he 
has claims on it. What are they? 

One Toiirney had a place at Lake St. Isi- 
dor; he associated with to cultivate it one 
Gamard. Tourney returned to France, and 
Gamard had worked for two years at Fort 
St. Fernando. 

One M. Desrocher, why has he not worked 
his place in the Mill Prairie, which he holds 
for over four years? Has he not enough 
with the one he holds at St. Isidor? 



One M. Chisholm holds three places; he 
lives on one he has just commenced to clear; 
a second is in litigation, and for over four 
years he has done nothing on a third near 
the village — has he not enough with two? 
Why hold land uselessly, and above all near 
the village? 

The examination you will give the census, 
and the information concerning the property 
of each head of a family will lead you prob- 
ably to other reflections. I append to the 
whole a new map of the village and its en- 
virons, as taken after the last abrasion of 
land by the Mississippi ; this work claims 
your indulgence ; it is not that of an artist, 
but one of the most zealous subjects of his 
majesty ; and the only merit it may possess 
is to demonstrate to you with correctness the 
number of places that have been conceded in 
the village, the houses that are built thereon, 
and the names of the proprietors on the gen- 
eral list which correspond with the same 
numbers as those placed on each conceded 

I pray you to believe me, with profound 
respect, sir, the commandant. 

Your very affectionate and devoted ser- 

New Madrid, December 31, 1796. 

Pierre Antoine LaForge. 

De Lassus remained as commandant at 
New Madrid until the spring of 1799 when 
he was transferred to St. Louis and became 
the lieutenant governor of Upper Louisiana. 
De Lassus was, perhaps, the most popular 
official ever in command at New Madrid, as 
he was, indeed, one of the most popular in 
all Louisiana. He was succeeded by Don 
Henri Peyroux who was transferred to the 
post from Ste. Genevieve. Peyroux landed 
* ' ' History of Southeast Missouri, ' ' p. 140. 

in New Madrid in August, 1799, and was in 
command four years. He then resigned and 
returned to France. 

John Lavalle succeeded Peyroux as com- 
mandant of the post and held the place un- 
til the transfer to the United States in March, 

The emigrants who came to New Madrid 
with Colonel jMorgan were mainly from 
Maryland and Pennsylvania. Among them 
were David Gray, Alex Samson, Joseph 
Story, Richard Jones Waters, John Hemp- 
hill, Elisha Windsor, Andrew Wilson, Sam- 
uel Dorsay, Benjamin Harrison, Jacolj and 
Benjamin Meyers, William Chambers, Elisha 
Jackson, Ephraim Conner, John Hart, 
James Dunn, Lawrence Harrison, John 
Gregg, Nicholas and James Gerry, John Wal- 
lace, John Becket, John Summers, Louis and 
Joseph Vandenbenden, Joseph McCourtney, 
John Pritchett and David Shelby. 

As we have seen the earliest French set- 
tlers were the two LeSieurs, Francois and 
Joseph. They were not only the first, but 
perhaps the most influential of all. Many of 
their descendants are still to be found in 
New Madrid county. These two were the 
sons of Charles LeSieur a native of thei south 
of France who had emigrated to Three Rivers 
in Canada. Francois and Joseph came to St. 
Louis in 1785 and entered the employ of 
Gabriel Cerre who was a fur trader. It was 
in his interest that they visited the place 
where the town of New Madrid was after- 
ward located. Joseph died in 1796 and left 
no children. Francois married on May 13, 
1791, Cecile Guilbequet, a native of Vincen- 
nes. In 1794 they removed to Little Prairie, 
remaining there until the earthquakes of 
1811 and '12 when they returned to New Ma- 
drid county and made their home at Point 



Pleasant. Fi-ancois LeSieur died in 1826; 
he liad been married three times. The chil- 
dren of the first marriage were Francois, 
Jr., whose wife was a LeGrand; Colestique, 
who became the wife of Noah Gambol; Mar- 
guerite, who married Hypolite Thiriat; God- 
frey, who married Mary E. Loignon and 
reared a family of eleven children; Matilda 
who became Mrs. W. B. Nicholas; and Chris- 
tine, who was married to George G. Alford. 
His second wife was a Miss Bowman, and 
their son was named Napoleon. In 1820 he 
was married for a third time to the widow of 
Charles Loignon. Another member of this 
family was Raphael LeSieur who was a 
nephew of the two brothers and came to Ma- 
drid in 1798. 

Another of the other French settlers was 
Pierre Antoine La Forge who came from 
France. La Forge was an aristocrat by birth, 
had been educated to be a priest, but fell in 
love with his cousin Margaret Champagne. 
He resided in Paris, but was compelled to 
leave at the time of the Revolution. He 
came to America then. At first he lived in 
Gallipolis. Ohio; he then removed to New 
Madrid where he was appointed a public 
writer and interpreter. He was also an ad- 
jutant of militia and justice of the peace 
and a notary public. De Lassus thought 
very highly of La Forge and accounted him 
one of the best officers in the service of the 
Spanish. His descendants still live in New 
Madrid county and have always been influ- 
ential citizens. Among them we mention 
Alexander La Forge, A. C. La Forge. Hon. 
William Dawson, Robert D. Dawson, Dr. Geo. 
W. Dawson, and Dr. "Welton O'Bannon. 
Others also have attained prominence and 
, wealth. 

As we have seen, Francis and Joseph Le- 
Sieur are the first settlers in New Madrid. 

The third was Joseph Michel. Michel's son, 
also named Joseph, who was born in 1800, 
lived to be a very old man, dying in 1895. S 
He lived in New ^Madrid until 1829, when he I 
moved to Hales Point, Tennessee. He was 
a nephew by marriage of Captain Robert 
JMcCo}' who was also his guardian. He mar- 
ried a daughter of John Baptiste Olive one 
of the early settlers in New Madrid. 

Captain McCoy was one of the most promi- 
nent men in New Madrid, he came to the set- 
tlement \vitli Morgan, and became an officer 
under the Spanish authorities, being in com- 
mand of a Spanish galley, or revenue boat. 
There were several of these galleys stationed 
at New Madrid and they were charged with 
the execution of the Spanish commercial 
laws. All boats passing New Madrid were 
required to stop and to give an account of 
themselves, and to pay the required tax to 
the government. It was while in command 
of one of these boats that McCoy captured 
the celebrated Mason gang of robbers and 
river pirates who for a number of years com- 
mitted depredations on the river commerce. 
Joseph ]\Iichel who visited New ]\Iadrid in 
1887 had a vivid recollection of the encounter 
between McCoy and the Mason gang. The 
Spanish governor at that time was Peyroux. 
He ordered IMcCoy to Little Prairie where 
he found and captured Mason and his men. 
They were then brought to New ]\Iadrid, 
sent from there to New Orleans and were 
then ordered up the river again, and on the 
return while their boat was tied at the river 
bank with most of the crew on the bank. 
Mason and his men seized the boat, shot and 
wounded Captain McCoy and made their es- 
cape. McCoy was commandant at post of 
New Madrid in 1799, then he was command- 
ant at Tywappaty Bottom. He died in New 
Madrid in 1840. 



Another of the early French settlers was 
Etienne Bogliolo who had been a resident of 
St. Louis, but early moved to New Madrid 
and engaged in trading. He secured some 
large grants of land from the Spanish au- 
thorities, but lost his property and died 

Another of the French settlers was John 
B. Olive. He left numerous descendants who 
still live in New Madrid county. Still an- 
other was Jolm LaValle. He came to New- 
Madrid direct from France and was a man 
of education and of superior intellect. Of 
his descendants, many still live in the county. 

Of the men who came with Morgan, one 
of the most prominent was Doctor Richard 
Jones Waters. Waters was a native of ^lary- 
land, he came to New Madrid about 1790 
and began the practice of his profession. 
Besides being a physician he was also a 
trader, mill owner, and land speculator. He 
married the widow of Louis Vandenbenden. 
The Waters family of New Madrid are de- 
scendants of Richard Jones Waters. He left 
a large estate and was an energetic, enterpris- 
ing man. De Lassus rated him as a good 
officer, but referred to his somewhat extrava- 
gant disposition. 

Barthelemi Tardiveau was a Frenchman 
who came to New iladrid with IMorgan. He 
was a native of France and lived in Holland 
and had been a merchant in Louisville. He 
was a very able, energetic man, and was 
probably the most cultured man in the early 
settlement. He was a master of several dif- 
ferent languages including French, Eng- 
lish, and Spanish, as well as a number of 
Indian tongues. The company with which he 
was as.sociated was, perhaps, the most ex- 
tensive trading company in New Madrid 
district. He came to New Madrid after some 
experience east of the river which satisfied 

him that if the P^rench in America were to 
prosper they must remove to the west side of 
the Mississippi. While living in the east he 
had interested himself in securing large 
grants of land from Congress for the benefit 
of French settlers and in satisfaction of their 
claims which had originated from Indian 
grants. He was fairly successful in this 
matter, but he soon saw that the very land he 
had been granted slipped out of the hands 
of the French and into the possession of the 
Americans. This convinced him that the 
French people would not prosper unless the.v 
got further away from the Americans. This 
conviction led him to give his assistance and 
influence to the support of Morgan's scheme. 
He not only followed ^Morgan to New Madrid, 
but he induced others of his friends and ac- 
quaintances to do the same. 

Steinbeck and Reinecke, the traders w^hom 
we have noted as being established in Cape 
(Hrardeau, had a trading post at New Ma- 
drid also, they were further interested at 
Little Prairie. Bogliolo was also a trader as 
was the firm of Derbignj', La Forge & Com- 

About 1804 Robert Goah Watson, a Scotch- 
man by birth, but who had resided in Vin- 
cennes, Indiana, and also in Nova Scotia 
moved to New ^Madrid. He engaged in trade 
and acquired a large fortune. He was a man 
of great energy and ability and had the re- 
spect and confidence of all the people of the 
community. He was noted for his kind and 
charitable disposition and rendered such ser- 
vice to the community that he was affection- 
ately referred to as the Father of the Coun- 
try. Watson was killed on his farm near 
Point Pleasant. He left a large family of 
children, consisting of four sons and five 
daughters. One of his daughters married 
John Nathaniel Watson, another Doctor Ed- 


muud La Valle, a third married Thomas L. 
Fontaine, a fourth married W. W. Hunter 
and the fifth daughter > married Doctor 
Thomas A. Dow. Many of the Watsons, 
Fontaines, La Valles and Hunters of New 
Madrid county are descendants of Robert G. 

Shortly before his death Judge Watson 
wrote a slcetch of his life. It is inserted here 
because of the information it contains as to 
conditions existing in this part of the state, 
and especially for its presentation of the 
great difficulty attendant upon travel in that 
early day. 

I am a Scotchman by birth. I left Aul- 
dearn, Scotland, a small town east of Iver- 
ness, in March, 1802. I came to this country 
when a lad with an elder brother of mine. 
Wm. G. Watson, under the guardianship of 
an uncle of ours, who had been in this coun- 
try a number of years previous to our ar- 
rival, and was doing business as a merchant 
in Detroit, Michigan, then a small town. We 
took shipping at Greenoch, Scotland, and 
landed at Montreal, lower Canada, the latter 
part of May. Prom there we took passage on 
a batteau at a place called Sacchine, six or 
eight miles from Montreal. We crossed the 
small lake some six or eight miles wide, which 
brought us to the mouth of the river Magon. 
We proceeded on this batteau, which was 
loaded with merchandise, for Upper Canada, 
there being no other mode of conve.vance at 
that period. After being fifteen days on the 
river, contending against a strong current 
and numerous falls, shoals, and other obstruc- 
tions, we arrived at Queenstown on Lake On- 
tario, a small town settled by British subjects, 
with a garrison containing two or three com- 
panies. After remaining there four days we 
took a small vessel for passage to Niagara, a 

small town at the head of Lake Ontario, after 
being out six days. Prom there we walked 
to Queenstown Heights, a distance of ten 
miles. Prom Queenstown we took a wagon 
to Port Erie. When we arrived we found a 
vessel waiting for freight for Detroit and 
Upper Canada. We remained some ten days 
before the vessel got in freight and was read}' 
to sail. While waiting we had nothing to do 
only amuse ourselves by hunting and fishing. 
We crossed from Fort Erie to the mouth of 
Buffalo Creek on the American side and found 
there a tribe of Indians encamped on a hunt- 
ing expedition. The city of Buiialo was not 
then spoken of, or had any connection with 
the state of New York, either by railroad, 
canal, turnpike or any other kind of road. 
The whole Lake country was claimed and 
owned by Indians, the only white settlement 
at that period on Lake Erie, was at a place 
then called Presque Isle, near the line di- 
viding the state of New York from Pennsyl- 
vania. It was then the only good harbor on 
the Lake. After leaving Port Erie we ar- 
rived at Detroit, eight days out in the latter 
part of August. I remained with my uncle. 
Robert Gouie Watson, in Detroit, one year. 
He sent my brother and myself to school dur- 
ing that time, which was pretty much all the 
school-going we ever received. My uncle had 
a small trading establishment on the British 
side opposite Detroit, and he sent me over 
there to take charge of it. I remained there 
about a year, he being connected with the 
Indian trade on the American side at San- 
dusky and Huron river along Lake Erie, then 
a considerable trading country owned and 
claimed by the Indians. I visited that coun- 
try on business for my uncle in the .vear 
1803. Where Cleveland and Sandusky are 
now located there were no white settlements 
or settlers, with the exception of a few In- 



dian traders. My uucle also had an Indian 
trading establishment at New Madrid, !Mo., 
under the management and control of a 
Frenchman by the name of Gabriel Hunot, 
who had numerous connections of that name 
in that place (New Madrid) and Fort Vin- 
cennes, Ind. From some cause my uncle was 
obliged to take charge of the trading estab- 
lishment, and sent me out with an outfit of 
goods imported from London, expressly for 
the Indian trade, to take charge at New Ma- 
drid of the establishment. We left Detroit, 
I think, in July, 1805, with two pirogues 
loaded with Indian goods, myself, and four 
French Canadians for New Madrid. We 
found the river Maumee very low, making a 
long trip to Fort Wayne. No white inhabi- 
tants were on the banks from the time we 
left the foot of the rapids, with the exception 
of one Frenchman — a baker — at the mouth 
of the river Glase, called Fort Defiance, who 
furnished the Indians and traders who trav- 
eled up and down the river with bread. The 
length of time out in getting to Fort Wayne, 
I do not recollect. We found some Indian 
traders and a company of U. S. troops sta- 
tioned there. We were then obliged to haul 
our goods and pirogues a distance of ten 
miles to the head waters of Little river, 
which empties into the Wabash. Those In- 
dian traders at Fort Wayne were prepared 
with oxen and wagons to haul our goods and 
boats across, for which we had to pay them 
considerable and sometimes when the waters 
of Little river were very low, we had to haul 
our goods and boats a distance of forty miles, 
to where Little river empties into the Wabash. 
On one occasion I had to haul my goods and 
boats a distance of sixty miles to near the 
Missionary town, an Indian village on the 
Wabash where a Frenchman by the name of 
Godfrev from Detroit had located as a 

trader. The chief of this village was The- 
comery, brother to the Prophet who held a 
power and sway over the different tribes, un- 
paralleled in the history of Indian nations. 
I got to Vincennes after encountering ex- 
treme low water, having to carry our goods 
which were made up in small packages ex- 
pressly to be carried from shoal to shoal by 
the hands, distance of one-quarter to one- 
half a mile, sometimes longer, and rolling our 
pirogues on rollers over every rapid until we 
got them in deep water. This was our daily 
occupation. We arrived at Vincennes after 
being out about two months. During our trip 
we were very much exposed, the weather be- 
ing excessively warm and not having any- 
thing to protect us from the hot sun and bad 
weather; not even a tent, which latter was 
not used or hardly known at that early 
period, and being short of provisions, a little 
salt pork and a few hard biscuit and some 
Ij^e hominy composed our diet, no tea, no cof- 
fee, no sugar ; the latter article in those times 
was in but little use and scarcely known. 
From extreme exposure and hard living I 
was taken down violentlj' with chills and 
fever. My hands knew that Gabriel Hunot, 
who was trading for my uncle at New Ma- 
drid, had a sister in Vincennes by the name 
of Pagey. I sent for one of her sons to come 
and see me. He did so, and seeing my criti- 
cal situation invited me to his mother's house, 
and by his request I went there, and fortun- 
ate it was for me I did so. If I had remained 
where I was I must have died. Every care 
and attention and gOod nursing was given me 
night and day, by Mrs. Pagey and her kind 
sons. I owe my existence now to that kind 
lady's attention to me, which I shall forever 
remember with gratitude and esteem. I re- 
mained at Vincennes for some time to regain 
my strength. While there I became ac- 



Quaiuted with a good many of the French set- 
tlers and Indian traders, Rupert Debois, 
Francois Langois, the Lazells, Bamon — -In- 
dian interpreter for Gen. Harrison — and a 
number of names not recollected. Not a 
white inhabitant except Indian traders, from 
the time we left Fort Wayne till we arrived at 
Vincennes, and from there to the mouth of 
the Wabash — with the exception of Coffee 
island, some French families lived there of 
the name of Leviletts. We arrived at New 
Madrid in October and found the place set- 
tled principally by the French, and the town 
or village beautifully laid off in lots of two 
and four arpens, each, well improved and 
the streets wide and running parallel with 
the river. The banks of the river then as now 
were encroaching upon the town. The first 
town laid off by the Spanish had all fallen 
in, and at the present writing we are living 
in the third town carefully laid off back of the 
second, which has also gone. When the en- 
croachments of the river will stop is hard to 
conjecture. After a residence of 50 years in 
the place I find little or no change in the 
caving of the river banks. I have moved 
my possessions back three times and my first 
residence is now in Ke^tuck;^^ When I ar- 
rived in New JMadrid I took possession of my 
uncle's trading establishment and commenced 
trading with the Indians, French, and Ameri- 
cans, the place being a considerable trading 
point principally with the Indians. I con- 
tinued buying peltries and furs during the 
winter until March. I then baled all my 
peltries and furs and shipped them in two pi- 
rogues containing 24 packs each. I started 
them in charge of some Frenchmen up the 
Ohio river, then up the Wabash, some 350 
miles from its mouth to Little river, then up 
that river to its source, where we hauled again 
our pirogues and furs across to Ft. Wayne 

on the Maumee or the lake, and from there 
we proceeded to Detroit where everything 
was delivered up to my uncle. I followed my 
shipment by land by myself some three weeks 
after they started. I went by the way of 
Kaskaskia. lU. After leaving that village, 
settled by French not a sign of a white in- 
habitant did I see until I got to Fort Vin- 
cennes out three nights. I expected at Vin- 
cennes to have found several traders ready to 
leave by land for Detroit. They, like myself, 
generally followed their shipments of skins 
by land. They had left some five days be- 
fore I got there and I was obliged to continue 
the journey by myself. 

\Vlien I left Vincennes I took the Terre 
Haute route. At that place I found an In- 
dian village and two French traders. I spent 
the night with them and the next morning 
proceeded on my journey. I crossed a stream 
not far from Terre Haute, called Vermillion 
and the next place I came to was an Indian 
village where I found a Frenchman, a trader 
by the name of Langlois. The next place of 
note was the Missionary town where I found 
my old friend Godfrey, spoken of on my trip 
out from there. My next point was Fort 
Wayne. I had then been out six nights from 
Vincennes and four of these nights I lay out 
by myself and from Fort Wayne to the foot 
of the rapids, two nights. This was a hazard- 
ous undertaking for a youth of only about 16 
years. From the foot of the rapids to De- 
troit, the country was more or less settled 
by the French. I remained at Detroit some 
two weeks and started back by land the same 
route 1 went out. I made three trips by wa- 
ter and three by land and worked and 
steered my own pirogues' and continued in 
the trade until the war broke out between 
this country and Great Britain in 1812. The 
war stopped all communication between this 



country and Detroit, and I was then com- 
pelled to seek another channel of trade for 
my peltries and furs. In 18 — I made a large 
shipment of peltries and furs in a keel boat, 
the largest shipment I ever made from this 
country, by the way of Chicago. The keel 
boat left New Madrid in March with a 
freight valued at $14,000. They went up the 
Mississippi, then up the Illinois, then up a 
stream I think they call Fox river, up that 
to within six miles of Chicago ; my object in 
sending my skins that route was to meet a 
government vessel which the government gen- 
erally sent out at the opening of navigation 
in the spring, with provisions and stores for 
the troops stationed there, but. unfortun- 
ately, when my furs and peltries got there 
the government boat had been there and left 
some five or six days before for Detroit. The 
hope of getting them to Detroit that season 
was hopeless. No vessels running the lake 
with the exception of one govei'nment ves- 
sel, spring and fall. My skins remained there 
all summer expecting to ship them in the 
fall. When we examined and commenced 
preparing them for shipment we found them 
all destroyed by moths or bugs. I did not 
realize one cent from the amount stored 
there. While at New Madrid trading with 
the Indians and shipping my skins to Detroit 
until 1812, I purchased stock and produce 
from 1808 up to 1825 and shipped it to New 
Orleans in flat boats. My first visit to New 
Orleans was in the year 1809 having eon- 
signed my first shipment in 1808. I loaded 
two flat boats with assorted articles of pro- 
duce and steered one of them myself, but un- 
der the control and management of a pilot 
of Pierre Depron. I got to the city on my 
flat boats, but how to get back was the next 
question. No steam boats running at that 
time and but few barges and keel boats on 

the river. I bought a horse and started Inick 
by land : crossed Lake Ponchartrain in an 
open boat with my horse and took the road 
from Maisonville to Nashville, Tenn., pass- 
ing through the Cherokee and Choctaw In- 
dian country (owned and claimed by them) 
to the Tennessee river. In getting to New 
Madrid I was out six weeks, suffering much 
for the want of provisions for myself and 
feedl for my horse, having to pay $1 per meal 
for mj'self and $1 jjer gallon for corn. My 
men had to wait some time at New Orleans 
before an opportunity offered to get back, 
and then they had to work their way home on 
a barge. From that period up to the present 
time I have continued visiting New Orleans 
every year and am of course well posted ia 
being an eye witness to all improvement^ 
made in the city and coast since my first visit 
there. In 1810-11 I came up the Mississippi 
river in a pirogue with my hands that I 
had taken down on a flat boat. We left NeAV 
Orleans the latter part of July with scant 
provisions or allowances of any kind for our 
trip having to rely on our guns and fishing 
tackle for a supply, not being particular as 
to what we killed or ate — Hobson's choice, 
that or none. Cranes, pelicans and cat fisli, 
we considered a delicacy. We had not a 
tent or umbrella to protect us from the in- 
clemency of the weather; when it rained so 
hard that we could not travel we put ashore 
and peeled the bark off the trees to make 
shelter from the rain. We were out 45 days. 
From 1808 to 1812 but few inhabitants were 
on the river. At Point Chicot we found two 
Frenchmen at White river and one at the 
mouth of St. Francois, Phillips and Mr. Joy, 
and a Spaniard on the side opposite ]\Ieiu- 
phis. (Then Memphis was not known or 
spoken of.) One or two Indian traders were 
there at that time. At that early period the 



banks of the Mississippi were settled by rob- 
bers and counterfeiters. Flat boats descend- 
ing the river then had to go in convoj's well 
armed and iinder the lead of some experi- 
enced commander; if they did not they were 
sure to be attacked, killed, or robbed of their 
effects by these robbers who were settled at 
different points on the river. In returning 
in a dug out with my hands, in 1810, we were 
followed by one of Mason's and MuitcH's 
men from a little below Lake Providence un- 
til a few miles below Point Chicot. He came 
up within half a mile of us and no nearer ; he 
continued his pursuit by following us two 
days. He was going as we thought to apprize 
some of his colleagues of our approach near 
Point Chicot, and that we were no doubt in 
possession of considerable money, proceeds of 
produce shipped to New Orleans. This rob- 
ber was one of ^Mason's surviving confeder- 
ates in crime, etc. He was a French Cana- 
dian by the name of Revard, and his location 
was on the island below Lake Providence ; 
there he watched and saw everything that 
passed up and down. We tried to pass in the 
night hoping not to be discovered but we 
could not. He was too watchful of us to 
evade his notice. "We had some confidential 
advisers who instructed us how to act in the 
neighborhood of Lake Providence, where Ma- 
son had his general rendezvous, on or near 
Bayou Mason, back of Lake Providence, a re- 
mote and secluded place where he kept his 
headquarters. Nothing saved us that trip 
from being killed by the French robber only 
mj' crew being French and he, Rivard, being a 
Canadian, disliked attacking, robbing and 
killing us, being French, he having heard my 
French crew singing French .songs which was 
a custom among the French boatmen. After 
following us two days he abaudoned the 
chase. My long residence at New iladrid 

gave me an opportunity of becoming ac- 
quainted with a great many people and their 
acts whether good or bad. Not a day from 
1809 to 1815 but some innocent man, the owner 
of some flat boat loaded with produce, had 
been imposed on by some of this class by pur- 
chasing of them for money, which they called 
good, and on good solvent banks, when in fact 
it was nothing but the basest kind of counter- 
feit money. There was scarcely a day but 
what there was large amounts presented to 
me for examination and inspection. Our 
whole country from Evansville, Indiana, to 
Natchez was full of such people. In fact 
they ruled and controlled the country at that 
period. Thej" had the sway. We were from 
the necessity in the minority thej' being the 
strongest party and to express our opinion 
against them and their actions placed our 
lives and property in a dangerous situation. 
After an elapse of a certain time a better 
population commenced coming in. We saw 
after counting these we considered honest 
and would take an interest in securing and 
driving out of the country the despised class, 
we had from necessitj' to consult with the citi- 
zens of the countrj' and ascertain from them 
what course we ought to adopt in order to 
get rid of this description of population. 
They put at defiance all laws proving 
themselves innocent of every crime and 
charge brought against them. A general 
meeting of the citizens of the countrj' was 
called and the matter laid before them. 
They came to a conclusion and that conclu- 
sion by a unanimous vote of the people then 
in public council. "That these people must 
leave the countrj-" and a committee was ap- 
pointed by the meeting to carrj' the resolu- 
tions into effect, which was done and the 
countrj' cleared of thieves and counterfeit- 
ers. The last difiicultj' we had with them thej' 



had their rendezvous at different places in 
the country, in the interior and on the river ; 
they kept up a constant correspondence night 
and day with their leaders and strikers. 
They were numerous and their acquaintances 
on the Ohio and jMississippi rivers intimately 
connected with them in extending their dis- 
honest operations was unprecedented in the 
history of this or any other country. We 
owe in a measure our complete success of 
clearing the country of this description of 
population to the energy and perseverance 
and determined action of a few honest and 
resolute men, one of them I will refer to with 
feelings of respect and pride as being one of 
the principal actors in accomplishing our ob- 
ject, that person was the deceased Capt. 
Dunklin, whose virtues and standing as a 
man and citizen is .yet recollected and appre- 
ciated by a number of persons, yet in exist- 
ence who were witnesses to his valuable ser- 

In the years 1812-13-14 being at New Or- 
leans each of those j-ears, I returned home as 
a passenger on board of a barge or keel boat, 
50 and 60 days out. I preferred this mode of 
getting back to the land route. In the year 
1815 I visited Cincinnati, Ohio, on my way 
to Detroit, ^Michigan. I bought a horse and 
outfit at Cincinnati for my trip. Cincinnati 
was then a small place ; the Court House was 
upwards of a quarter of a mile out of the 
city. I visited the Court House to see what 
was to be done having seen in the morning 
posted up at the different corners of the 
street hand bills that a certain gentleman, a 
lawyer of some distinction, a resident of the 
city, by the name of Binhem, wotild address 
the citizens at the Court House at a certain 
hour of that day on the subject of charges 
brought against him and published while he 
was absent from the city on professional busi- 

ness. It appears that during the progi'ess of 
the war with Great Britain he was drafted as 
a soldier to join the U. S. Army but from some 
cause he failed to comply with the request of 
the draft and the charges I think made 
against him were cowardice and not willing 
to expose his life in defense of his country. 
In addressing the citizens he proved to them 
conclusively that he had used every exertion 
to raise means to equip himself and proved 
that he was a minor and under the guardian- 
ship of a near relative of his and who had 
control of his person and his means, although 
he had made frequent applications to him for 
means, but in all cases refused to furnish him 
with any and was opposed to his joining the 
army. His appeal to the people was a very 
feeling one and being an able speaker his 
appeal was listened to with every attention. 
His excuse was approved of. The same trip 
I became acquainted with the agent of the 
United States Bank at Cincinnati. The 
bank owned and claimed considerable town 
property, vacant lots on which they built 
family residences and offered them for sale 
through their agent. I was offered one or 
two lots with their improvements on them 
on Second and Third streets for from $1,000 
to $1,200, each lot. The improvements must 
have cost the money. The same property 
cannot now be bought for $60,000. I had 
means at the time and if I had bought 
this property at the time and let it re- 
main it would have proved a source of con- 
siderable revenue to me now. My object 
was to take General Harrison's road through 
the black swamp to Detroit. Urbana was 
then a frontier town, there was a new county 
laid off and a county seat located at a place 
called Bellefontaine. Some few log cabins 
were put up in place, but there was no public 
house in the place at that time. Next morn- 



ing 1 took the road cut by General Har- 
rison through the black swamp and traveled 
by the Northwestern army, and where he en- 
countered so many difficulties in getting along 
as commander of the Northwestern army. 
His object was to attack and beat back the 
British army that had crossed over and at- 
tacked the American army at the river Rai- 
sin, under General Winchester. I had to 
travel one hundred miles through this swamp 
until I got to Fort IMeigs, on the Maumee 
river, foot of the rapids. I found three 
houses in crossing the swamp, where a trav- 
eller could stay all night about 35 miles 
apart. My object is to show you the great 
changes in the country now to what it was 
then — comparatively not known. In 1806 I 
visited St. Louis, a small French village. 
Little or no business was done, the principal 
men in the place were two Chouteaus. Their 
descendants are still there, all respectable 
and influential men. Fred Bates filled an of- 
fice about that time under the territorial gov- 
ernment, a recorder of land titles or secre- 
tary of state, under the acting governor. I 
knew him at Detroit, Michigan, in 1803 or 
1804, one of those years Detroit was destroyed 
by fire, and I assisted Mr. Bates in saving 
from the devouring elements a few of bis 
small effects. He was then a citizen of that 
place. I was intimately acquainted with him 
at St. Louis from his arrival up to his death. 
He was an intelligent business man and a 
gentleman in every sense of the word. The 
earthquakes visited New Madrid county in 
December, 1811. Their effect was felt all 
over the U. S. and more particularly in this 
and adjoining counties, and the injury pro- 
duced from the effects was more combined to 
this county than any other, producing alarm 
and distress, depopulating generally the 
whole country. Plantations, stock of all 

kinds, cribs of corn, smoke houses full of 
meat, were offered for horses to live on. 
At that time I was carrying on the Indian 
trade pretty extensively. The whole white 
population, or all that could leave as well as 
the Indians, left largely in my debt, leaving 
me considerablj' indebted to persons here 
and in other places and little or no means to 
pay with. "What little was left me I had to 
subsist on and divide with those that re- 
mained and could not get away. We had a 
trying time, our population having all left, 
no business doing and no capital to do busi- 
ness with. Heavy losses at different times at 
Chicago and on the ilississippi river in prod- 
uce sent to New Orleans in flat boats and 
by the earthquakes upwards to $30,000, 
leaving me destitute and without any capi- 
tal to operate on ; and on having a small fam- 
ily to support. I came to the conclusion, after 
consulting with my wife, to remain in the 
country and await the result of circum- 
stances. To leave without means and move 
to a new country, among strangers and be de- 
pendent on them for support, I coiild not rec- 
oncile it to myself. I proposed remaining 
and awaiting with patience the result of what 
was to take place, which I have done. I 
never left but stood up and persevered, in 
prosperity and adversity, contending against 
the misfortunes and privations of a new coun- 
try, the Mason and Murrell counterfeiters 
and horse thieves, earthqiiakes, and with all 
these reverses and misfortunes staring me in 
the face, it never produced the least change 
in my general course of conduct, but stimu- 
lated me to additional exertions. The mis- 
fortunes and privations I endured at an 
earh' period would have driven hundreds to 
acts of desperation. With me they never pro- 
duced the least change. I am what I was 
forty years ago. Nothing ever induced me 



to resort to dissipation, to take a glass of grog 
or smoke a cigar more than I did then. My 
general habits, if good or bad, are the same 
now, to which a long residence in the country 
and a general acquaintance with those now 
settled in the country, can testify. My 
friends who knew me, and I never deceived 
them, came forward to my assistance and re- 
lief ; to them I owe the means I am in posses- 
sion of. The staple of this country from 
1805 to 1812 was cotton. The average yield 
of an acre was from 1000 to 1200 pounds of 
seed cotton. Since 1812 there has been a 
great change in our climate ; the winters have 
grown colder and the other seasons more 
changeable. The raising of cotton has been 
entirely abandoned for the last thirty-five 
years; our staple, now, has been principally 
corn. Prejudices to some extent exist now 
in some of the states against this country. At 
an early period they had some grounds to 
speak rather lightly of this country, it being 
sickly and visited by earthquakes; inhabited 
by counterfeiters and horse thieves and but 
few inhabitants in the country. To a cer- 
tain extent our country has been overlooked 
and misrepresented. Things have changed 
since then. The country has become healthy, 
our soil the best in the United States. It 
cannot be surpassed. 

Doctor Samuel Dorsay, a native of Mary- 
land, was appointed surgeon of the military 
post at New Madrid, a position which he held 
until the transfer to the United States. The 
position had attached to it a salary of $30.00 
a month. On January 17, 1795, Dr. Dorsay 
was married to Marie J. Bonneau, a native 
of Indiana. He was afterward married to a 
daughter of Jeremiah Thompson of Cape 
Girardeau district. 

Joseph Story, of Massachusetts, was one 

of the surveyors brought by Morgan to New 
iMadrid, he assisted Morgan in laying otf the 
city. He married a daughter of Jacob Beck 
in 1794. 

Andrew Wilson, a native of Scotland, and 
a minister in the Presbyterian church, was 
also one of the early settlers. He seems to 
have given up his ministerial work before 
coming to New Madrid. His son, George W., 
was the first sheriff of the district. 

Some of the other early settlers were John 
Summers, Joseph and Louis Vandenbenden. 
These brothers were merchants, and the 
widow of Louis afterward married Richard 
Jones Waters. 

Jacob Meyers, Joseph McCourtney, David 
Gray and John La Valle were other of the 
early settlers. La Yalle was the last com- 
mandant under the Spanish government; his 
descendants still live in New iladrid county. 

Doctor Robert D. Dawson, who was a na- 
tive of Maryland, came to New jMadrid at an 
early date and engaged in the practice of 
medicine. He was, for a number of years, the 
leading physician of the town, and was a 
very popular man. His activities were not 
confined to the practice of his profession, but 
he had a great interest in politics. For a 
number of years he represented New Madrid 
county in the general assembl.y of the terri- 
tor}', and was elected a member of the Con- 
stitutional convention. 

During the Spanish regime there were 
three militar.y organizations in New Madrid. 
Two of these were companies of militia and 
the other was a dragoon company. One of 
the militia companies had for its officers 
La Valle as captain. La Forge as lieutenant, 
and Charpentier as ensign. The other militia 
company was officered by Captain ilcCoy, 
Lieutenant Joseph Hunot, and Ensign John 
Hart. Richard Jones Waters was r'ajifain of 



the company of dragoons, George N. Reagan 
was lieutenant, and John Baptiste Barsaloux 
was ensign. 

Cuming, who visited New Madrid in 1808 
gives the following description of the town 
at that time: "New Madrid contains about a 
hundred houses scattered on a fine plain two 
miles square on which, however, the river 
has so encroached during the twenty-two 
years since it was first settled, that the bank 
is now half a mile behind its old boimds and 
the inhabitants have had to move rapidly 
back. They are a mixture of French Creoles 
from Illinois, United States Americans and 
Germans. They have plenty of cattle but 
seem in other respects to be very poor. There 
is some trade with the Indian hunters of furs 
and peltry but of little consequence. Dry 
goods and groceries are enormously high and 
the inhabitants charge travelers immense 
prices for any common necessaries such as 
milk, butter, fowls, eggs, etc. There is a 
militia the officers of which wear cockades as 
a mark of distinction although the rest of 
their dress should be only a dirty ragged 
shirt and trousers. There is a church going 
to decay and no preacher and there are courts 
of Common Pleas and Quarter Sessions from 
which an appeal lies to the Supreme Court at 
St. Louis, the capital of the territory of Up- 
per Louisiana, which is two hundred and forty 
miles to the northward by wagon road which 
passes through Ste. Genevieve which is 180 
miles distant. On account of this distance 
from the capital New ]\Iadrid has obtained a 
right to have all trials for felony held and ad- 
judged here without appeal. The inhabitants 
regret much the change of government from 
Spanish to American but this I am not sur- 

prised at as it is the nature of mankind to 
never be satisfied."* 

Alliot who visited Louisiana in 1803 says: 
"A hundred leagues farther up the river the 
traveler comes to that charming river known 
by the name of Belle Riviere (the Ohio) 
which, like so many others, pays its tribute 
of respect to the mortal Mississippi by giving 
its limpid waters to it ; at that place is built 
the fort 1 ' Ance a la Graice where a command- 
ant and 150 soldiers are stationed, there is a 
hamlet there inhabited by three score per- 
sons. That place is so much more remarkable 
in as much as its inhabitants were the first 
along the river to engage in the cultivation of 
wheat. Excellent meadows are seen there on 
which cows and steers feed, its inhabitants 
rear many hogs and fowls, the forests are full 
of all sorts of game and fallow-deer, "t 

Nuttall who visited New Madrid in 1820 
has this account of the town: "We arrived 
before noon at New IMadrid, we found both 
sides of the river lined with logs, some sta- 
tionary and others in motion and we nar- 
rowly avoided several of considerable mag- 
nitude. New Madrid is an insignificant 
French hamlet containing little more than 
about twenty log houses and stores miserably 
supplied, the goods of which are retailed at 
exorbitant prices, for example, 18 cents per 
po\ind for lead which costs 7 cents at Her- 
culaneum. salt $5.00 per bushel, sugar 311/4 
cents per pound, whiskey $1.25 per gallon, 
apples 25 cents per dozen, corn 50 cents per 
bushel, fresh butter 3TK^ cents per pound 
and eggs the same price per dozen, pork $6.00 
per hundred, beef $5.00. Still the labor of 
the land seems to be of a good quality but 

* Cuming's "Tour to the West." p. 281. 
t Eobertson, ' ' Louisians, ' ' Vol. I, p. 133. 



the people have beeu discouraged by the 
earthquakes which, besides the memorable 
one of 1811, are very frequent experiences, 
two or three oscillations being sometimes felt 
in a day. The United States in order to com- 
pensate those who suffered in their property 
l)y the catastrophe granted to the settlers an 
equivalent of land in other parts of tlie ter- 
ritory. ' ' * 

Besides those whom we have seen lived in 
the town of New Madrid itself and immedi- 
ately about it, there were other settlements 
within the present territory of New Madrid 
county ; some of these were made on Lake St. 
Ann, along the St. Johns, at Lake St. 
Mary and on Bayou St. Thomas. Some of 
the early settlers at5 these places were : Benja- 
min Meyers, Hardy Rawls, Lewis Van Den- 
benden and Joseph Story. These men opened 
up farms at the places mentioned and some 
of them erected mills and others were engaged 
principally in hunting and trapping. 

The district of New Sladrid. as we have 
seen, included not only New Madrid county, 
as it now exists, but also Pemiscot county, 
Mississippi county, Scott county and even the 
counties lying further west. During this 
period which we are studying settlements 
were made within the district in all the coun- 
ties mentioned except those lying west of St. 
Francois river. 

The first settlement in Pemiscot county was 
made at Little Prairie, a short distance be- 
low the present town of Caruthersville. Tlie 
settlement was made in 1794 by Francois Le 
Sieur, who came to Little Prairie from New 
Madrid where he had formerly lived and on 
receiving the grant of land laid out about 

* " Nuttall Journal," p. 77. 

two hundred arpents into a town divided into 
lots each containing an arpent. Here a fort 
was also constructed called Fort St. Fer- 
nando. Among the early residents of the 
town and country in the immediate vicinity 
were : Francois Le Sieur, Jean Baptiste Bar- 
saloux, George and John Ruddell, Joseph 
Payne, Lewis St. Aubin, Charles Guibeault, 
Charles Loignon, Francis Langlois and Peter 
Noblesse. The site of Little Prairie was well 
chosen it being situated at a place where the 
great ridge, of which we have previously 
spoken, touches the river, and the surround- 
ing country was rich in soil, timber and game. 
There was considerable trade with the In- 
dians ; and the town, because of these ad- 
vantages, prospered. The population was 
seventy-eight in 1799 and in 1803 it num- 
bered one hundred and three. It continued 
to grow until the earthquakes of 1811 and 
1812 by which it was almost destroyed. This 
earthcpiake seems to have had its center about 
Little Prairie and the shocks were probably 
more violent here than anywhere else. The 
greater part of the population moved away 
at the time of the earthcjuake so that the vil- 
lage was practically deserted, the only con- 
spicuous settler who remained in the vicinity 
was Colonel John Hardeman Walker. 

In 1808 Cuming visited Little Prairie of 
wliich he gives the following account: "We 
landed at the town of Little Prairie on the 
right containing twenty-four little log cabins 
scattered on a fine pleasant plain. Inhabi- 
tants chiefly being French Creoles from Can- 
ada and Illinois, we were informed that there 
were several Anglo-American farmers all 
around in a circle of ten miles. We stopped 
at a tavern and store kept by Eui-opean- 
Frenchmen, where we got some necessaries, 
everything is excessively clear here as in New 
]Madrid, butter a quarter of a dollar per 



pound, milk half dollar per galloB, eggs a 
quarter of a dollar a dozen and fowls half 
to three-quarters of a dollar each." * 

Cuming says that at this time there was a 
camp of Delaware Indians about one mile be- 
low Little Prairie. 

Besides this settlement at Little Prairie 
there were some three Or four other settle- 
ments within Pemiscot county. One of them 
was in the vicinity of the town of Gayoso, 
afterward the count.y seat ; another in the 
western part of the county on Little river; 
the third was just north of the lake called 
Big Lake and the fourth was located on Port- 
age Bay. All of these settlements suffered 
greatly from the earthquake and most of 
them were practicallj' depopulated by its ef- 

With the opening of the King's Highway 
from Ste. Genevieve to New Madrid in 1789 
there sprung up a number of settlements 
along the line of this road, some of them be- 
ing in Scott county. One of the first of these 
was made in the vicinity of Sikeston b3' Ed- 
ward Robertson and a son-in-law, Moses Hur- 
ley. Robertson was a shrewd and capable 
man. He traded with the Indians and also 
kept a stock of goods which he sold to other 
settlers, but he accumulated the greater part 
of his wealth by land speculation. At his 
death he left a considerable amount of 

Another one of these early settlements was 
made in Scott county in 1796 near the pres- 
ent town of Benton by Captain Charles 
Friend, who was a native of Virginia. He 
received a grant from the Spanish govern- 
ment near Benton and located there with his 
family. There were nine sons and two daugh- 
* Cuming's "Tour to the West," p. 283. 

ters in his family and most of them remained 
in the vicinity of the Spanish grant. Another 
settler in this neighborhood who came in 1811 
was John Ramsay of Cape Girardeau. 

Perhaps the most distinguished and influ- 
ential family in Scott county in this period 
was the family of Joseph Hunter. He came 
to New Madrid in 1805 and located on a grant 
near New Madrid, but soon afterwards re- 
moved to Big Prairie not far from Sikeston 
and continued to reside in Scott county until 
the time of his death. The family of Joseph 
Hunter was a large one and was always 
wealthy and prominent in this part of the 
state ; he, himself, was a member of the terri- 
torial council after the transfer to the United 
States and his son, Abraham, was one of the 
best known politicians in Southeast Missouri, 
holding ofQce in the state legislature for about 
twenty years. He was the second son and 
married Sally Ogden. Their family con- 
sisted of three sons and three daughters; the 
sons were Isaac of Scott county, Joseph of 
New Madrid county, who has recently died, 
and Benjamin F., who lives near Sikeston. 
One of the daughters, Catherine, married 
Marmaduke Beckwith, Mary married Archi- 
bald Price. Another son of Joseph Hunter 
was named James; he married Lucy Beck- 
with. The youngest son of Joseph Hunter 
was Thomas ; he married Eliza Meyers and to 
them were born two children, a daughter who 
became the wife of Colonel Thomas Brown, 
and Senator William Hunter of Benton. Of 
the daughters of Joseph Hunter, Mary mar- 
ried Andrew Giboney of Cape Girardeau, 
their daughter is the wife of Hon. Louis 
Houck, and Hannah married Mark H. Stall- 
cup of New Madrid. 

Another of the early settlers of Scott 
county was Captain William Meyers, who 



came to Missouri from Tennessee and made 
liis home at wliat is now Benton. 

Settlers began to locate in Tywappity Bot- 
toms as early as 1798 ; among them were 
James Brady, James Curran, Charles Find- 
ley, Edmund Hogan, Thomas, John and 
James Wellborn and the Quimbys. Thomas 
W. Waters was the first settler on the site of 
Commerce, arriving there in 1802, here he 
began the sale of goods in partnership with 
Robert Hall and also operated a ferry across 
the Mississippi. 

The first settlement in Mississippi county 
seems to have been made in 1800 by Joseph 
Johnson near Bird's Point. Other early set- 
tlements were made on Mathews Prairie 
called in the early times St. Charles Prairie. 
Those who lived there were : Edward Math- 
ews and his sons Edward, Charles, Joseph, 
James and Allen, Charles Gray, Joseph 
Smith, John Weaver, George Hector and Ab- 
salom McElmurry. Johnson sold his land 
in 1805 to Abraham Bird whose name was 
given afterwards to the settlement known as 
Bird's Point. 

All of these settlers whom we have named 
and many others whose names we cannot give 
were farmers and traders. Most of them were 
engaged in the actual cultivation of the soil. 
Even those who lived in towns and carried on 
trade with Indians and with other settle- 
ments in Louisiana owned and cultivated 
farms. With the well known liberality of 
the Spanish government, grants of land were 
very easy to secure. Anyone who had per- 
formed a service for the government or who 
promised to perform such a service in the fu- 
ture could obtain a grant of land. These 
grants were also given for the purpose of en- 
couraging the development of industries. It 

is recorded in some cases, in connection with 
these grants, that they were made because tlie 
grantee expected to cut down timber on the 
land or because he expected to use the wood 
for smelting lead or other ores. These Span- 
ish land grants varied in size. It was a cus- 
tom in the mineral district to give every dis- 
coverer of a mine at least four arpents of 
land. Outside the mineral district large 
grants were frequently made. Twenty thou- 
sand and even thirty thousand arpents was 
not an unusual grant. These grants were 
made without any reference to the French sur- 
veys or to any particular sj'stem of lands sur- 
veyed. Generally they followed a line of a 
creek, or the meanderings of a swamp, or 
they included the tillable land in a certain 
valley, or they stretched from hill-top to hill- 
top in a most irregular way. It is a rather 
curious thing that practically the only trace 
of Spanish occupancy in Missouri consists in 
these old land grants. The name of New Ma- 
drid, of course, perpetuates the attempt of 
Morgan to found a great Spanish town and a 
few other settlements bear Spanish names. 
Outside of these, however, few memorials of 
Spain exist. No great public works were un- 
dertaken or carried through, no codes of laws 
were made, no great industries developed, 
only the grants testify to the presence of the 
Spaniard. These Spanish grants, owing to 
the irregularity of their boundaries and the 
apparently careless way in which they were 
recorded have been one of the most fruitful 
sources of legal controversy within the state. 
It has required a great deal of litigation to 
determine the ownership of much of the land 
covered by these grants. 

About 1789 the Spanish government laid 
out a road running from New Madrid to St. 
Louis. This road crossed Big Prairie, passed 



through the "Rich Woods" across Scott 
county to Cape Girardeau and thence to St. 
Louis by way of Ste. Genevieve. Through 
the greater part of its course it followed the 
old Indian trace along which De Soto very 
probably travelled. The route was deter- 
mined by the Spanish as it had been for the 
Indians by the great sandy ridge which 
stretches from south the "Big Swamp" south 
of Cape Girardeau to Caruthersville in Pem- 
iscot county touching the river at New Ma- 
drid. This road was called by the Spanish 
"el camino real" the King's Highway. 
In 1803 the expedition which De Lassus led to 
New Madrid passed along this road, cutting 
it out wider as they went. In 1808 the Terri- 

torial assembly of the District of Louisiana 
which was the name by which Missouri was 
then known, ordered that a road be opened 
between St. Louis and New Madrid. This 
road, doubtless, followed the old Spanish 
road, the King's Highway. 

Between Cape Girardeau and New ^Madrid 
the road is still in use for a great part of the 
way. Between Cape Girardeau and Perry- 
ville there is a part of the road still in use; 
that part between the Maramec river and the 
City of St. Louis is also used now. Its name 
is perpetuated in a boiilevard in St. Louis, 
called King's Highway. This is, perhaps, 
the oldest road in the state. 



Louisiana Under La Salle — The Province op Louisiana — Capitals and Governors — Ces- 
sion TO Spain — Providence of Upper Louisiana — • Lieutenant Governors op Upper 
Louisiana — Districts and Commandants— Syndics — Authority of Officials— French 
Law Retained — Character op Government — The Cabildo at New Orleans — Organiza- 
tion OP iliLiTiA — ' ' L 'Annee du Coup ' ' Attack on St. Louis — Treachery op Go\'ernor 
Leyba — Action op the Ste. Genevieve Company — Expedition to New JIadrid — Punish- 
ment OP Indians — Orders Concerning Taverns and Sale of Liquor to Indians. 

AVe have seen something of the formation 
of the various settlements of Upper Louisi- 
ana, of the character and life of its people, 
and it is desired in this chapter to give a 
brief account of the government exercised by 
both France and Spain over the territory be- 
fore its transfer to the United States. 

In 1682, when La Salle reached the mouth 
of the ^Mississippi river, he took possession of 
all the territory drained by it and its tribu- 
taries in the name of the king of France. 
He bestowed upon this vast region, which was 
as extensive as the valley of the Mississippi, 
the name of Louisiana, and claimed to exer- 
cise over it authority as commandant of 

In 1698 the French organized the province 
of Louisiana with the seat of government at 
Port Biloxi. near New Orleans. The capital 
of the province was kept here until 1701 when 
it was moved to Mobile, Alabama. There it 
remained until 1723, when it was returned 
to New Orleans. The governors of this prov- 
ince of Louisiana were as follows : Sauvolle. 

1698 to 1701 ; Bienville, July 22, 1701, to May 
17, 1713 ; LaMothe Cadillac, May 17, 1713, to 
1717; De I'Epinay, March 9, 1717, to 1718; 
Bienville, March 9, 1718, to January 16, 1724; 
Boisbriant, January 16, 1724, to 1726; Pe- 
rier, 1726 to 1733 ; Bienville, 1733 to May 10, 
1743 ; De Vaudreuil, May 10, 1743, to Febru- 
ary 9, 1753 ; Kerlerec, February 9, 1753, to 
June 29, 1763; D'Abbadie, June 29, 1763, to 
February 4, 1765; Aubry, February, 1765, 
acting governor. 

In 1763, France ceded to England all of 
that part of Louisiana east of the Mississippi 
river. She had promised by the secret treaty 
of Udefonso to give to Spain the western part 
of Louisiana, but the fact of this treaty was 
not generally known for many years and 
France continued to exercise authority over 
Louisiana west of the Mississippi river. Just 
before the transfer of the territory to Spain 
the province of Upper Louisiana was organ- 
ized, including all that part of Louisiana 
north of the Arkansas river. It was some- 
times called the country o' the Illinois. The 




capital of Upper Louisiana was St. Louis. 
The government was administered by a com- 
mandant. Only one served; he was Louis 
St. Ange de Bellerive. from July 17, 1765, to 
May 20, 1770 (de facto). 

On May 20, 1770, the Spanish officials act- 
ing under the treaty of November 3, 1762. 
took possession of Upper Louisiana. They 
styled the commandant of Upper Louisiana, 
the lieutenant governor of the province of 
Upper Louisiana, with capital at St. Louis. 
The following were the lieutenant governors 
of this province: Pedro Piernas, ilay 20, 
1770. to May 19, 1775; Francisco Cruzat. 
May 19, 1775, to June 17, 1778; Fernando 
De Leyba, June 17, 1778, to June 8, 1780: 
Francisco de Cartabona, June 8, 1780, to 
September 24, 1789 (acting) ; Francisco Cru- 
zat, September 24, 1780, to November 27. 
1787; Manuel Perez, November 27, 1787, to 
July 21, 1792; Zenon Trudeau. July 21, 1792, 
to Augiist 29, 1799 ; Carlos Dehault de Delas- 
sus, August 29, 1799, to March 9, 1804. 

These lieutenant governors of Upper Lou- 
isiana were sometimes called in the Spanish 
oiBcial documents, lieutenant governors at St. 
Louis for "San Luis, San Genoveva and the 
District of the Ylinneses." The lieutenant 
governor of Upper Louisiana was regarded as 
subordinate to the governor and captain gen- 
eral of Louisiana who had his seat at New 

This province of Upper Louisiana under 
the authority of the lieutenant governor was, 
as we have seen, divided into districts. Over 
each one of these districts was stationed a 
commandant who had both civil and military 
authority. He was regarded as the subordi- 
nate of the lieutenant governor at St. Louis. 
An exception, however, was made in case of 

the commandant at New ^Madrid. He was a 
sub-delegate, was the direct subordinate of the 
governor general at New Orleans and was 
thus independent of the authority of the lieu- 
tenant governor at St. Louis. Each of these 
commandants had under him one or more 
subordinate officers known as syndics. In 
each one of the various settlements within the • 
district there was appointed a syndic, usually 
the most prominent and influential citizen 
in the settlement, who became a personal rep- 
resentative of the commandant exercising a 
part of his authority. 

Each commandant was charged with the 
administration of the law in his district. He 
had authority to try minor eases, both civil 
and criminal. His jurisdiction, however, was 
limited by the amount of property involved, 
All cases which involved a considerable 
amount fell under the direct jurisdiction of 
the lieutenant governor. The commandant 
was also charged with the care of all govern- 
ment papers relating to his district and was 
required to take possession of the estates of 
deceased persons and to make an inventory 
thereof. The commandant was, also, com- 
mander of the military force consisting, usu- 
ally, of one or two companies of militia. 

The law administered by all of these vari- 
ous officials, governors, lieutenant governors, 
commandants and syndics was very largely 
French law. When the province of Louisiana 
was granted to Cruzat it was with the express 
understanding that the law of Paris, called 
by the French "coutume de Paris," was to 
extend over Louisiana. It was clearly w'ith- 
in the province of the Spanish authority to 
have eutirel.v changed its law and to have 
substituted for it the Spanish system of law; 
this, however, they did not do. They made 
certain changes in the law, espedally with 



regard to the granting of land and to the col- 
lection of revenue, but so far as those great 
provinces of the law which define the rights 
and duties of individuals and the holding and 
transfer of property were concerned, the 
Spanish retained almost unchanged, the 
French law. They did this because the set- 
tlers wei-e, many of them, French ; they were 
acquainted with the law of France ; they had 
acquired and held property under it, and 
it was really less difficult for Spanish ofScials 
to continue the administration of this law 
than it would have been to make a change. 
They were the more inclined to this course 
because of the fact that the Spanish law and 
French law are quite similar. They were 
both derived from the old Roman civil law 
and in their fundamental principles were the 

This law derived from the civil law is still 
in force in Louisiana, which is the only one 
of the states in the union where the English 
common law is not in force. The civil law 
differs from the common law in many vital 
respects, and it was this law, whether French 
or Spanish in its form, that was administered 
by the Spanish officials in the province of 
Louisiana. The question of language gave 
considerable trouble. There were three 
principal languages spoken in Upper Louisi- 
ana — Spanish, which was the language of the 
officials, and French, and English, the lan- 
guage of the settlers. Spanish was the official 
language, and trials and other official pro- 
ceedings were supposed to be conducted in 
Spanish, but very frequently, owing to the 
prevalence of the French language, it was 
used even in the official proceedings. In each 
one of the districts there was an official in- 
terpreter who assisted the commandant in the 
hearing of cases by translating from one lan- 
guage to the other as necessity required. 

Vol. I— 8 

Cousin, it will be recalled, acted in this ca- 
pacity in Cape Girartleau ; he drew up pe- 
titions and other official papers for settlers, 
both French and American ; these petitions 
were presented to the commandant, and were 
in French or Spanish, either being acceptable. 
The government exercised by all of these 
various officials was in theory a practically 
absolute despotism; the power being in the 
hands of the officers. In fact, however, the 
rigor of the law was tempered to suit the 
times and occasions and the government was 
often paternal in character. The thing which 
bore most heavily on the American settlers 
and which made them most impatient of 
Spanish control was the dilatory character of 
some proceedings. This statement does not, 
however, apply to the proceedings before the 
various commandants. They were usually 
transacted with commendable despatch. In 
fact, most of the trials and other proceedings 
before the commandants are rather remark- 
able for the speed with which they were con- 
ducted. It was not unusual for the issues to 
be joinetl and a decision to be rendered within 
a very short time. Execution of the sentence 
was usually summary, but the authority of 
the commandant was sometimes exercised in 
order to postpone proceedings and to prevent 
unnecessary hardship. An instance of this 
is recorded in the life of Lorimier: One, Jo- 
siah Lee, had abandoned his wife and was 
ordered by Lorimier to leave the country. 
All persons were forbidden, under penalty, to 
harbor or help him in any way. Lee, how- 
ever, presented a very humble petition in 
which he confessed his fault and prayed that 
he might be permitted to remain, on condition 
that he should not again offend. This pe- 
tition seems to have been granted, for the 
name of Lee is found on the tax records for 
several .years after this incident. It required 



but little time and no further formalities 
than an expression of the commandant's 
pleasure to dispose of this infraction of the 
law of the province. 

It was quite otherwise, however, with re- 
gard to those matters which were within the 
jurisdiction of the officials at New Orleans. 
There the governor and captain general of 
Louisiana was assisted in his labors by a cab- 
ildo. This eabildo, or council, was composed 
of eleven persons, including an attorney gen- 
eral, a syndic and other officers. There was 
also an officer charged with the royal rev- 
enue, who was called the intendant. There 
were many other officers besides the eabildo 
and they enforced the cumbersome restric- 
tions of trade with rigor. The Spanish were 
not a commercial people, and their regula- 
tions with regard to trade were the regida- 
tions of the middle ages. To carry a load of 
merchandise to New Orleans and turn it over 
for shipment to other parts of the world was 
a long and tedious process, so far as comply- 
ing with the regulations of the port was con- 
cerned. These restricting and hampering 
regulations much retarded commerce — in 
fact, more than any other cause, perhaps, 
made the Americans impatient and intolerant 
of Spanish control of the Mississippi river. 

The Spanish government required the 
commandant at each post in Upper Louisiana 
to organize all of the able-bodied citizens into 
military companies. All persons between the 
ages of fourteen and fifty were liable to this 
service and the companies were required to be 
ready for service at any time they were 
called upon. There were small bodies of reg- 
ular Spanish troops maintained at St. Louis 
and New Madrid; the other posts were de- 
fended entirely by the military companies. 
These companies found employment in de- 

fending the posts from attack by Indians, 
and one purpose of their organization and 
maintenance was to be prepared in ease of 
an attack by the Americans. 

The year 1780 was known by the French in- 
habitants as "L'Annee du Coup," (the year 
of the attack). This was during the war of 
the Revolution and the English were stirring 
up the Indians throughout all the west to at- 
tack Americans, and it was rumored in the 
early part of this year that these British and 
Indians were contemplating an attack on 
St. Louis. The commandant at St. Louis was 
Lieutenant Governor Ferdinand Leyba. He 
was instructed by the Spanish authorities to 
prepare the post against the threatened at- 
tack. He accordingly ordered the military 
company at Ste. Genevieve, which at that 
time was the only company outside of St. 
Louis, to be sent to St. Louis. For the pur- 
pose of executing this order, Don Francisco 
Cartobona was sent to Ste. Genevieve. He 
gathered a company together consisting of 
sixty men under the command of Charles 
Valle, and embarked them on a keel-boat for 
St. Louis. The attack upon the town was 
made May 26, 1780. The attacking force 
numbered about fifteen hundred Indians, un- 
der command of a British officer. Governor 
Leyba acted in a very peculiar manner. 
Either he was cowardly and afraid to take 
part in the defense of the town, or else he was 
a traitor. It appears that on the very day 
the attack was made he was intoxicated, and 
instead of making any effort at defense, he 
merely did all in his power to prevent such 
defense. The citizens of the town, however, 
did all in their power to protect themselves. 
There has been a question raised regarding 
the conduct of the Ste. Genevieve company 
on this occasion. They have been charged 
with cowardice, but this was untrue. The 



facts in the ease as presented by Gen- 
eral Firmin A. Rozier, are these: Just 
before the attack was made, Governor 
Leyba refused to allow the Ste. Genevieve 
company to be supplied with ammunition. 
Captain Valle attempted to supply this lack 
by seizing three kegs of powder in the 
possession of a lady who resided in the town. 
She very reluctantly allowed the powder to 
be taken and conveyed to the company head- 
quarters. While Captain Valle was tem- 
porarily absent, Governor Leyba ordered the 
company to spike their guns and to march up 
into a garret and remain. Captain Valle, 
however, returned and refused to allow the 
order to be obeyed. He and his company, 
tlien, did all they could to aid the citizens of 
St. Louis in the defense of the town ; their ef- 
forts were successful, and the attack of the 
Indians failed. 

In 1802 there occurred an incident which 
cast a light on the military arrangements of 
the Spanish. That year David Trotter, who 
lived in the New Madrid district, was killed 
by some Indians; they were members of a 
band of Creeks who had come from the east- 
ern states and were engaged in thieving and 
plundering on both sides of the Mississippi. 
Through the efforts of Louis Lorimier, five 
of the Indians were captured and one of 
them was condemned to be executed. Lieu- 
tenant Governor De Lassus, who resided in 
St. Louis, determined to be present at the 
execution and to take personal charge of 
the afTair. About two weeks before the date, 
he set out from St. Louis for New Madrid. 
On reaching Ste. Genevieve, he ordered the 
three companies of militia at that point to be 
assembled and to accompany him under arms 
to New Madrid. He did the same at Cape 
Girardeau and further increased his army by 

the addition of the three companies at New 
Madrid. He thus had almost a full regiment 
of soldiers for the occasion. 

The order book used by Colonel De Lassus 
on this expedition is still in existence and 
it contains a great number and variety of 
orders. De Lassus was an officer, trained in 
the Spanish armj', and he conducted his ex- 
pedition after the most approved manner of 
Spanish warfare. The most rigid etiquette 
prevailed, and everything was performed 
with the utmost care. The second in com- 
mand of the expedition was Don Francisco 
Valle. Don Joseph Pratte and Don Fran- 
cisco Valle, Jr., and Don Camille De Lassus 
were commanders of companies and the last 
named was also an adjutant. There was a 
bodyguard for the lieutenant governor con- 
sisting of a mounted orderly from each com- 

On arriving at New Madrid De Lassus ap- 
pointed officers for the three companies at 
that place. One of these was a company of 
cavalry of which Richard Jones "Waters was 
captain ; George K. Reagan, lieutenant ; and 
John B. Barsaloux, ensign. John La Valle 
was captain; Pierre La Forge, lieutenant, 
and John Charpentier, ensign of the first 
company of infantry. The officers of the sec- 
ond company were Robert I\IcCo.y, captain; 
Joseph Hunot, lieutenant; and John Hart, 

The prisoner then iinder sentence of exe- 
cution was brought forth and the detail of 
soldiers was ordered out, who proceeded to 
execute the sentence by shooting the pris- 
oner. The corpse was then buried by the 
soldiers and the other four prisoners were 
turned over to the chief of the band under 
his promise that they should not again trou- 
ble the inhabitants of New Madrid district. 
The expedition then returned with tlie same 



care for etiquette with which it liad been 

While on this expedition Governor De Las- 
sus issued some very strict orders regarding 
the sale of intoxicants to Indians. He 
pointed out that the Indians were usually 
peaceful and law-abiding, except when they 
had been inflamed by liquor. Trotter, him- 
self, had been killed by the Indians to whom 
he had unlawfully sold liquor. In view of 
these circumstances the governor ordered 
that there should be only a limited number 
of tavern and dram-shop keepers; that they 
must have an appointment from the gov- 
ernor, himself, and must be persons of good 
conduct; that under no pretext whatever, 
were they to give or sell liquor to the In- 
dians or slaves. 

Thej' were ordered to give immediate no- 
tice of any disorder in their houses to the 
commandant or nearest syndic. Any person 

found keeping an unauthorized tavern or 
dram-shop, or who should have sold liquor 
unlawfully, was to be both imprisoned and 
fined, and any person who, whether a keeper 
of a tavern or dram-shop or any other, should 
sell or give liquor to Indians was bound to be 
arrested and sent in irons, at his own ex- 
pense, to New Orleans; all his property was 
to be seized until the matter was decided by 
the governor-general. The commanders of 
posts were held responsible for the enforce- 
ment of these orders. 

At New Madrid the governor licensed John 
Baptiste Olive to keep a tavern, in the same 
district, on the road to Illinois, Mr. Edward 
Robertson, and at Little Prairie, Mr. Charles 
Guilbault. The license tax for these persons 
was to be such a sum as the governor general 
might fix and this tax was very appropri- 
ately to be used in the construction of a 
prison at New Madrid. 



Population in 1804 — Settlements — Occupations — Differences Between French and 
America Settlements — Houses op the French — Stockades — Food and Cooking — Dif- 
ferences IN the French Produced by Residence in This Country — Social Life — Dress 
■ — Amusements — La Guignolee — Contented Character of the French — Trade — Amer- 
ican Settlers — Characteristic Life — Houses — Clothing — Food — Law-Abiding Char- 
acters — German Settlers — Absence of Spanish Settlers — Merchants — Prices — -Prod- 
ucts — Travel — Roads — River Travel — Kbel-Boats — Religious Conditions — First Ser- 
vices — Restrictive Laws of Spain — Records op the Catholic Church in Ste. Gene- 
vieve — Father Meurin — Father Gibault — James Maxwell — First Church Buildings 
— Support of Priests — Bishop Dubourg — De Andreis — Founding of St. Mary's Sem- 
inary — Danger op Misunderstanding the Character of the People. 

By the time of the transfer to the United 
States, in 1804, there were living in the terri- 
tory of Louisiana about 10,120 people. Of 
these, the greater number were in Southeast 
Missouri. Each of the five districts into which 
the Spanish had divided the country for pur- 
poses of administration was in a flourishing 
condition. There had been a considerable im- 
migration into the district from the territory 
of the United States across the river, and, as 
we have seen, in a few places there were large 
numbers of French settlers. The following 
table gives as correctly as can be determined 
the population of the principal settlements at 
the time of the Louisiana Purchase : Cape 
Girardeau district, 1,470; Ste. Genevieve dis- 
trict, 2,350 whites and 520 slaves: New Ma- 
drid district, 1,350 whites and 120 slaves. 

By this date settlements had been made in 
most of the present counties of this section. 

There were probably no settlements in Dunk- 
lin, Butler, Ripley, Carter, Stoddard, and Rey- 
nolds counties, but in all the other counties 
there were at least some attempts at settle- 
ment made. There were flourishing towns at 
New Madrid, Cape Girardeau and Ste. Gene- 
vieve. Ste. Genevieve was a distinctly French 
settlement; Cape Girardeau was just as dis- 
tinctly an American settlement, while New 
Madrid was in part French and in part 

As we have seen, these people were attracted 
here by a number of things. It is, perhaps, 
true that the greater number of them came on 
account of the richness of the soil and the pos- 
sibility of obtaining land on easy terms from 
the Spanish government. The settlers were 
largel.y farmers. This is true of the districts 
of Cape Girardeau and New Madrid ; in fact, 
outside of trading and the running of an oc- 
casional mill, there were no other settled in- 




dustries besides agricultvire. Some of the in- 
habitants depended in part upon hunting and 
trapping, but the greater number of them 
were almost entirely dependent upon agricul- 
ture. It was this fact that led the American 
settlers to open up farms and to scatter out 
over the country upon these farms, rather 
than to gather together in larger towns and 
villages. We tind that in the Cape Girardeau 
district there were settlejnents in a large num- 
ber of places extending over quite a part of 
the territory of the district. Nearly all the 
population of the district was to be found on 
scattered farms. This was, in part, due to 
that intense spirit of independence which 
rendered the American impatient of restraint 
and unwilling to be hampered or hindered in 
his activities within the towns. 

The inhabitants of the district of Ste. Gene- 
vieve were, by no means, so entirely depend- 
ent upon agriculture. This was the district 
that contained the mineral region. Many of 
the settlers were engaged in mining; in fact, 
it seems true that more than half the people 
of the district were supported in part, at 
least, by the mines. It should be remembered 
that mining was carried on in a most primi- 
tive way. They were all surface mines, 
there having been no deep shafts sunk in the 
district. There was little use of machinery, 
so that the production of even relatively 
small quantities of lead required the work of 
a large number of persons. We find around 
each one of the larger mines a group of 
houses, a little settlement, where there were 
trading posts for the exchange of goods. We 
find, too, that considerable numbers of the 
inhabitants were engaged in transporting the 
lead from the mines to the river and on the 
river to the various places to which it was 
shipped. There were a number, too, who 

were engaged in trading. Commercial en- 
terprises were developed more extensively in 
the district of Ste. Genevieve than any other 
part of the territory. 

Another striking difference between the 
Ste. Genevieve district and the others, lay in 
the greater concentration of the population 
in the towns and villages. Travelers were 
struck by the contrast in this respect. This 
grouping of the inhabitants was a result of 
the French character. The French emi- 
grants to America were in a great majority 
of cases industrious, hard working people. 
They were perfectly willing to undergo hard- 
ships and dangers in their attempts to gain 
wealth, but the French are a distinctly social 
people, and, while these settlers here were 
willing to endure privation and to face the 
dangers of the wilderness and to toil unceas- 
ingly for the accomplishment of their pur- 
poses, they were not willing to give up that 
social life which they loved. It was this so- 
cial pai't of their nature which prevented 
them from scattering over the country and 
developing farms as did the Americans. The 
American family was satisfied to live upon a 
farm a long distance removed from others. 
Not so with the French family. There must 
be society and intermingling of the people. 
While the French developed agriculture and 
carried on farms in a considerable way, we 
find them living not on their farms but 
grouped together in towns. It was this fact 
that accounts for the common fields attached 
to the French towns. The people who lived 
in the town of Ste. Genevieve, many of them, 
were farmers. They were perfectly willing 
to cultivate the soil, provided it could be done 
^vithout causing them to endure the isolation 
of farming life. A great tract of fertile land 
which lies just south of the town of Ste. 
Genevieve, which is now known as the Big 



Field, was owned in common by the inhabit- 
ants of the town. It was divided up for the 
purposes of cultivation at the beginning of 
the year. It provided an opportunity for 
the pursuit of farming without demanding 
the sacrifice of social life. 

These differences in the spirit and attitude 
of the French and the Americans was the 
cause of a great dififereuce in development of 
the two sections of the country. It is evi- 

ordinarily a considerable enclosure, in which 
were to be found the family orchard, the gar- 
den in which was grown a variety of vege- 
tables, the cabins for servants or slaves, and 
other buildings for the use and convenience 
of the inhabitants. The amount of ground 
depended, of course, upon the wealth of the 
owner. The well-to-do among the French 
usually enclosed a considerable space for 
these purposes. The house and grounds were 

Old-Time Windlass 

dent, of course, that no new country can be 
thoroughly settled and reduced to the pur- 
poses of agriculture, except by people who 
are willing to settle upon the land itself. 
Here the American settlers possessed a very 
great advantage over the French. 

We have referred to the fact that the 
French settlers lived in towns. Most of them 
of the well-to-do class built for themselves 
comfortable houses. These houses usually 
stood near the street or road, the front yard 
being small, but back of the house there was 

usually surrounded by a stout fence. This 
fence was in reality something of a stockade 
and was strongly built of pickets driven into 
the ground and sometimes reinforced with 
earth and stone. It really served as a means 
of protection against the Indians, for all of 
the people were exposed more or less to the 
danger of Indian assault. The various tribes 
of Indians living in the vicinity of Ste. Gene- 
vieve were accustomed, at times, when they 
came into possession of whiskey, to take the 
town. On these occasions the inhabitants 
ufsuallv retired within their houses, closed 



Old-Fashioned Ore Hoistees in Action 



the gates of their yards, barricaded the doors 
and windows and waited until the Indians 
tired of their pranks. 

The houses themselves were usually one 
story in height. They were long and low, 
with a porch in front and rear and some- 
times entirely around the house. They were 
built of wood, sometimes of logs and more 
often, perhaps, framed together and covered 
with boards running up and down on the 
framing. Plastering was used on the out- 
side of some of these houses, and sometimes 
they were weather-boarded, though this was 
unusual. The houses were substantial and 
warmly built. Each room was lighted by 
one window with small panes of glass. 
There was generally no attic, or else if there 
was an attic provided for, it was rarely 
lighted by a window or reached by any per- 
manent steps. The houses were ordinarily 
heated by open fires biiilt in the fire places 
of great chimneys. These chimneys were usu- 
ally made of sticks and earth. Four great 
poles were driven into the earth and drawn 
nearly together at the top and then the struc- 
ture of sticks and earth built up between 
these poles. Sometimes, though, there was a 
stone chimney and fire place connected with 
the house. That the houses were substantial 
is shown by the fact that a number of them 
are still in use in Ste. Genevieve though more 
than a century old. 

One of the differences between the French 
settlers and the American was in the char- 
acter of the food and in cooking. The French 
people are noted for their skill as cooks, and 
the early French settlers in Missouri were no 
exception to the rule. American travelers 
among these French settlers were struck by 
the variety of food that there was prepared. 
Instead of the usual dishes of meat variously 
cooked and corn bread, such as was found on 

the tables of the Americans, the French had 
many salads, vegetables and soups. They 
cooked meat, it is true, but it bj- no means oc- 
cupied so large a place on the bill of fare as 
it did among the Americans. 

It should be said that most of the French 
settlers were French Canadians. Some of 
the families came direct from France. Some 
of these were of the nobility and left France 
during the turbulent times of the French 
Revolution. These settled at New Bourbon, 
near Ste. Genevieve, but the greater major- 
ity of the people were descendants of the 
French settlers in Canada. They retained 
many of the characteristics of the French ; 
but long residence in America, in an en- 
tirely different environment, had produced 
some changes in them. This was noted by 
early travelers, especially in their language 
and in their bearing and habits of speech. 
The natural vivacitj' and liveliness of the 
French, especially those of the higher class, 
was modified among the settlers in Jlissouri. 
They were more vivacious than the Ameri- 
cans, it is true, but there was a suppression 
and restraint that was not observable among 
the original French settlers. The language, 
too. had lost something of its sharpness and 
had acquired a softness and musicalness in 
this country. 

Contradictory accounts are given by early 
travelers concerning the habits and character 
of these French settlers. They impressed 
some of the early writers by their courtesy, 
their careful training of their children, their 
restraint and dignity, their openhanded hos- 
pitality and real culture and grace of man- 
ner. Some of these writers declared that 
nowhere else was to be found greater perfec- 
tion of manners or of character than among 
these French. Thev were said to be very 



moderate in their use of wine; most genial 
and kind toward all who came in contact 
with them; crime was practically unknown 
among them, and the courts had little, even, 
of civil business to transact. Those who saw 
them in this favorable light were impressed 
by the dignity of the people which arose, in 
part, from the feeling of security in which 
they lived. They were in the midst of 
plenty, land was cheap, and the soil produc- 
tive. The woods were full of game, and 
trade with the Indians was profitable. There 
was no reason for any to worry concerning a 
livelihood. From these conditions there 
seems to have developed among them an ease 
of manner and a dignity born of assured po- 
sition that left its impress upon all that they 
did. The women were said to possess un- 
usual refinement, to be devoted to their fam- 
lies and to have unusual ability as housekeep- 

On the other hand, some of the early trav- 
elers saw the French settlers with different 
eyes. They said that they were inclined to 
be slothful; that they were content with a 
bare living taken from the soil ; that they 
were given to indulgence in strong drink ; 
and that the children were not properly in- 
structed, but allowed a great deal of freedom 
and liberty in their lives. 

The dress of all the French, whether rich 
or poor, was distinguished by its simplicity. 
The men wore a long coat and cape, so de- 
signed that it could be thrown up over the 
head. From these circumstances it was 
called the ' ' capote. ' ' They wore shirts of 
various kinds of cloth, usually linen trousers 
and Indian moccasins. The women, too, 
dressed with great simplicity, but tried to 
impress visitors that they were not altogether 
out of the fashion. The centers of fashion 
were many hundreds of miles away; yet, in 

spite of these conditions, the women of the 
French communities generally managed to 
know something of the styles. They, too, 
wore the Indian moccasins, and it was the 
custom of both men and women to cover the 
head with a handkerchief, usually blue in 
color. It should be said, too, that most of 
them were able to possess, even when they 
were comparatively poor, clothes which were 
set apart for Sundaj' wear and for holiday 
occasions. The inventory which has been 
preserved of the estate of some of the French 
settlers discloses that the love of dress was 
present among them. 

All accounts agree that the great majority 
of the French settlers were noted for their 
devotion to truth and for strict honesty in 
their dealings with one another, and even 
with outsiders. 

It is not to be supposed that, even in these 
remote places, amusement was not sought 
after with the same eagerness that it is pur- 
sued elsewhere. The French settlements al- 
most universally observed a sort of carnival 
season, when a lai'ge part of the time was 
given up to celebrations, and to the pursuit of 
various amusements. 

Of these amusements, the one most pas- 
sionately followed was dancing. Sunday af- 
ternoon in these settlements was. usually, de- 
voted to dancing. The children and young 
people came together under the supervision 
of their elders, and all of them engaged in 
that pastime which they most thoroughly 
loved. Some of the travelers say that these 
Sunday afternoon assemblies were really 
schools for the instruction of the children in 
good manners. Be that as it may, they were 
held, and it was a well known custom in Ste. 
Genevieve and other of the French towns. 

The season of the vear when amusement 



Avas most sought was the begiiiiiiug of the 
year. On New Year's Eve there was a cus- 
tom, among the young men, to gather in a 
numerous group, arrayed in fantastic dress, 
some appearing as clowns, some as negroes, 
and others as Indians, but each carrying a 
bucket, box, basket or other receptacle. 
Thus dressed, the j'oung men made their way 
from house to house, and at each place they 
sang what was called "La Guignolee. " This 
was a jocular song in which there was de- 
manded from tlie master and mistress of the 
house their eldest daughter, and also a con- 
tribution of some sort of food which was 
called "La Guignolee." After the donation 
had been given the young men danced before 
the house and then went on to the next house. 
At some central point, before daj% the whole 
population of the settlement assembled and 
heard mass. After mass all the children 
and grandchildren made their wa.v to tlieir 
parents where they placed themselves upon 
their knees and implored a parental blessing. 
This pleasing custom of submitting them- 
selves to the authority of their parents and 
of imploring a blessing upon them was one 
of the peculiar customs of the French settle- 

On January 6th, of each year, there was 
given at some selected house a supper and a 
dance. A cake was baked for this occasion 
which contained four beans. At some time 
during the festivity the cake was cut into 
small pieces and a piece given to each girl 
present. The girls who were fortunate 
enough to obtain a slice containing one of the 
beans were hailed as queens. Each queen 
then selected some young man as king. The 
selection was made known by the presenta- 
tion to him of a bouquet. The four young 
men thus selected were charged with the 
preparation of the next ball. They made ar- 

rangements for i1 and bore the expenses of 
giving it. These balls were called Bals du 
Roi, At each one of them, arrangements 
were made for the holding of the next.* 

One tiling concerning the condition of 
these French people, which struck all observ- 
ers, was the absence of anything like a caste, 
or even a class system among them. The 
people were almost all related by blood or by 
marriage, and this fact tended to produce a 
feeling of unity among them which very 
largely prevented the development of the 
class spirit. It was true, of course, that men 
of intelligence and wealth were more highly 
regarded than others, but this regard was 
largely a personal matter and was paid to the 
individual showing great attainments, and 
not to the class itself. 

Innovations were not regarded with 
favor. There was something of a clannish 
spirit among them. They were satisfied with 
their conditions of life and they did not wish 
for changes. Their wants were easily sup- 
plied from the produce of the soil, and from 
the wealth obtained by traffic and from the 
mines. It is true everywhere, that among a 
population no larger than that of the French 
settlement, bound together by ties of blood 
and language in a country where plenty 
abounds for everyone, there is an absence of 
a stimulus to great progress. This feeling 
that they had no need to display very great 
activity, a feeling of security and well being, 
led some who visited the settlements to re- 
gard the people as lazy. They were not lazy 
— they were industrious and frugal — but 
they found that they had time for leisure, 
and need not devote all of their energies to 
the acquisition of wealth. They were simple 

* ilissouii Historical Society Collections, Vol. II, 
Xo. 1, p. 12. 



people and had little desire for greater 
things than they found about them. That 
progress among them was slow is evidenced 
by the statement of Breckenridge. He was a 
native of Pennsylvania ; and was sent at an 
early age by his father to live for three years 
in Ste. Genevieve, in order to stud.y French. 
His record, in the form of a diary, of those 
years, is very valuable on account of the light 
it casts on the conditions there. He says that 
for many years there was no public bakery 
in all the French settlements; there was no 
loom or even a spinning wheel ; there was not 
even a churn for butter making. Butter, 
when it was made at all, was made by shak- 
ing cream within a bottle, or a bag. There 
was very little money. These conditions re- 
sulted in all material for clothing being im- 
ported. The French of Louisiana bought 
the material for their clothing and blankets, 
their flax, their calimanco, in Philadelphia or 
in Baltimore. Among them was to be seen no 
home-spun cloth, such as distinguished the 
American settlement. Their principal trade, 
in the absence of money, was carried on by 
means of barter and exchange. As a substi- 
tute for money lead was sometimes used and 
more often peltrj^, or deer skins, supplied 
the place. 

Among these people wealth was almost en- 
tirely in the form of personal property. 
Land was not regarded very highly as a form 
of wealth. This arose from the fact that 
land was abundant, that it might be had on 
very easy terms and was, consequently, very 
cheap. The principal form of this wealth 
was household furniture, clothing, and slaves. 
Some effort has been made to estimate the 
trade of these settlements. It is difficult to 
determine how extensive that trade was. It 
has been said that from 1789 to 1804 the fur 
trade of Upper Louisiana amounted to $200.- 

000. This amount, however, does not repre- 
sent all of the trade, but only that part of it 
which passed through the hands of the Span- 
ish officials. That large part of the Indian 
trade which went to the English is not in- 
cluded in this sum. Besides the fur trade, 
the settlers exported lead and provisions 
down the river, principally to New Orleans; 
they sent lead to Canada, and lead and salt 
to Philadelphia and Baltimore. It was in 
return for these exports that the settlers re- 
ceived their supplies of clothing and materials 
from the cities. 

Communities situated as these French set- 
tlements were, developed a life of their own. 
They were cut off, as we have seen, from the 
centers of French influence by hundreds and 
even thousands of miles. They were divided 
by the river from the American settlements, 
and divided even more distinctly by differ- 
ences in race and language. It is impossible 
to tell how far a civilization distinct in itself 
with social and political institutions might 
have developed in Upper Louisiana, had time 
been given for its development. We cannot 
now say that the French might not have cul- 
tivated institutions similar to those of the 
American colonies. Doubt, however, is cast 
on the probability of this, by the fact that 
they were careless with regard to matters of 
education. There were some private schools 
but they were limited in term and seemed to 
have produced no great residts. Instruction 
in these schools was confined to reading, 
writing and a little arithmetic. 

Matthew Kennedy, an American, was in 
Ste. Genevieve in 1771 ; John and Israel 
Dodge were in New Bourbon shortly after 
the founding of this settlement about 1794, 
and in 1774 John Hildebrand was on the 
Maramec river. In that same neighborhood, 



a little later, was William Boli. These 
seem to have been the first American settlers 
in Upper Louisiana. The great tide of 
American immigration did not begin until 
about 1790. When Morgan had outlined his 
scheme for the forming of a great state, with 
its capital at New Madrid, he advertised verj' 
extensively the attractions of his new settle- 
ment, and induced a number of Americans to 
become interested in Louisiana. The sur- 
veyors whom he brought with him, among 
whom was Christopher Hays, induced many 
of their friends and acquaintances to settle 
in Louisiana. It happened that this scheme 
of Morgan's coincided in time with the great 
western movement into Kentucky. Some of 
the Spanish officials, even before the time of 
Morgan, saw that the probabilities were that 
the Americans would come in large numbers 
to Upper Louisiana, and that they would 
probably be unwilling to live long under the 
rule of Spain. When Americans became ac- 
quainted with the territory and all the ad- 
vantages of life here, they came in large 
numbers. By 1804 half the population of 
the Ste. Genevieve district was American, 
two-thirds of the population of the New Mad- 
rid district was American, and of the popu- 
lation of the Cape Girardeau district, all 
were American with the exception of a few 

The life of these Americans was quite dif- 
ferent from that of their French neighbors. 
Most of the Americans were men who had 
had experience in a new country. They had 
been pioneers in Virginia, Kentucky, and 
Tennessee; they were accustomed to the life 
of the wilderness; and they had that bold, 
independent attitude which made them im- 
patient of restraint. They did not possess 
the social nature of the French. They were 
entirely willing to do without neighbors and 

to forego the delights of social intercourse. 
We find them scattered about on farms, 
rather tiiau croweded together into the 
towns. They took possession of the country 
and began at once to open up the soil for cul- 
tivation. They were men of energy and vi- 
tality. They seemed to have seen something 
of the future of the country and to have 
appreciated the importance of subduing the 
wilderness. They were not so much in 
symiJathy with the Indians, nor with the 
life of the Indians as were the French. 
Tliey did not have such a romantic at- 
tachment for the forest and for the life 
of nature. They liked the wilds of the new 
country, but they liked them on account 
of the possibilities they possessed. Accord- 
ingly, they set themselves to the task of clear- 
ing the land and putting it into cultivation. 
Their settlements lacked the charm that was 
present among the French, but they gave evi- 
dence of prosperity and an energy superior 
to that of the others. Many of the French 
officials who visited the American settlements 
about Cape Girardeau were struck by the 
evidence of thrift and energy. They wished 
the French settlers might exhibit something 
of this enterprising spirit. 

The houses of these American settlers were 
the houses which have been characteristic of 
new settlements all over America. They 
consisted, usually, of two square pens built 
of logs. Between them was an open space 
usually about as large as one of the pens. 
Over all was a single roof usually extending 
far enough in both front and rear to form 
porches. Sometimes the porch at the rear of 
the house was boarded up forming another 
room. The cracks between the logs forming 
the house were filled with mud. There was 
usually one, and sometimes two, doors in 
each of these rooms, liesides one or two open- 



ings for light. These openings were some- 
times closed with board shutters, and occa- 
sionally were filled with glass. The rooms 
had puncheon floors. The space between the 
two rooms was left open for the circulation 
of light and air. It was not infrequently 
left without a floor. In each of the rooms 
there was a large fire place. The chimney 
was usually built of mud and sticks, some- 
times of stone. One of these large rooms 

were not much concerned about religion, else 
they would not have said themselves to be 
good Catholics. They were most of them will- 
ing to set aside whatever convictions they had 
on religious subjects, in order to be admitted 
to the Spanish territory. The testimony of 
missionaries who traveled among them is that 
they were in a deplorable condition, relig- 
iously. They had no services of their own to 
attend, many of them were unwilling to at- 

HoJiE OF Our Fathers 

was used for the kitchen, the other was the 
family living room. The slaves owned by 
the family lived in small cabins in the rear of 
the house. The American family's wealth 
and importance was estimated by the size of 
the barns and the uuml)er of slave cabins on 
the place. 

These American settlers were part of them 
Catholics, such as the settlers at St. Michaels 
and many of those who settled in Perry 
county ; many of the others were Protestants, 
and some of them professed no religion at all. 
It is evident that many of the Protestants 

tend the servit-es of the Catholic church, so 
they were without religious instruction. 
Sunday among them was too often a holiday 
given up to the pursuit of pleasure of one 
kind and another. 

Unlike the French settlers, the Americans 
were people who depended largely upon 
their own resources. Instead of importing 
goods for their clothing from New Orleans, 
Philadelphia or Baltimore, each house of the 
American settler became a factory where 
thread was spun and cloth woven to supply 
the wants of the household. Nearly all of 



the settlers were aceustomed to dress in 
the home-spun cloth called "jeans." This 
was woven from thread, spun at the house 
itself, and the garments were made from 
the cloth by the women of the household. 
This famous "jeans" was dyed various 
colors, perhaps the one most favored was 
known as "butter-nut." This cloth was al- 
most indesti'uctible. It was all wool ; there 
was no mixture of cotton and Wdul such a.s is 

moccasin was so well suited to the life of the 
woods that it was adopted by practically all 
the people who lived among the Indians. 

The food of the Americans was by no 
means so varied nor so daintily prepared and 
cooked as the food of the French. There 
was an abundance of it and most of it was 
wholesome, but there was not that attention 
to the minor and lighter items of diet that 
the French gave. In.stead of soups, salads. 

-Made Loom and Operator 

found in almost all the cloth of the present 
time. There was among these people no 
such careful attention to dress as distin- 
guished the French. They were content if 
they had a sufficient amount of comfortable 
and presentable clothing. There was but lit- 
tle effort to follow the fashions, and no great 
pride was taken in a large collection of gar- 
ments of one sort or other. The women wore 
the sun-bonnet and the men frequently cov- 
ered the head with a cap made from coon 
skin or bear skin. Moccasins were fre- 
quently worn by botli sexes. The Indian 

vegetables and desserts, the staple items on 
the table of the American settlers were meat 
and corn bread. This meat was the meat of 
wild game, deer, turkey and other varieties, 
or it was the meat of the hog. Bacon was 
one of the favored dishes to be foiind on al- 
most all tables. 

American settlers were usually strong and 
robust. The men were distinguished for 
their streugth of body, their vigor and their 
hardiness. These qualities wei-e to be ex- 
pected in a race of men who went out to 
subdue the wilderness. Many stories are 




told of the feats of strength performed by 
them. They gloried in their strength. 
They were usually content in their brawls 
and quarrels with the weapons with which 
nature had provided them, and whatever dis- 
turbances took place among them, were usu- 
ally settled by an appeal to personal prowess. 
The American settlers were usually law- 
abiding people. They had something of a 
dread of the Spanish criminal law. There 
were stories told concerning the horrible suf- 
ferings endured by prisoners in Spanish 
dungeons and in Spanish mines where crimi- 
nals were frequently sent. This account of 
Spanish authority had, perhaps, its whole- 
some effect in keeping the population quiet; 
but the thing that more than anything else 
operated to produce quiet and orderly set- 
tlements among the Americans was the law- 
abiding and independent character of the 
people themselves. Experience had shown 
them that people could not expect to be free 
unless they exercised the virtues of self con- 
trol. Accordingly, we find the communities 
of American settlers were very largely self 
governing. They settled their disputes among 
themselves, where that was possible, without 
any appeal to the Spanish authorities or to 
Spanish law. 

Strange as it may seem, nearly all of the 
American settlers were well affected toward 
the authority of the Spanish government, 
and it does not appear that they greeted the 
change from the authority of Spain to that 
of the United States with any great rejoic- 
ing. Spain had dealt liberally with them in 
respect to grants of land, and, so far as those 
of the settlers who were engaged in agricul- 
ture were concerned, the Spanish regulations 
did not hamper them very greatly. Opposi- 
tion to Spain's control of the Mississippi did 

not come in any very large measure from 
west of the river. The opposition which made 
Spain's continued control of the river im- 
possible arose in the states bordering along 
the river to the east. We find even expres- 
sions of dissatisfaction when the flag of Spain 
was replaced by that of the United States. 

Beside the French and American settlers, 
of whom we liave spoken, there were a few 
settlements of Germans in Upper Louisiana. 
We have mentioned some of them, especially 
those who came to the district of Cape Gir- 
ardeau. Major Bollinger and the company of 
men who with him settled on Whitewater 
were among the earliest of these German set- 
tlers. They, too, were hardy and industrious 
people. They were distinguished for their 
thrift, for their ability to wring a living from 
the soil, and to accumulate property. 

It is rather curious that in all the years 
from 1762 to 1802, while Spain was in con- 
trol of the Louisiana territor.v, there were 
very few Spanish people who came to the ter- 
ritory. It seems that the Spanish would have 
seized the opportunity to settle Louisiana 
■while it was owned and controlled by Spain; 
such, however, was not the case. There are 
to be found the names of only two or three 
families in all of Upper Louisiana who seem 
to have been of Spanish origin. There were 
a number of reasons why the Spanish did not 
settle here. The chief of these was the idea 
that the Spanish held that the new world was 
not a place so much for settlement and coloni- 
zation as it was a place for searching for the 
precious metals. Long before the acquisition 
of the territory by Spain, it had become ap- 
parent that Upper Louisiana, while rich in 
lead, contained very little of the precious 
metals. It was for this reason principally 



Pioneer Spinning Wheel 

Eating up the Fl.ix 



that Spain neglected to colonize the territory. 
Of course there were other causes which 
joined with this to produce the same result. 
One of these was the gi-eater interest which 
the southern part of the United States and 
even South America, had for the Spanish. 
They came from a different climate, and they 
found the warmer parts of the country more 
congenial to them. 

The merchants who traded in these set- 
tlements were very different from the mer- 
chants of to-day. Some of them had very 
small warehouses, but most frequently, the 
goods of every kind were placed in a large 
box. They were brought out for inspection 
only on the demand of the customer. Within 
this box all kinds of things were kept — sugar, 
salt, dry goods, paints, tobacco, gunpowder, 
guns, hatchets ; in fact, the whole store of the 
merchant was usually contained within a 
single receptacle. The merchant was usually 
not very enterprising, and was content to 
wait for the coming of customers and made 
no great effort to extend his trade. One re- 
sult of this system of trading was the pre- 
vailing high prices of everything that was 
bought and sold. This was especially true of 
groceries which were imported from New Or- 
leans, Canada, or the eastern part of the 
United States. Sugar sold at two dollars a 
pound, and tea at the same price ; coffee was 
equally as dear. These high prices extended 
even to the products of the country; butter 
sold for from thirty to fifty cents a pound ; 
eggs, twenty-five cents a dozen; chickens, 
forty to fifty cents a piece. All of the trav- 
elers of the time speak of these high prices. 
Cumings, who visited New Madrid in 1809, 
says that milk, butter, eggs and chickens 
were outrageously high and Bradbury, who a 
few years later made a voyage from St. Louis 

to New Orleans, found similar prices prevail- 
ing. It is probably true that these high prices 
were in part the result of the system of bar- 
ter that prevailed in most parts of the coun- 
try. During the Spanish regime the Spanish 
officials were accustomed to pay for goods, 
which they bought, in currency ; and this at- 
tracted to the west side of the river a con- 
siderable amount of the produce from Illinois. 
These circumstances all combined to render 
the price of articles higher than would other- 
wise have been maintained. 

Nearly all the settlers of the country were 
engaged in farming, as we have seen, and 
their principal products were cattle, wheat, 
corn, and hoi'ses. Other things wei-e grown 
to a limited extent, but these were the staple 
products. We may well suppose that agricul- 
ture was in the primitive state. It is said 
that in 1801 the entire crop of corn grown by 
the settlers of New Madrid amounted to only 
6,000 bushels. Crops in other settlements 
were proportionately small. The amount pro- 
duced barely provided for the necessities of 
the settlei-s themselves and left only a small 
amount for export. Whatever surplus there 
was was sent east to New Orleans or to Can- 
ada. Cattle, of course, could be grown with 
little expense, owing to the vast range where 
they lived practically without being fed. 
This was true to some degree of horses also. 
It was noted, however, that both cattle and 
horses deteriorated in Louisiana. No atten- 
tion was given to the breeding of stock and 
they decreased in size and quality. Horses 
were especially valuable on account of the 
fact that almost all travel on land was done 
either on foot or on horseback. 

One of the great hardships endured by set- 
tlers in the new country is the isolation which 



is unavoidable. It is difficult for us to im- 
agine the situation of the settlers in New Ma- 
drid, Cape Girardeau and Ste. Genevieve. 
They were separated from one another by 
man}' miles and they were cut off from the 
centers of wealth and power by hundreds and 
thousands of miles. To reach New Orleans 
or Canada required a journey whose difficul- 
ties cannot be measured by us. There were no 
roads. One who traveled by land must fol- 
low the trails or traces as laid out by the In- 
dians and adopted for use by the settlers. 
Tliese trails were simply paths which led 
through the woods. Often it was difficult to 
follow them, owing to their indistinctness; 
sometimes the trees along them were blazed 
to prevent them being entirely lost. There 
were no bridges over the streams ; the trav- 
eler must make his way across these as best 
he might. Tliere were no inns, or other pro- 
vision for one who made his way along these 
trails. He must carry with him the supplies 
necessary for his subsistence. Travel along 
these trails was necessarily limited either to 
horseback or else on foot. It must have been 
a gi'eat undertaking to go from the settle- 
ments in Missouri to Quebec or Montreal in 
Canada. No matter at what time of year one 
traveled, he met with great hardships and 
dangers. The streams were frequently swol- 
len and dangerous to cross; there were long 
stretches of country consisting of swamps; 
wild animals were abvmdant, and savages 
were still more to be dreaded. There was 
great siiffering from cold in winter, and from 
heat and mosquitoes in summer; and yet. as 
difficult as such a journey over land must 
have been, it was frequently made. Traders 
found it necessary to go from Missouri to 
Canada. Some of them made annual trips 
covering 1,600 to 2,000 miles on land. 

The traveler set out with his hoi-se. On 

either side of his saddle he placed sueli things 
as were necessary for his comfort. He pro- 
cured his provisions, in part, by hunting; he 
camped at night under the sky, in the forests 
or on the prairie. In winter time it was fre- 
quently necessary to shovel away the snow to 
tind a little dry wood with which to kindle a 
fire. It was always necessary to be on con- 
stant guard against the dangers of the way. 
Strange as it may seem, however, this life 
of travel came to have the very greatest at- 
tractions for some men. There was a fasci- 
nation about the life of the woods, its hard- 
ships and even its dangers, which drew men 
irresistibly to it. This was true not only of 
men who were reared amid such surround- 
ings; it was true of Europeans who came from 
the midst of a high state of civilization. They 
found something in the life of the woods 
which made their every-day existence at home 
seem tame and uninspiring by comparison. 
Scarcely a traveler of all of those wiio left 
a record of their wanderings in the west but 
reveals the influence of this peculiar charm 
of savage life. Some seemed to revel in it; 
to feel that for the first time they had come 
in contact with nature, and were living the 
life for which men were destined. 

If we turn from travel on land, with its 
lack of roads and its inconveniences, to travel 
on the river, we find conditions improved in- 
deed and yet arduous, still. In the early 
times travel on the river was in the large 
dug-outs called bateaus or pirogues. Nearly 
all of the early voyages up and down the 
river were made in these boats. They were 
copied from the Indian boats and were the 
hollowed out trunks of large trees. In such 
a boat it required from twenty-five to thirty 
days to make the trip from Ste. Genevieve 
to New Orleans, and it required from three 



to four months to make the trip from New 
Orleans to Ste. Genevieve. One of the Span- 
ish commandants boasted that he had just 
come from New Orleans to St. Louis in one 
of the king's bateaus in the very short time 
of ninety-three days. It was in boats like 
these that the produce, the lead and food was 
exported from Ste. Genevieve to New Orleans. 
It was not a great while, however, until the 
pirogue gave way, as a carrier of freight, to 
the keel-boat. 

The keel-boat was a large, flat bottomed 
boat, somewhat resembling a canal-boat. It 
was strongly built, equipped with a mast and 
sail, had space for carrying considerable 
cargo, and sometimes accommodation for a 
passenger or two. The bulwarks of the keel- 
boat were flat and usually from fourteen to 
eighteen inches in width, forming a walk en- 
tirely around the boat. It was fitted with a 
large oar, mounted in the rear, by which it 
was steered. It was propelled in a number of 
different ways. Sometimes it was rowed bj' 
means of oars; occasionally, when the wind 
was favorable,' the sail was set and the boat 
propelled by the wind; sometimes it was 
towed as the canal boat was towed. A rope 
was fastened at the top of the mast, then 
brought down through a ring in the bow of 
the boat, and extended to the bank of the 
river where it was grasped by a number of 
men. They walked along the tow path and 
pulled the boat. Perhaps the most charac- 
teristic method of propelling the keel-boat, 
however, was the use of setting poles. These 
were long poles which were used in the fol- 
lowing manner : If the water was of the right 
depth, the men engaged in propelling the 
boat, took their places along the bulwarks 
forming a line on either side as near as pos- 
sible to the bow, with their faces toward the 

the setting poles, planted one end against the 
bottom of the river, put the other to his 
shoulder and then the line of men pressing 
against these poles walked toward the rear 
of the boat. The leading man in each line, 
upon reaching the rear, dropped out of line, 
made his way quickly through the boat to 
the bow, took his place at the rear of the line 
of men and again walked toward the stern of 
the boat, pushing as he went. This method 
of procedure gave a continuous impulse to the 
boat and was the method most favored by 
the keel-boat men. 

Whatever method was used for the propul- 
sion of these boats, their progress was slow. 
Twelve to fourteen miles a day was consid- 
ered a fair rate of travel and eighteen miles 
a day, remarkable. If the boats were 
towed by a eordelle or little rope, there 
was constant trouble, owing to the entangling 
of this rope in the tree limbs that lined 
the bank of the river. Constant stops must 
be made for the purpose of untangling 
these lines, and there were many other ob- 
structions to be overcome, too. Very fre- 
quently at short intervals there were great 
rafts extending from the bank out into the 
river, sometimes for a distance of fifty or 
sixty feet formed of drift wood which had 
been caught by some obstruction. Such a raft 
was called by the French an emharras. Some- 
times, too, great trees that had been washed 
down by the streams extended out for a dis- 
tance of a hundred feet into the river. The 
keel-boat must make its way around all of 
these obstructions, and there was always 
found a swift and violent current around each 
of these. In spite of all of these difficiilties, 
however, the keel boat continued for years 
to be the principal means of travel on the 
river. Large quantities of lead, corn, and 

stem. Each man grasped in his hand one of wheat, and occasionally passengers were ear- 



ried from St. Louis to Ste. Genevieve and 
New Orleans. 

The social life and condition of these peo- 
ple must always be a matter of the very greats 
est interest. It is unfortunate that we do not 
have more complete records of their real con- 
dition. Enough, however, remains for us to 
form some idea of their surroundings, and 
the things in which they took the deepest and 
most vital interest. It is quite evident that 
one of these things was religion. We have 
seen before this time that the first service 
ever held within the limits of the state was 
that celebrated by De Soto and his com- 
panions at the request of the Indians. That 
icligious service was held in 1541. It was 
destined to be many years before another was 
celebrated. We cannot be certain as to the 
date when the next religious celebration was 
held within the limits of the state. We have 
no accurate account as to the coming of any 
missionaries vintil, at least, the time of Mar- 
quette. We cannot, indeed, be certain that 
Marquette landed and held services on the 
soil of the state. We know, however, that he 
passed along its border upon the bosom of the 
great river, and we know that he was a most 
devout Christian and sincerely interested in 
spreading the Go.spel among the Indians. In 
fact, he had vowed that should he discover 
tlie river, he intended to name it The Immacu- 
late Conception, and to name the first post 
planted within the territory in the same way. 
He fulfilled this vow, and the Mississippi was 
known for a number of years as the "River 
of the Conception." We may rightfully in- 
fer, from these circumstances, that he did 
land in Missouri and hold religious services ; 
but even if such was the case, it was like the 
service held so long before by De Soto, only 

an incident, long separated in time, from any 
regular series of religious services. 

AVe are unable to fix the date when regular 
religious services were first held here. We 
may suppose that, as soon as settlers began 
to live about the mines and at Ste. Genevieve, 
the priests at Kaskaskia and Fort Chartres 
came to Missouri to hold services. There is 
one reference in the Jesuit Relations which 
seems to confirm this supposition. We do not, 
however, reach a certain period until the be- 
ginning of the church records of Ste. Gene- 
vieve. This was in the year 1759. 

It should be said, of course, that all the 
early religious services held in the section 
were Catholic. The French dominated the 
territory until its transfer to Spain, and so 
long as the French were here, religious con- 
trol was vested in the priests of the Jesuit 
order. After the transfer to Spain an order 
was issued banishing the Jesuits from Louisi- 
ana and the religious control of the territory 
was claimed by the Capuchin fathers whose 
establishment in this country was in New Or- 
leans. The laws of Spain were very strict 
with regard to the settlement of Protestants 
in the territory and, of course, forbade under 
penalty the immigration of Protestant clergy- 
men and the holding of Protestant services. 
It must be said, however, that the Spanish of- 
ficials, who were charged with the execution 
of these laws, were very rarely bigoted, and 
they seem to have had little desire to enforce 
the laws in a harsh manner. What these 
laws were, may be ascertained from the fol- 
lowing instructions issued by Manuel Gayoso. 
the governor of Louisiana, to the command- 
ants of the various posts : 

"6. The privilege of enjoying liberty of 
conscience is not to extend beyond the first 



generation. The children of those who en- 
joy it must positively be Catholic. Those 
who will not conform to this rule are not to 
be admitted, but are to be sent back out of 
the Province immediately, even though they 
possess much property." 

"7. In the Illinois, none shall be admitted 
but Catholics of the class of farmers and ar- 
tisans. They must, also, possess some prop- 
erty, and must not have served in any public 
character in the country from whence they 
came. The provisions of the preceding ar- 
ticle shall be explained to the emigrants al- 
ready established in the Province who are not 
Catholics, and shall be observed by them." 

"8. The commandants will take particu- 
lar care that no Protestant Preacher, or one 
of any sect other than Catholics, shall intro- 
duce himself into the Province. The least 
neglect in this respect will be a great repre- 
hension. ' '* 

It must be kept in mind, however, that 
these rigid instructions were not rigidly en- 
forced. The commandants of the various 
posts understood the very great desire of 
Spain for settlers in the new territory. That 
desire for settlers extended to the Americans, 
and it was the understanding that Americans 
should be admitted without any too rigid in- 
quiry into their religion. Some questions 
were asked, but those questions could be an- 
swered in the afSrmative by almost any be- 
liever in the Christian religion. Any person 
who answered these questions satisfactorily 
was pronounced a good Catholic and per- 
mitted to enter the settlement. This took the 
place, it seems, of a declaration in form that 
the settler was a Catholic. It was explained 
to all of these settlers that their children 
must be brought up in the Catholic faith. Of 
* History of Southeast Missouri, p. 521. 

course the open practice of the Protestant re- 
ligion — the holding of public services — was 
forbidden. It seems, however, that no great 
diligence was exercised to prevent the hold- 
ing of prayer meetings, and other assemblies 
within private houses. Occasionally a minis- 
ter from the settlements of Illinois crossed the 
river and conducted these private sei-vices. 
It is said that more than one of these men 
was more than once warned, but the warnings 
usually came at the close of the visit, and no 
great effort was made to arrest or punish for 
the violation of the law. Of coiirse, under 
these circumstances, no Protestant church 
house could be erected and no formal organ- 
ization made. For this reason the early re- 
ligious history of the state is a history of the 
Catholic church. 

That history began, as we have seen, in 
1759, when there began to be kept in the 
village of Ste. Genevieve a record of church 
affairs. The records mentioned show the fol- 
lowing persons to have had charge of the 
church in Ste. Genevieve at the dates given : 
Fathers P. F. Watrin, J. B. Salveneuve and 
John La Morinie, from 1760 to 1764; Father 
J. L. Meurin, from 1764 to 1768 : Father Gi- 
bault, from 1768 to 1773; Father Hiliarie, 
from 1773 to 1777 ; Father Gibault, from 1778 
to 1784 ; Father Louis Guiques, from 1786 to 
1789 ; Father St. Pierre, from 1789 to 1797 ; 
and Father James Maxwell, from 1797 to 

Father Meurin was a Jesuit, and was the 
only priest exempt in the order of 1763 which 
expelled the Jesuits from Louisiana. He re- 
mained in charge, and continued missionary 
work among the settlers and Indians for a 
number of years. He labored under exceed- 
ingly great difficulties. The property of the 
order to which he belonged had been confis- 



cated and there were many persons within the 
district who were hostile to him, on account 
of the fact that he was a Jesuit. He was not 
in very good standing with the Spanish of- 
ficials, though, the fact that an exception had 
been made in his favor shows him to have been 
appreciated at least to a degree by them. 
Meurin did not confine his labors to Ste. Gene- 
vieve, but ministered to the settlers on the east 
side of the river, also. He visited Kaskaskia, 
Fort Chartres, Fort St. Phillip and the settle- 
ments in the mining regions in Missouri. He 
was not only a missionary priest, he had been 
commissioned as vicar general of Louisiana, 
and this commission, which he attempted to 
exercise, resulted in a discussion concerning 
the authority under which he was commis- 
sioned. At the time of the transfer of Lou- 
isiana to Spain, the territory was under the 
spiritual jurisdiction of the bishop of Que- 
bec, and it was from him that Meurin had re- 
ceived his commission. While the question 
of spiritual jurisdiction seems to have been a 
religious one, it was not so regarded at that 
time. The Spanish authorities considered it 
to be a political question, and they refused 
to concede that an appointee of the bishop of 
Quebec could exercise any spiritual authority 
in the territoi*y of Spain. They no longer re- 
garded the bishop of Quebec as the spiritual 
ruler of the territory, but conceived that place 
to be held by the bishop of San Domingo. In 
1776 they asked for and obtained a formal 
transfer of the territory from the authority 
of the bishop of Quebec to the bishop of San- 
tiago de Cuba. Later this was transferred to 
the bishop of New Orleans, Cardenas. This 
dispute over jurisdiction and the existing hos- 
tility to the order to which he belonged, made 
the work of Father Meurin a difficult and la- 
borious one indeed. 

Of the men mentioned as having been in 
charge at Ste. Genevieve, two, at least, deserve 
a more extended account. Father Gibault 
was a missionary who came to the Illinois 
country from Canada, about the year 1768. 
He bore with him a passport issued by Guy 
Carleton, lieutenant governor and comman- 
der-in-chief of the province of Quebec. Fa- 
ther Gibault lived in Kaskaskia, but he served 
as the priest of the church in Ste. Genevieve 
from 1768 until 1776, and again from 1778 
until 1784. He did not confine his work to 
Ste. Genevieve, but seems to have visited Old 
Mines, La Salinas and, in fact, all the settle- 
ments on both sides of the river, Gibault de- 
serves a place in history because of the service 
which he rendered to George Rogers Clark, 
on the occasion of Clark's capture of Vin- 
cennes. The priest went with Clark from 
Kaskaskia to Vincennes, and used his influ- 
ence among the French people at that place to 
secure their submission to the authority of the 
United States and their adherence to its gov- 
ernment. That this influence was very great, 
we may well suppose, Clark speciallj- ac- 
knowledged the obligation he was under for 
the service rendered. In 1792 Father Gibault 
removed from Kaskaskia to New Madrid 
where he seems to have served as priest un- 
til his death in 1802. He was a man of con- 
siderable ability and energy. He was indus- 
trious and devoted to the work of preaching 
among all of the people of the territory. He 
was most probably a man of very tender 
heart and great s.ympathy, for we find that he 
was reproved at times by his superior, Father 
Maxwell, the vicar general of Upper Louisi- 
ana, for his failure to collect funds for mar- 
riages and other services. This reprimand 
came from Maxwell because he was entitled to 
a part of these fees. 



Soon after Father Gibault's appointment 
to New Madrid and his removal there, he be- 
gan and completed the erection of a build- 
ing for church purposes, and a house for the 
residence of the priest. He has left a de- 
scription of this early church building. It 
was constructed of wood and was ample and 
commodious in size and perfect in its ap- 
pointments for all of the services of the 
church. Of course this building has long 
since disappeared, together with the very site 
on which it was erected. 

The second man noted as among the Tiriests 
of Ste. Genevieve deserving of a further men- 
tion was Father James Maxwell. He was a 
native of Ireland, an educated man and one 
of superior ability. He resided in New Bour- 
bon a short distance from Ste. Genevieve, and 
rode to his services at that place. He was 
appointed vicar general of Upper Louisiana 
in 1792, and held this post for about seven- 
teen years. He was held in the highest es- 
teem and regard by the people among whom 
he labored, and he accomplished a great work 
for the church. He was killed by being 
thrown from the horse while riding home 
from the service at the church in Ste. Gene- 
vieve. Maxwell was very diligent in looking 
after the matter of land grants from the 
Spanish government. It is said that at one 
time he had received grants amounting lo 
more than 120,000 arpents of land. The land 
thus claimed by him was scattered over a con- 
siderable part of the district of Ste. Gene 
vieve, but his claim to the greater number of 
these tracts was finally denied and he was 
left in possession of only about three hundred 
and twenty arpents. 

The first church building in Southeast 
Missouri was erected in the old village of 
Ste. Genevieve at a date which we are unable 

to fix. It was previous to the great flood, be- 
cause after the year of that flood the village 
was moved to its present site. The church 
which had been erected was moved to the new 
site in 1794. It was a wooden structure, but 
large and well suited to the purposes for 
which it was dedicated. It was used by the 
inhabitants of Ste. Genevieve until the year 
1835. It was then so old and dilapidated that 
it was torn down to make way for the erec- 
tion of a larger and more suitable structure. 

Until the transfer of Louisiana to the 
United States, the priests were supported by 
the government of Spain. The salaries were 
paid in this way and the government also 
looked after the erection and care of the dif- 
ferent buildings. It is said that the ordi- 
nary pay of the priests was about six hundred 
dollars a year. Besides this there was usually 
furnished a priests' house, and there were 
some other minor compensations. This was a 
very small salary, of course, but considering 
the time and circumstances under which they 
were placed, it was sufScient for the sup- 
port of priests. Of course this government 
support was discontinued with the transfer 
to the United States. From that time the 
money for buildings and for the pay of 
church officials had to be secured from the 
congregation itself. As was right, the prop- 
erty of the church was transferred or con- 
firmed to the church. The buildings in Ste. 
Genevieve and New Madrid were in this way 
transferred to the proper officers of the 
church. There was also a tract of laiid in 
Little Prairie belonging to the church and the 
title to this was confirmed by the government. 
The work of these missionaries and priests 
was, of course, rendered more difficult by rea- 
son of the cutting off of the support of the 
government. They could no longer be as- 



siu-ed that their salaries would be paid regu- 
larly and without any question, they must 
look to the congregation which they served, 
and the only revenues were voluntary gifts 
to the church. Just as the matter worked out 
everywhere, however, the change was made 
and the work of the church carried on in spite 
of this change. 

We cannot fail to perceive that the work 
of the missionaries in Missouri at this early 
time was both arduous and dangerous. There 
were few roads. Those in existence were sim- 
pl.v paths through the wilderness. The de- 
voted priests often rode for hundreds of 
miles in the course of the year, traveling from 
one settlement to another along these paths 
through the woods and across the streams; 
they were exposed to all the dangers of the 
wilderness. They were sometimes attacked 
by the Indians, and sometimes in peril from 
the wild beasts. They must have suffered 
great hardships from exposure to the weather, 
and from their distance from civilization. 
There has never been a lack, however, of men 
willing to endure hardships and to face dan- 
gers in the work of spreading the gospel. The 
services that these men rendered cannot be 
full.v estimated. They helped to redeem the 
wilderness and to plant standards of religion 
and morality in communities that must other- 
wise have been entirely unreclaimed. 

Religious enterprise by no means ceased 
with the transfer of Louisiana in 1804. In 
the year 1815 the Reverend W. F. Dubourg. 
who had been an officer of the church at New 
Orleans, undertook a journey to Rome and 
while there was consecrated bishop of the dio- 
cese of New Orleans. The territory over 
which he was to exercise spiritual authority 
and .iurisdiction included all of Louisiana, 
both Upper and Lower, and stretched from 

the ]Mis.sissippi river to the Pacific ocean. It 
was an enormous task to be undertaken by 
any man, but the new bishop was fitted for 
the work. He possessed industry, learning 
and devotion to the work. He had also, what 
was indispensable to him in the work of his 
position, an insight into human character and 
the ability to select those assistants who 
would be useful to him in his work. \Vhile 
he was in Rome he chose a number of men and 
persuaded them to return with him to Louisi- 
ana. He had been greatly impressed at Rome 
by the preaching of Father De Andreis. This 
priest was a most remarkable man. He was 
highly educated, distinguished for his abil- 
ity as an orator and as a teacher, and he oc- 
cupied a high position at Rome. Neverthe- 
less, he yielded to the persuasion of Bishop 
Dubourg and, accompanied by some others, 
among them Father Joseph Rosati, departed 
for the new scene of his labours. 

The bishop, himself, was detained, but Fa- 
ther De Andreis, with the rest of the party, 
arrived in St. Louis in 1817. They had come 
by way of Bardstown, Kentuckj-, the resid- 
ence of Bishop Flaget, who accompanied them 
on their trip to St. Louis. After remaining 
some daj'S in St. Louis and making prepar- 
ation for the coming of Bishop Dubourg, the 
part.v started back down the river. The.v met 
the bishop at Ste. Genevieve. Here in 1818, 
the Bishop celebrated the first pontifical high 
mass ever celebrated in Upper Louisiana. 
Dubourg fixed his seat at St. Louis and en- 
tered on the work of his great diocese with 
tremenduous energy and zeal. He had from 
at first seen the necessity of the establishment 
of a school for the training of priests. One 
of the purposes he had in mind in persuading 
Father De Andreis to come with him to this 
country was to make iise of his great learning 
and ability as a teacher in the foundation of 



the seminary which he had in mind. Accord- 
ingly, six liundred and forty acres of land in 
Perry county near the site of Perryville was 
bought for the sum of eight hundred dollars. 
This was to be the site of the new seminary. 
The first structures located upon it were sim- 
ply log cabins. In 1819 the first students were 
received for instruction. Father De Andreis 
was the first president of the seminary and 
conducted the work of organizing and equip- 
ping it. He served in this position until his 
death, when he was succeeded by Father Jo- 
seph Rosati. 

It is somewhat difficult to avoid getting an 
incorrect notion of these people. It must not 
be supposed that all of them were rude or 
rough and turbulent. There were among 
them many excellent people. Sparks, on his 
biography of Daniel Boone, says that to avoid 
falling into this error people should remember 
that the west received emigrants of various 
sorts. ' ' Small numbers of them had fled from 
the scene of crime," he continues, "but a 
large majority were peaceable, industrious, 
moral and well disposed, who, for various mo- 
tives, had crossed the great river, some from 

love of adventure, some from that spirit of 
restlessness which belongs to a class of people, 
but a much larger number with the expecta- 
tion of obtaining large tracts of land which 
the government gave to each settler for the 
trifling expense of surveying and recording. 

"Under the Spanish government the Ro- 
man Catholic faith was the established re- 
ligion of the province and no other christian 
sect was tolerated by the laws of Spain. Bach 
emigrant was required to be un hon Catho- 
liqne, as the French express it, yet by the con- 
nivance of the commandants of Upper Lou- 
isiana and by the use of a legal fiction in the 
examination of Americans who applied for 
land, toleration in fact existed. 

Many Protestant families, communicants 
in Baptist, Methodist, Presbyterian and 
other churches, settled in the province and 
remained undisturbed in their religious prin- 
ciples. Protestant itinerant clergymen passed 
over from Illinois and preached in the log 
cabins of the settlers unmolested, though 
they were occasionally threatened with im- 
prisonment; these threats were never exe- 
cuted. {Spark's Biography, Vol. 23, p. 


Feeling op the French Settlers — Settlements Founded Under the Rule op France — ■ 
Emigration prom the Western States — ^Why Spain Fostered the Movement op Ameri- 
cans Across the River — Question 0\ter the Navigation op the Mississippi — Restric- 
tions ON Commerce — Treaty op Ildeponso — Negotiations for Purchase op New Or- 
leans — Opper op all Louisiana — jMotives op Napoleon in Selling Louisiana — Cere- 
monies Attending the Actual Transfer — Captain Amos Stoddard and His Authority — 
Significance op the Transfer. 

We have thus seeu that Spain neglected 
Louisiana territory, giving to it practically no 
consideration after the time of De Soto. 
France seized the opportunity which was hers 
and took possession of the country, but in 
1759 France lost Canada to England, and 
having lost Canada she lost the key to Lou- 
isiana. In 1762, by the secret treaty of Fon- 
tainbleau, she ceded to Spain all her posses- 
sions in America ; Spain, however, did not 
take full possession of the territory until in 
176S. Tliis delay was caused by the opposi- 
tion of the French settlers of Louisiana. 
These settlers were unwilling to believe for a 
long time that France had sold them. The 
Spanish officers who came to take over the 
government at St. Louis met with resistance 
and returned to New Orleans without having 
I'eceived the country from France. Finally. 
however, Spain sent a governor in the person 
of Count O'Reill.y, who came equipped with 
sufficient power to compel the acknowledg- 
ment of the authority of Spain. 

It will be seen that French settlements in 
Upper Louisiana were confined to Ste. Gene- 

vieve and a few small settlements around the 
lead mines. St. Louis was founded by the 
French, it is true, but this was not until the 
year 1764, two years after the signing of the 
treaty that transferred the country to Spain. 
Cape Girardeau, New Madrid, St. Jlichaels, 
Cook's Settlement, Murphy's Settlement at 
Farmington, and Hereulaneum, were all set- 
tled during the rule of Spain, some of them by 
the French, however, and some by Americans. 
The town of New ^ladrid was laid out by 
Colonel Morgan, an American in the service 
of the Spanish government. He brought to 
his new town a number of French settlers. 
These French who came to Louisiana after 
the transfer to Spain came for the most part 
from east of the Mississippi river. They did 
not wish to live under the power of Great 
Britain or of the Ignited States; they pre- 
ferred to emigrate to Louisiana which had 
once been a possession of France, though now 
belonging to Spain. 

One of the motives, as we have seen, was 
to escape the Northwest ordinance of 1787. 
Many people who lived in the Northwest 




territory were slave owners and when slav- 
ery was prohibited by the ordinance they 
decided, instead of losing their slaves to emi- 
grate across the river and live under the rule 
of Spain. Many of them doubtless came 
without thinking that in making the change 
they were in reality giving up their allegi- 
ance to the government of the United States 
and falling under the government of Spain. 
There seems to have been a feeling existing 
in the American people that the territory west 
of the river was not destined long to remain 
under Spanish control but that it would event- 
ually become a part of the territory of the 
United States, and so these people, unwilling 
to lose their property and feeling that they 
would probably aid in a movement to secure 
for their country more territory, crossed the 
river and took up their life in Upper 

The Spanish government fostered the move- 
ment of both French and Americans to their 
new territory. They developed the lead in- 
dustry and were diligent in planning new 
settlements and in improving the resources 
and conditions of the country. It was for- 
tunate for the United States, however, that 
the Spanish did not possess a talent for col- 
onizing. They held to the "bullion theory" 
that is, that wealth consists in gold and silver 
only; and thfey believed that a colony existed 
for the benefit of the mother country. They 
looked to the colonists in Louisiana to produce 
supplies of gold and silver and other metals 
for the enrichment of Spaniards at home. In 
spite, however, of this false attitude, the 
government of Spain was, perhaps, as well 
adapted to the development of the country as 
was the government of France. Neither of 
these great nations possessed the real coloniz- 
ing ability that distinguished the English. 

The Spanish governed Louisiana from New 
Orleans. Here resided the governor ; a lieu- 
enant governor resided at St. Louis ; and Ste. 
Genevieve, St. Charles, Cape Girardeau and 
New Madrid were the centers of districts and 
the places of residence for commandants. 
Very strict enforcement of law was insisted 
upon. We find the settlers at Ste. Genevieve 
afraid to chastise the Indians even when they 
had committed outrages, without at first re-- 
ceiving permission from the Spanish officials. 

The period of Spanish rule in Louisiana 
was coincident with the growth of western 
United States. American settlers were pour- 
ing by the thousands into Kentucky and the 
Northwest territory. These settlers soon de- 
veloped the resources of the country and 
came to have many things for export. The 
surplus products of the American settlers in 
the states just east of the Mississippi river 
were considerable in quantity and in value, 
but the way to the east was long; the roads 
led across the mountains ; they were rough ; 
travel was exceedingly difficult; the only 
possible method of shipment in large quan- 
tities was upon the river. The surplus prod- 
ucts of the states on the river were loaded 
on flat boats and keel-boats and dispatched 
down the river to New Orleans ; but the Span- 
ish officials at New Orleans greatly hampered 
and restricted this trade. Thej' were jealous 
of the growing power of the United States. 
They were afraid that the Americans on the 
east side would attempt to take possession of 
the territory on the west ; and, too, the Span- 
ish people were not a trading people. They 
had little or no sympathy with the quick and 
efficient American spirit; they were mediae- 
val in their mannei-s and customs ; everything 
that was done must be done according to form 
and ceremony ; taxes were imposed : the 



method of procedure was slow ; all these things 
greatly irritated the Americans who traded 
through New Orleans. They were pushing 
and energetic, impatient of delay, placing a 
small value on forms and not inclined to sub- 
mit to the exactions of the Spanish. It was 
not possible to carry on this trade without de- 
positing goods which came down the river at 
New Orleans and awaiting the arrival of trad- 
ing ships, but the jealousy of the Spanish 
led them to forbid the deposit of goods. Thus 
for a long time trade down the river was 
virtually denied to the Americans. 

Such a situation could have but one result. 
Through the later part of the eighteenth cen- 
tury there arose a strong demand on the part 
of the people of the west that the United 
States shoukl acquire from Spain the free 
navigation, of the Mississippi river and the 
control of the port of New Orleans. These 
things were to be secured either by purchase 
or by war. 

In 1800 Napoleon, then at the head of tlie 
government of France, began negotiations 
with the Spanish government for the trans- 
fer of the Spanish possessions in America to 
France, and on October 25th, of that year, 
there was signed a secret agreement between 
France and Spain by which Spain agreed to 
transfer Louisiana to France in exchange for 
certain territory in Italy. This agreement 
was Icept secret, because Napoleon did not 
wish it to become known until he was ready to 
land a large army in New Orleans and thus 
take possession of the country. Some hint of 
this agreement, however, escaped and came to 
England. England, at that time engaged in 
a contest with Napoleon, objected seriously 
to the transfer and made such representations 
to the Spanish government as to prevent the 
consummation of the transfer for nearly two 

years. It was not until in 1802 that the for- 
mal treaty which transferred Louisiana to 
France was signed. Even at this date Na- 
poleon was not ready to take possession of his 
new territory. He had decided that the island 
of San Domingo offered the best base for the 
operation of his fleet and army, and had, 
therefore, attempted to take possession of this 
island. His effort to do so was resisted by 
Toussaint L'Ouverture. He had found great 
difficulty in subduing this uprising in San 
Domingo, and was not prepared to enter New 
Orleans in force at the time of the signing of 
the treaty. 

By this time the demand on the part of the 
West that the United States government 
should get possession of New Orleans had 
grown so greatly that it could not any longer 
be resisted. On January 11, 1803, Jeffei-son, 
then President, appointed James Monroe as 
minister extraordinary to France. Monroe 
was instructed by Jefferson to purchase New 
Orleans and the Floridas. He was expected 
to pay for this territory the sum of two mil- 
lion dollars. In fact, negotiations had been 
carried on for some time by Livingston, the 
minister to France. After Monroe's arrival 
negotiations proceeded, but on April 11, 
1803, Talleyrand, the French minister of for- 
eign affairs, said that he was ordered by Na- 
poleon to offer to the American officials, not 
New Orleans alone, but the whole of Louisi- 
ana. This offer came as a very great surprise. 
It had not been the intention of the Ameri- 
cans to purchase all of Louisiana. The im- 
portance, however, of securing this territory 
for the United States was so felt by Living- 
ston and Monroe that they agreed to the pur- 
chase of the entire territory for the sum of 
fifteen million dollars. 

The motives which induced Napoleon to 
make this offer to the United States were vari- 



ous. He was terribly disgusted with his fail- 
ure in San Domingo ; he needed the funds for 
the prosecution of the Continental system 
which he was carrying on, and he did not like 
to see an alliance formed between England 
and the United States. Such an alliance 
had been threatened, for both countries were 
opposed to the holding of Louisiana by 
France. Perhaps, however, the principal rea- 
son why Napoleon consented to the sale of the 
territory was the fear that it might fall into 
the hands of Great Britain He was then en- 
gaged in a war with Great Britain and he 
did not possess sufficient naval power to en- 
able him to contest the control of territory 
on the other side of the sea. He is said to 
have remarked, after he signed the treaty 
which transferred Louisiana to the United 
States, that he had given Great Britain a rival. 

On receipt in Washington of news that ar- 
rangements had been made for the purchase 
of Louisiana from France, President Jeffer- 
son called an extra session of congress to con- 
sider this question and to ratify the treaty. 
Congress assembled on the 17th of October, 
1803, and proceeded to the ratification of the 
treaty. President Jefferson appointed Gover- 
nor William Claiborne, of ilississippi, and 
Major General James Wilkinson, as commis- 
sioners of the United States to receive the 
transfer of the territory from France. The 
representative of the French government who 
was to receive the territory from Spain was il. 
Laussat. M. Laussat arrived in New Orleans 
in November and received from Governor de 
Casa Calvo the transfer of the territory from 
Spain. A considerable delay occurred, how- 
ever, in taking over the territory in St. Louis. 
France did not wish to send a representative 
from New Orleans to St. Louis to receive the 
transfer from Governor De Lassus because of 

the time that would be required and the ex- 
pense of the journey. Accordingly it was 
agreed among all the parties that the commis- 
sioners of the United States should designate 
a person with authority to receive the trans- 
fer from France. Governor Claiborne selected 
Captain Amos Stoddard, of the United States 
army. Upon his notification of the selection 
M. Laussat then designated Captain Stod- 
dard as commissioner and agent of France to 
receive the transfer of Upper Louisiana. He 
then sent to Stoddard, a letter to Lieutenant 
Governor De Lassus containing the demand of 
France for the transfer of that territory. 
This letter also was a credential for Captain 
Stoddard. Stoddard also received instruc- 
tions from Governor Claiborne to proceed to 
St. Louis and to carry out the orders issued 
to him, first as commissioner and agent of 
France to demand and receive possession of 
the country from Spain, and secondl.y as 
agent of the United States to occupy and hold 
the posts, territories and dependencies which 
had been transferred by France to the L'nited 
States. Stoddard was further instructed by 
Governor Claiborne that until some perma- 
nent regulations could be made by congress 
for the government of the new province, all 
the functions, both civil and militar.y, whidi 
had been previously exercised by the Spanish 
commandants of posts and districts would de- 
volve upon him and his subordinates. It was 
carefully explained, however, that there was 
to be no further blending of civil and military 
functions, but that on the other hand they 
were to be kept entirely separate and distinct. 
That this fact might be made clear, Stoddard 
received two commissions, one from Governor 
Claiborne constituting him civil commandant 
of St. Louis and conveying instructions for 
his actions in such place, and also a commis- 
sion from the commanding general of the 



Ainericau army conveying instructions as to 
liis actions in militarj^ affairs. He was fur- 
ther instructed that in the absence of precise 
definition of powers, he was to consider him- 
self in possession of all authority accustomed 
to be exercised by his predecessors, the Span- 
ish commandants, and was to govern himself 
by the circumstances under which he was 
placed and was given a wide discretion in his 
actions. In accordance with these grants of 
authority, Stoddard, who was at Kaskaskia. 
wrote to De Lassus informing him of his se- 
lection as an agent of France, and notifying 
him of his early arrival in St. Louis. 

On receipt of the reply from Governor De 
Lassus, Stoddard proceeded to St. Louis, and 
on the 9th day of March, 1804. received from 
De Lassus the transfer from Spain to France. 
The occasion was made as dignified and for- 
mal as it was possible to be made under the 
circumstances. The Spanish soldiers were 
drawn up in line, the inhabitants of the town 
assembled in the street in front of the build- 
ing, and Governor De Lassus then issued a 
brief proclamation. In it he set out the fact 
that the flag under which they had lived for 
a period of thirtj'-six j-ears was to be with- 
drawn. He released them from their oath of 
allegiance to Spain and wished them prosper- 
ity. There was then executed a document in 
the nature of a memorial of the transactions 
which had taken place. After this had been 
signed. Governor De Lassus addressed Cap- 
tain Stoddard as agent of the French repub- 
lic, saluted him as such commissioner and for- 
mally transferred to him authority over the 
province. After Captain Stoddard's very 
brief response to this address, the flag of 
Spain which was floating from the staff was 
lowered and replaced by the flag of France. 
The Spanish soldiers then fired a salute and 
retired after having received the American 

troops who were in charge of an adjutant of 
Stoddard. When this was done, the flag of 
France was lowered and that of the United 
States was put in its place. 

De Lassus then addressed a communica- 
tion to the commandants at Ste. Genevieve, 
New Madrid, Cape Girardeau, and the other 
posts in Upper Louisiana informing them of 
the actions which had taken place on that 
da}'. It seems that the transfer of the other 
posts were made without any formality, ex- 
cept in the case of New Madrid. Here the 
flag was lowered and a salute was fired, but 
these were the only ceremonies observed, even 

Captain Stoddard, having come into pos- 
session of the territory, informed his superi- 
ors. Governor Claiborne and General Wilkin- 
son, of the fact and issued a rather lengthy 
address to the people of Upper Louisiana. 
This address is found in the archives of 
]\Iadrid and is an interesting document. In 
it Stoddard congratulated the people of Lou- 
isiana on account of the change of govern- 
ment which they had undergone. He in- 
formed the people as to the probable pro- 
visions that would be made for their govern- 
ment, and he pointed out to them some of the 
differences which the}' would observe in the 
government under the United States. He de- 
scribed the change as a change from subjects 
to citizens and he assured them of his ver}' 
great interest in their welfare and his very 
great desire to conduct affairs, so long as he 
was in charge, to the best interests of the peo- 
ple of the province. 

By these acts the territory of Louisiana 
pa.ssed forever from the control of Spain. 
The hopes which had been built, first, upon the 
marvellous explorations of De Soto, and la- 
ter upon the treaty of Fontainbleau, were 




finally dissipated. The dream of a great 
Spanish empire with its capital at New Or- 
leans was dispelled. War between the United 
States and Spain for the possession of the 
Mississippi river was avoided. 

It is quite clear that this transaction was 
one of the most momentous incidents in all 
history. The territory is a vast one embrac- 
ing a million square miles and stretching from 
the Mississippi to the Rockies. The territory 
of Louisiana contained within its borders some 
of the richest mineral districts, some of the 
richest soil, and some of the greatest forests in 
the world and was, even at that date, exceed- 
ingly valuable. Fifteen million dollars was a 
large amount of money for the United States, 
in 1803, but fifteen million is the merest frac- 
tion of the value of Louisiana territory. Its 
value to the United States was not solely to 
be measured by the soil, or its forests, or the 
mineral wealth of the territory. It is diificult 
to say how our country would have become a 
great nation without the possession of Louisi- 
ana. Its possession carried with it the free and 
unobstructed use of the Mississippi river; it 
rounded out our territory; it gave us posses- 
sion of the greatest tract of food producing 
soil in all the world. The Mississippi valley 
is the heart of our country and had the Lou- 
isiana purchase not been made the ilississippi 
valley would have been owned by the United 
States only in part. The purchase meant 
much for the people who lived in Louisiana at 
that time, but it meant a great deal more to 
the LTnited States and to the people of our 
countrj' at the present day. We can hardly 
imagine what oiir country would be now if the 
Louisiana territory had remained in the pos- 
session of Spain, or in the possession of 
France; instead of being one of the great 
powers of the world, the United States would 
have been one of the smaller nations and its 

wealth would be but a fraction of what it 
now is. 

This purchase deserves and holds a great 
space in history. The restrictive laws of 
Spain, her unjust restrictions upon commerce, 
her censorsliip of religion, her oppression of 
free speech and the press, her antiquated ma- 
chinery of government, her ideals, which were 
those of the middle ages, were all swept away 
with the coming of the United States govern- 
ment and a new era set in then for Louisiana. 
We may not sa.y, of course, that all the results 
that immediatelj' followed were good. As has 
been the case everywhere, new-found liberty 
was made an occasion for license, and the free- 
dom with which the people of the territory of 
Louisiana found themselves clothed upon their 
transfer to the United States, was in some 
cases an excuse for lawlessness and violence. 
These disorders, however, were temporary in 
their character and when the ideas of Anglo- 
Saxon libert.v, liberty restrained by law, of 
self-government, were realized, then followed 
good order throughout Louisiana. Not only 
did the change of ownership bring a greater 
degree of liberty, not only did it enable the 
people who lived in Louisiana to govern them- 
selves and to earrj^ on the concerns of their 
lives without interference and fear from 
the hampering regulations of Spain, the 
change of ownership brought a great flood of 
immigration. The river had acted as a bar- 
rier to the westward movement of our popi;- 
lation, it had dammed that movement up and 
held it in the states on the east side of the 
river, and when the barrier was removed and 
Louisiana passed out from the control of 
Spain and into that of the United States im- 
migration flowed into the district in streams, 
new towns sprung up. industries were re- 
vived and within a few years the population of 
Louisiana was doubled many times over. 


As a United States Teri'itory 



Government op the Louisiana Territory — The Territory op Orleans — The District of 
Louisiana — First Governor — Courts of Common Pleas — Officers at the Various 
Posts — Causes op Dissatisfaction With the Government of the United States — ilE- 
MORiAL of Grievances — The Territory op Louisiana — Confirmation of Land Grants — 
Courts — Wilkinson as Governor — Lewis — Claek — The Territory of Missouri — Pow- 
ers OF THE Governor — Meetings op the Territorial Legislature — Various Laws — Rich- 
ard S. Thomas — John Scott — Johnson Ranney — General Watkins — Greer W. Davis 
— Alexander Buckner — Other Prominent ]Men — The Byrd Family — Circuit Courts 
— Officers in Ste. Genevieve — Cape Girardeau District and County — New Madrid Dis- 
trict AND County — Creation of New Counties — Lawrence — Wayne — Madison — 
Jefferson — Washington — Perry — Military History. 

As soon as it was known that the transfer 
of Louisiana to the United States had been 
completed and all formalities complied with, 
Congress at once passed an act providing 
for the government of the newly acquired 

It was arranged that the law of Spain and 
France which had previously been in force 
in the territory should be superseded by the 
law of the United States. It divided the en- 
tire territory acciuired into two parts. All 
that part of Louisiana south of the 33rd 
parallel of north latitude was made into a 
territory under the style of the Territory of 
Orleans. The remainder of the territory was 
denominated the District of Louisiana, and 
was attached for the purposes of government 
to the territory of Indiana. The authority 
of the governor of the territory of Indiana 
was caused to extend over the new district. 

A legislative body was provided for the 
district of Louisiana which was to consist of 
the three judges of the territory of Indiana. 
They were clothed with authority to make 
all needful laws for the government of the 
people within the district. They were also 
empowered to hold two terms of court each 
year within Louisiana. 

The governor of Indiana, who was thus 
made governor of the new district, was Wil- 
liam Henry Harrison. The three judges in 
whose hands was placed the legislative power 
were Thomas Davis, Henry Vaudenburg and 
John Griffin, who proceeded to make laws for 
the district. They accepted substantially the 
division of territory which had been in use 
by the Spanish. There was a lieutenant gov- 
ernor at the posts of St. Louis, New Madrid, 
St. Charles, Ste. Genevieve, and Cape Girar- 




deau. There was also established in each one 
of these posts a court of common pleas and 
quarter sessions, and a provision was made 
for a recorder and a sheriff at each place. 

The following officers were appointed at 
the various posts: Colonel Samuel Hammond 
was appointed lieutenant governor or com- 
mandant of St. Louis; Major Seth Hunt, 
lieutenant governor or commandant of Ste. 
Genevieve; Colonel Return J. Meigs, lieu- 
tenant governor or commandant of -St. 
Charles, and Colonel Thomas B. Scott, lieu- 
tenant governor or commandant of Cape 
Girardeau. For New IMadrid, Pierre An- 
toine La Forge acted as civil commandant. 

Such was the form of government arranged 
for the new territory. It was reasonable, the 
selections for the various offices were good, 
and it was to be expected that the people of 
the territory would be happy and content un- 
der the government. It has been pointed out 
that there was little objection made by any 
of the people of the territory to the transfer ; 
some few complaints were made and there 
were some who wished that Spain might have 
retained the territory; on the whole, how- 
ever, the people were quiet and satisfied. 

This condition did not last very long. There 
were several principal sources of complaint. 
One of them was the provision in the act of 
congress concerning Spanish land grants. 
We have seen that the Spanish officials were 
lavish with their grants of land. A great 
many inhabitants of Upper Louisiana had 
asked for concessions which were granted, 
but a number of these were granted, after the 
secret treaty which had transferred Louisi- 
ana to France. The act provided that all 
Spanish grants should be given full force 
and effect by the officers of the United States, 
except those which had been made subse- 
quent to the treaty between France and 

Spain. It was the opinion of the govern- 
ment of the United States that after the sign- 
ing of that agreement by which Louisiana 
l^assed from Spain to France, the Span- 
ish officials had no authority whatever to 
alienate for any purpose the lands of the 
territory. It was held that all grants at- 
tempted to be made between the transfer to 
France and the transfer to the United States 
were absolutely without any force whatever 
and that the settlers who held these grants 
had no title to their lands. 

It may be supposed that the men who had 
received these grants were very much dis- 
satisfied with this action of the government 
of the United States. This dissatisfaction, 
however, was not confined to the holders of 
these grants by any means. There were 
many questions which arose concerning these 
land titles, questions which could be settled 
only after the lapse of considerable time. The 
transfer thus acted as a disturber of the land 
titles, and a great many of the titles in the 
territory had a cloud over them for a period 
of many years. "When these facts were ap- 
preciated by tlie people of the territory and 
especially liy the French settlers, there was 
very great dissatisfaction. A meeting was 
held in St. Louis to protest to the govern- 
ment and a petition or memorial was drawn 
up setting forth the alleged grievance suf- 
fered by the inhabitants. 

Another matter which created dissatisfac- 
tion among the settlers was the change in 
the method of jurisprudence. "We have seen 
that the ordinary procedure in the courts of 
the Spanish commandants was entirely sum- 
mary in *its character. There was little de- 
lay and there was little opportunity for ham- 
pering suits by technicalities. Tlie decision 
was vested in the power of one man and he 



oidiuarily decided questions without much 
dehiy. The trial of eases before commaud- 
auts proceeded informally, but while there 
was opportunity offered for appeal, such ap- 
peal was rarely prosecuted, and if prosecuted 
at all it usually did not go further than the 
Lieutenant Governor at St. Louis. This sys- 
tem of Spanish Law operated to produce 
great celerity of judicial action. For this 
system there was substituted the system of 
the English Common Law. That system pro- 
vides for trial by jury, and it provides for the 
hampering of trials by the use of technical- 
ities, and to the people of the territory ac- 
customed to the celerity of Spanish justice 
the long delays and the great expense of the 
American system of courts came with an un- 
pleasant shock. 

Another thing which caused dissatisfaction 
among the settlers in L'pper Louisiana was the 
fact that the territory was not erected into a 
separate government but was joined to Indi- 
ana. The .settlers felt that they were sufifi- 
eiently numerous and sufficiently intelligent 
to be a distinct territory of the LInited States, 
and they held it a grievance that they were 
not so treated. 

A fourth grievance was the proposed settle- 
ment of the eastern Indians in Louisiana. 
One of the provisions of the Act of Congress 
for the government of the territory was that 
the land of the Indians then resident east of 
the Mississippi should be purchased from 
them and they should be settled in Louisiana. 
This provision gave great offence to the peo- 
ple of the territory. They had had sufficient 
experience with Indian population to cause 
them to dread the coming of any other Indian 

This Indian question really settled itself in 
a very short time. The Government of the 
United States did not make anv formal dec- 

laration as to its intentions, Ijut the fact tliat 
it did purchase from the Sacs and Foxes the 
territory which they inhabited north of 
the JMissouri river and remove them further 
west seemed an evidence that it was not the 
intention of the United States to thrust the 
eastern Indians into that part of Louisiana 
inhabited by white people. 

Although this pai-ticular complaint was thus 
disposed of, the others still remained, and on 
September 29th, 1804, there was held a meet- 
ing in the city of St. Louis as we have seen, 
which drew up a petition or memorial to the 
Government of the United States on these 
questions. The memorial set out at length 
the conditions that existed in the territory 
and called attention to all of the grievances 
which we have mentioned. The signers, fif- 
teen in number, who declared themselves to be 
the representatives of the entire population of 
Upper Louisiana, requested that the act which 
had been passed providing for the govern- 
ment of the territory should be repealed. They 
further asked that Upper Louisiana be 
erected into a separate and distinct territory 
with a government of its own. 

The territories of the United States, at this 
time, were divided into three distinct grades, 
first, second and third, the lowest grade of the 
territory. Those having the least rights were 
those of the first grade. This petition to the 
Congress asked that Upper Louisiana should 
be made into a territory of the second grade. 
The removal of the Indians was also objected 
to as well as the action with regard as to the 
Spanish land grants made subsequeut to 1802. 
The petitioners further a.sked that their right 
to own slaves should be expressly recognized. 
This act had forbidden the inhabitants of the 
territory of Orleans, as Lower Louisiana was 
called, from importing slaves. Nothing had 
lieen said in the act. however, with regard to 



Upper Louisiana, and it was assumed by the 
inhabitants that since the right was not ex- 
pressly taken away, they still possessed it. 
This memorial prayed that this right should 
be expressly recognized. Another thing asked 
for was that fimds and lands should be set 
aside by the Government of the United States 
for the support of a French and English 
school in every county of the district, and 
that further provision should be made at once 
for the establishment of a seminary where in- 
struction should be given in the higher 
branches of learning. This memorial was 
signed by the following persons: Richard 
Jones Waters and Eligius Fromentin of New 
Madrid, Christopher Hays, Stephen B.yrd, 
Andrew Ramsay and Frederick Bollinger of 
Cape Girardeau, J. S. J. Beauvais and P. 
Detchmendy of Ste. Genevieve, Charles Gra- 
tiot, P. Provenchere, August Chouteau, Rich- 
ard Caulk, David Musiek and Francis Cot- 
tard of St. Louis, Warren Cottle, A. Reynol, 
F. Saucier and Timothy Kibby of St. 
Charles ; Choteau and Fromentin were ap- 
pointed as deputies and agents to present the 
petition to the Congress of the United States. 
It will be easily seen here that the men here 
represented as petitioners were among the 
most prominent and influential to be foimd in 
all of Upper Louisiana. Fromentin. who was 
one of the agents for the presentation of the 
petition was one of the most distinguished 
scholars in the whole territory. He occupied 
a number of positions and in 1812 was made 
a senator of the United States from Louisiana. 

The petition was presented to Congress on 
January 4th, 1805. After some discussion and 
delay, a bill was passed on the third day 
of March, 1805, which regulated affairs in 
the territory. By the terms of this bill all of 
Upper Louisiana was made into a separate 

territory of the first or lowest grade and was 
called the Territory of Louisiana. It was 
provided in the act that the governor and 
three judges should be appointed with power 
to make such rules and regulations concern- 
ing affairs within the territory as should seem 
to them to be necessarj' for its government. 
The act was silent on some of the matters that 
were set out in the petition. We have already 
seen that the Indian cjuestion was practically 
settled by the action of the United States in 
regard to the Sacs and Foxes, which action 
evinced the determination of the government 
to remove the Indians to the far west, but 
the other questions raised b.y the petitioners 
and the other complaints put in by them were 
not adjusted by the Act of Congress. No pro- 
\ision was made for confirming the disputed 
land grants and it is quite probable that the 
question of land grants was of all the ques- 
tions concerning the territory the one most 
pressing and most troublesome. It is rather 
peculiar that this matter was not fully settled 
until April, 1814. At that time Congress 
passed an act which confirmed the title of the 
grants made bj' Spain previous to the 9th day 
of March, 1804, that is, previous to the final 
relinquishment of the territory to the United 
States. This action, though it was long de- 
layed, finally settled the question of the valid- 
ity of the grants made from 1802 to 1804, 
but the question of these particular grants 
\ias by no means the only question regarding 
the Spanish lands, in fact there existed for a 
great length of time considerable uncertainty 
as to the validity of most of these grants. 
There seemed to be no way of finally determ- 
ining their validity, except by the action of 
the courts and it required a long period of 
time to dispose of the question of these land 
grants in a final and satisfactory way. 

The act of 1805 which created the territory 



of Louisiana, defined the powers of the gov- 
ernor and three judges, established courts, 
and made provision for the confirmation of 
the action of these various bodies. Under the 
terms of this act, General James Wilkinson 
\vas appointed governor of the territory, 
Joseph Browne of New York was made secre- 
tary, and James B. C. Lucas, John Coburn. 
and Riifus Easton were made judges of the 

Wilkinson, the new governor, was a man 
about whom there has raged a great deal of 
controversy. We have seen that he was the 
commander of the American forces along the 
Mississippi river and that he had been one 
of the two commissioners appointed to receive 
the transfer of the territory. By some people 
he was regarded as a verj' able man. It was 
Wilkinson who denounced Burr, and he was 
one of the men responsible for Burr's arrest 
and trial. He did not testify in that case but 
attended the trial and was ready and even 
anxious to appear against Burr. It is now 
known that Wilkinson was for a long time in 
the pay of the Spanish government. It was 
his interference that caused Governor IMiro to 
oppose ilorgan's plan at New Madrid, and 
there seems to be no doubt that Wilkinson 
V. as for some years, even while in command of 
the forces of the United States, in correspon- 
dence with Spanish officials and considering 
with them a scheme by which the people of 
the western part of the United States along 
the Mississippi river, could be induced to 
throw off their allegiance to the government 
of the United States and attach themselves to 
Spain. For his services in these matters 
Wilkinson seems to have received a pension 
from the Spanish government, and there is no 
reason to doubt that he was very well dis- 
posed toward Spain. 

His actions as governor of the new territory 

caused a great deal of antagonism and bitter 
feeling. He was accused of having tried to 
speculate in land even while he was governor, 
he seemed to have been opposed to the Amer- 
ican settlers in the territory and to have been 
a friend to the French. He failed also to be 
able to deal successfully with his subordinates 
and was in constant trouble on account of 
dift'erenees with the men who served under 
him. It is said that he became so enraged 
against Easton, who had been one of the 
judges of the superior court and was later 
po.stmaster at St. Louis, that he refu.sed to 
allow his mail to be sent through a postoffice 
over which Easton presided. He engaged in 
a feud with a number of the ofiSeers of the 
territory ; he seemed to have no tact or ability 
to manage affairs at all. A very strenuous 
effort was made to have him removed from 
ofSce; he was charged with oppression and 
neglect and with cruel conduct, and the 
charges against him were pressed with so 
much violence that finally Jett'er.son removed 
him from office on March 3, 1807. 

Wilkinson was succeeded by Meriwether 
Lewis. Lewis' name will always be famous on 
account of his association with Clark on the 
celebrated expedition sent out bj' Jefferson to 
explore the northwestern part of the newly 
purchased territory of Louisiana. He foiuid 
affairs in Louisiana in a deplorable state. The 
people were hostile to the government ; they 
were divided into factions, and strife and bit- 
ter feeling raged everywhere. Lewis was an 
able man and a diplomat and he verj' soon 
established a feeling of respect for himself 
and the office which he held that went far 
toward restoring tranquility in the territory. 

We have seen that the administration of 
Governor Lewis was successful, he possessed 
qualities which made him a valuable leader in 
anv community and which enabled him to 



bring order out of the confusion existing in 
Missouri. In September, 1809, while travel- 
ing through Tennessee on his way to Wash- 
ington, he committed suicide. After his death 
President Madison appointed General Benja- 
min Howard, of Kentuclcy, as governor of the 
territory. General Howard held office imtil 
1810, when he resigned to accept a brigadier 
generalship in the army of the United States. 
Howard county was named in his honor. 

"William Clark who was a captain in the 
army of the United States and the other prin- 
cipal in the expedition of Lewis and Clark 
was appointed governor and held office until 
the admission of ]\Iissouri into the Union. 

On the 4th day of June, 1812. Missouri was 
organized into a territory with a governor nnd 
general assembly. The territory had pre- 
viously been organized as a territory of the 
first or lowest class. In the territory of this 
class, as we have seen, the sole power was 
vested in the governor and .judges with other 
officers, all of whom were appointed by the 
president of the United States. In other 
words, the people of a territory of the first 
class had no right of self government so far 
as the administration of the general affairs of 
the territory was concerned. This, we remem- 
ber, was one of the grievances of the people 
of Louisiana as set out in the petition pre- 
sented to Congress in 1805, but by the act of 
1812, the territory was raised to the second 
class. Under the provisions of that act, the 
legislative power of the territory was vested 
in the governor, legislative council, and a 
bouse of representatives. 

The governor was to be appointed by the 
president of the United States. He had 
jiower of absolute veto over all the actions of 
the general assembly. The legislative council 
was to consist of nine members who were to 

hold their office for a period of five j-ears. 
The members of this council were selected in 
the following manner : The territorial house 
of representatives nominated eighteen per- 
sons, and the president of the United States 
from this number selected nine members of the 
legislative council. The house of representa- 
tives consisted of members who held office for 
a term of two years and were elected by the 
people of the territory. The unit of represen- 
tation was fixed at five hundred male citizens, 
with a further provision that the number of 
representatives could not exceed twenty-five. 
The first house of representatives under this 
act consisted of thirteen members. The judi- 
cial power of the territory was vested in the 
superior court, inferior courts and justices of 
the peace. There were three judges of the 
superior court whose term of office was four 
years and who had original and appellate ju- 
risdiction in civil and criminal cases. The act 
further provided that the territory should be 
represented in Congress by one territorial 
delegate who, according to the Constitution, 
had the right to speak on matters pertaining 
to the territory, but was not allowed to vote. 
Governor Clark, who was in office at the 
time of the passage of this act, issued a proc- 
lamation, and, on October 1, 1812, reorgan- 
ized the five districts in the state into five 
counties, known as the counties of St. Charles, 
St. Louis, Ste. Genevieve, Cape Girardeau and 
New ]Madrid. An election was ordered to be 
held on the 2nd Monday in November for the 
selection of the delegate to Congress and the 
members of the hoiise of representatives. The 
President of the LTnited States appointed 
"William Clark, who was already in office as 
the first governor of the re-organized terri- 
tory. At the election in November, 1812, Ed- 
ward Hempstead was elected as the first ter- 
ritorial delegate to Congress. Hempstead was 



an able man. Ho was a native of Connecti- 
cut, received a good education, became a law- 
yer, and in 1804 removed to St. Louis, where 
he continued in the practice of law. He held 
a number of positions and was held in highest 
regard by all who knew him. His term of 
service in Congress was marked by no par- 
ticular achievement, but he was regarded as 
an able and conscientious man, and his retire- 
ment, for he declined to serve a second term 
was regretted by those with whom he had 
served. He was the author of the Act of 1812 
which confirmed the titles and the holders in 
the Spanish grants, and provided for the sup- 
port of schools by the Government of the 
United States. 

The first General Assembly of the territory 
of Jlissouri was held in the house of Joseph 
Robidaux between Walnut and Elm streets in 
St. Louis on the 17th day of December, 1812. 
Southeast Missouri was represented by the fol- 
lowing persons : George BuUett, Richard S. 
Thomas and Israel ilcGready from Ste. Gene- 
vieve ; George P. Bollinger and Spencer Bj'rd 
represented Cape Girardeau; and John Shra- 
der and Samuel Phillips represented New 
Madrid. Besides these members there were 
two from St. Charles and four from St. Louis. 
The house of representatives then nominated 
fourteen per-sons from which the President of 
the United States selected nine members of 
the council. The members of this council 
from Southeast jNIissouri were these: John 
Scott and James Maxwell from Ste. Genevieve ; 
William Neeley and Joseph Cavinor from 
Cape Girardeau; and Joseph Hunter from 
New Madrid. 

The first meeting of the legislature was held 
in St. Louis in July, 1813, on the first ]Mon- 
day. It is not possible to give a full account 
of the acts of this legislature. No account 

of the proceedings was officially kept, but a 
part of the laws were noticed and published 
in the Missouri Gazette, the first paper estai)- 
lished west of the IMi.ssissippi river. Prom its 
files it is discovered that one of the sub- 
jects which received the attention of the leg- 
islature was that of establishing and regulat- 
ing weights and measures. Of course this was 
an exceedingly important matter, one which 
had never been adjusted in the territory of 
Louisiana. Some of the other matters which 
received the attention of the legislature were 
laws concerning the office of sheriff, taking of 
the census, the fixing of the seats of ju.stice in 
the various counties, the compensation of 
members of the legislature, the incorporation 
of the bank of St. Louis. Besides these a crim- 
inal code was adopted and a law defining 
forcible entry and detainer was enacted, as 
well as one establishing courts of common 
pleas. The legislature also made provision for 
the organization of the county of Washing- 
ton. This county was erected from a part of 
Ste. Genevieve, and Potosi was selected as the 
county seat. 

The second session of the first general as- 
sembly was begun in St. Louis, December 10, 
1813. George Bullett of Ste. Genevieve county, 
was elected speaker of the house and Wash- 
ington county was for the first time repre- 
sented by Israel McGready. Among the sub- 
jects considered by the legislature and upon 
A\'hich laws were passed, were the suppression 
of vice and immorality on the Sabbath day, 
public roads and highways, and the regulation 
of the financial affairs of the territory. The 
offices of territorial auditor and treasurer, 
and county surveyor were created. The leg- 
islature also defined the boundaries of the 
counties and created a new county known as 
Arkansas county. 

The first session of the second general as- 



sembly met in St. Louis, December 5th, 1814. 
There were twenty members of the house, and 
James Caldwell of Ste. Genevieve was chosen 
speaker, and Andrew Scott, clerk. William 
Neeley of Cape Girardeau was the president 
of the council. The members from Southeast 
Missouri were: Nicholas Wilson and Phillip 
McGuire, from Washington eoimty; Richard 
S. Thomas, Thomas Caldwell, and Augustine 
De Mun from Ste. Genevieve ; Stephen Byrd, 
George F. Bollinger, Robert English, Joseph 
Sewell, and one other from Cape Girardeau; 
John Davidson, George W. Hart, and Henry 
H. Smith from New IMadrid county. The 
only change in the representatives from South- 
east Missouri in the council was the appoint- 
ment of John Rice Jones, in place of James 

The second session of the second general 
assembly met in St. Louis, January, 1815. 
At this session Washington county was rep- 
resented by Hardage Lane and Stephen F. 
Austin, Ste. Genevieve county by Isidore 
Moore, New Madrid coimty by Doctor Robert 
D. Dawson. This session of the general as- 
sembly transacted considerable business. It 
ordered the establishment of county courts in 
the various coimties, to be made up of the 
justices of the peace. The clerks of these 
courts were also to act as recorders for the 
counties; two judicial circuits were created, 
the northern and the southern. The counties 
of Ste. Genevieve, Cape Girardeau and New 
Madrid constituted the southern circuit, coim- 
ties of St. Louis, St. Charles and Washington 
constituted the northern circuit. Besides 
these acts the assembly created a new county 
known as Lawrence county. This county was 
erected out of the western part of New Ma- 
drid county. 

The third general assembly, which met in 
1816. had the following representatives from 

Southeast Missouri : Hardage Lane and 
Stephen F. Austin of Washington county; 
Nathaniel Cook, Isidore Moore, and John Mc- 
Arthur of Ste. Genevieve county ; George F. 
Bollinger, Robert English, and John Dunn of 
Cape Girardeau county ; Doctor Robert D. 
Dawson of New j\Iadrid covinty ; and Alex- 
ander S. Walker of Lawrence county. By this 
time provision had been made by Congress for 
the election of the members of the coimcil 
rather than their appointment. The members 
of the council from Southeast Missouri were : 
Samuel Perry from Washington coimty, Jos- 
eph Bogy from Ste. Genevieve coimty, William 
Neeley from Cape Girardeau county, Joseph 
Hunter from New Madrid county, and Rich- 
ard Murphy from Lawrence county. This 
meeting of the assembly chartered the Bank 
of St. Louis and the Bank of Missouri. Both 
of these institutions were afterward organ- 
ized in St. Louis, and both of them were 
authorized to issue notes to be used as cur- 
rency. A charter was also granted for an 
academy to be established in Potosi. A 
bounty was also placed on the killing of 
wolves, panthers and wild cats. It was also 
provided that several lotteries might be held, 
and it was this meeting of the assembly that 
enacted the first law for the creation of a 
school board for the city of St. Louis. It was 
in 1816 that an act was passed which intro- 
duced the common law into the territory of 
Jlissouri. The act specified that the common 
law of England and the statutes of a general 
nature enacted prior to the reign of James 
the First, should be enforced in the territory. 
It was not provided that the former laws of 
France and Spain should be abrogated, nor 
were they repealed until a much later time. 

The fourth, and last, general assembly met 
in 1818. The representation from Southeast 
Missouri was as follows: Lionel Browne and 



Stephen F. Austin from Washington I'imnty; 
Isidore Moore, David F. iMarks, William 
Sliannon, and Jacob Walters from Ste. Gene- 
vieve county ; Johnson Ranney, Robert Eng- 
lish, Joseph Sewell, Erastus Ellis, and James 
Raveuseroft from Cape Girardeau county ; 
Stephen Ross from New Madrid county ; 
Perry G. Magness, Joseph Harden, and John 
Davidson from Lawrence county. The follow- 
ing were members of the council : John D. 
Cook, Ste. Genevieve; Samuel Perry, Wash- 
ington ; George P. Bollinger, Cape Girardeau ; 
Robert D. Dawson, New Madrid. This gen- 
eral assembly created a number of counties. 
Those in the southeast were Jefferson, Wayne, 
and Madison. It also abolished Lawrence 
county. It was at this meeting of the assem- 
bly that a memorial was prepared praying for 
the establishment of a state government. This 
memorial was afterward presented to Con- 
gress. The assembly also redistricted the 
state into three judicial circuits: Ste. Gene- 
vieve, Madison, Wayne, New Madrid, and 
Cape Girardeau composed the southern cir- 
cuit, the other southeast counties became a 
part of the northern circuit; the third cir- 
cuit, known as the northwestern, included no 
Southeast Jlissouri territory. 

The first .iudge of the southern circuit was 
Honorable Richard S. Thomas. At the time 
of his appointment he was a resident of Ste. 
Genevieve, but afterward moved to Jackson, 
where he resided until his death. Judge 
Thomas was a native of Virginia, had lived 
some years in Ohio, where he married. He 
came to Ste. Genevieve in 1810, and engaged 
in the practice of law. In 1811 he appeared 
as counsel for the defendant in a murder case. 
Judge Thomas was not a lawyer of high rank, 
and he became very impopular with the bar. 
As a conseciuence of this unpopularity, he was 

impeached and a numl)er of charges were pre- 
ferred against him in the impeachment pro- 
ceeding. Most of them seem to have been 
rather trivial in nature, and to reflect the hos- 
tility which he aroused, rather than to ex- 
liibit any very grave errors in his conduct as 
a jvidge. One of the charges against him was 
that he had behaved in an arbitrary, oppress- 
ive, un.iust and partial manner in refusing to 
recognize John Juden, Jr., as clerk of the cir- 
cuit court. He took the position that the of- 
fice was made vacant by the amendment to 
the constitution of 1822 and appointed his 
son, Claiborne S. Thomas, as clerk, and or- 
dered that the records and papers of this of- 
fice be delivered up to him. He was further 
charged with having illegally adjourned the 
April term of the court in 1823, on the pre- 
tense that his son, whom he had appointed 
clerk, had not received the records of the 
court. It was further charged that he had 
shown partiality toward his son in a suit be- 
tween the son and Charles G. Ellis, and that 
lie had entered into an agreement with the 
counsel for Doctor Ezekiel Fenwick, who had 
been charged with murder, to admit him to 
bail, on condition of his surrender to the 
sheriff. The articles of impeachment were 
presented to the house of representatives in 
February, 1825. Judge Thomas denied the 
charges, but was found guilty and removed 
from office on March 25th. He then resumed 
the practice of law at Jackson, but was killed 
within a short time by being thrown from his 
horse while on his way to attend court at 

The most conspicuous la%\yer in the early 
days in Southeast ]Missouri was John Scott. 
He, too, was a Virginian, and had graduated 
at Princeton college. He lived for a short 
time in Vincennes, Indiana, and came to Ste. 
Genevieve in 1806. Scott was well versed in 



the law, was possessed of a great deal of 
energy and aggressiveness, and soon became 
one of the leading lawyers in the section. He 
was appointed a member of the territorial 
council and afterward made a canvass for 
the office of territorial delegate to Congress. 
His opponent in this canvass was Rufus Eas- 
ton, of St. Louis. Easton had served one 
term as delegate, but was defeated by Scott on 
the face of the returns. Easton contested the 
election, however, on the ground that certain 
votes were improperly counted and the second 
election was held. At this election Scott in- 
creased his plurality from 15 to 392, and 
Easton gave up the contest. He served as 
territorial delegate imtil the admission to the 
Union, after which he was elected as a mem- 
ber of Congress. He served three terms and 
was a very popular and influential member. 
It was, perhaps, his speech indignantly reject- 
ing the idea that the people of IMissouri could 
be dictated to in the matter of their constitu- 
tion that gave impulse to the movement of the 
state which resulted in the overwhelming vic- 
tory of the slavery forces in the election of 
the constitutional convention. Scott lost his 
popularity, however, in 1825 when, in spite 
of the wishes of his constituents, he voted 
for John Quincy Adams for President. The 
people of jMissouri were very strong in their 
support of Jackson, and this vote for Adams 
prevented Scott's retaining the place. After 
his retirement to private life he continued the 
practice of law. He was known all over the 
section, and attended court in practically 
every county. He was a thorough lawyer, 
and an impressive speaker. He was rather ec- 
centric in his personal appearance and de- 
meanor ; he always went armed, but was never 
Imown to use these weapons. He was famous 
for his honesty and also for the great influence 
which he had over juries. He died in 1862. 

at the age of eighty years. Scott coimty was 
named for him. 

One of the early la\\'j'ers in Cape Girar- 
deau county was General Johnson Ranney. 
He was a native of Connecticut, had been a 
teacher in early life, but studied law and re- 
moved to Jackson upon establishment of the 
courts there in 1815. There existed at the 
time quite a strong prejudice against Yan- 
kees, but General Ranney was a man of firm 
disposition and he very quietly went about 
his work and soon overcame this prejudice. 
He was opposed to slaverj', and during the 
campaign in 1820 was threateued with vio- 
lence, but he entrenched himself in his office 
and defied his points. He was not a partic- 
ularly brilliant speaker, but was a close 
student and was very industrious and devoted 
to the interests of his clients. He was a 
member of the legislature and a major general 
of militia. He died in Jackson, November 
11, 1849. 

In 1819, General Nathaniel W. Watkins 
came to Jackson and began the practice of 
law. General Watkins was a half brother of 
Henry Clay and a native of Kentucky. He 
was a man of fine appearance and resembled 
Clay in his general bearing. He was an 
orator and had very great influence over 
juries. No man in the southeast had a larger 
or more extended practice than he had. He 
traveled, every spring and fall, on horse-back 
from one comity seat to another. There was 
scarcely an important case in anj' of these 
coimties in which he did not appear on one 
side or the other. He served a number of 
terms in the general assembly and in 1850 
v>as elected speaker of the house of represen- 
tatives. He took part in the organization of 
the Southeast District Agricultural Society 
which was organized for the purpose of hold- 
ing a district fair. He was the first president 



(if this society. Wlieii wai' In-dke out Gen- 
crnl Watkins stood with the Soutli and 
was appointed l)y (jovernor Jackson as i)rig- 
adier general in the first military district 
wliich embraced Southeast Missouri. This 
was in 1861 and he proceeded to organize 
Tile Missouri State Guard in his district. He 
did not long retain command, however, as he 
found the place uncongenial to him. He re- 
signed and was succeeded by General Jeffer- 
son Thompson. General Watkins afterward 
removed to Scott county where he lived until 
the time of his death in 1876. Just before 
his death, as a fitting recognition of his long 
and active service, he was chosen a member 
of the constitutional convention of 1875 and 
was made its president. His home in Scott 
county was called "Beechland," and was not 
far from Morle.v. 

Another member of the famous bar at Jack- 
son was Timothy Davis, who was a native of 
New Jersey but had lived two years in Ken- 
tucky and came to Jackson in 1818. He re- 
mained there for a year and a half. He then 
moved to Ste. Genevieve and later to Iowa, 
from which state he was sent to Congress. 
When he came to Jackson he was accompan- 
ied by a nephew who was destined to become 
one of the famous lawyers of the Southeast ; 
this was Greer W. Davis. He was not ad- 
mitted to the bar until 1820, but from that 
time on was a prominent lawyer. For seven- 
teen years- he was circuit attorney for the 
southeast circuit. He was very careful in at- 
tending to business and soon became wealthy. 
It wa-s said of him that he was both tluent 
and logical, and that his addresses were models 
of concise, careful statements. He was a 
member of the Methodist church at Jackson 
for more than half a century. He was the 
last of the territorial lawyers in the state, 
dying in 1878. He was held in the highest 

csteeiu by his nciyhliors mikI by thi- bar of the 
entire Southeast. 

In 1818 Alexandei' liui-kiirr. who was a res- 
ident of Kentucky, removed to Cape Girar- 
deau county and settled with his mother and 
sister.s on Randol creek. He was a good law- 
yer, with a turn for political life. He was a 
pro-slavery advocate and soon took a prom- 
inent place in the political affairs of the ter- 
ritory. He was appointed circuit attorney 
shortly after his coming and was a member of 
the constitutional convention in 1820. He was 
afterward a member of the state senate and 
in 1831 was elected United States senator 
from Missouri. He was the organizer of 
Unity Lodge at Jackson, the first Masonic 
lodge in the territory of Missouri. This lodge 
was organized under a charter from the Grand 
Lodge of Indiana. Senator Buckner died in 
1833 at Jackson, during the scourge of 

One of the most prominent men in the Cape 
Girardeau district, during the early period, Joseph McFerron. McFerVon was an 
Iri.shman who came to America in early life, 
was a man of fine sense and possessed a su- 
perior education. He was reserved in man- 
ner and pecidiar in appearance. He was the 
first clerk of the courts of the Cape Girar- 
deau district and held the position for a num- 
ber of years. After his duel with William 
Ogle, an account of which is given in another 
place, McFerron resigned from office. This 
resignation, however, was a test of public sen- 
timent, which was soon shown to be in his 
favor. He was reelected and held the office 
until his death in 1821. He lived for a con- 
siderable time in Cape Girardeau, but re- 
moved to Jackson upon the establishment of 
the coiuit.y seat at that place. 

Among the first attorneys before the court 
held in Cape Girardeau were Anthony Hay- 



den and George C. Harbison. Their names 
are foimd in the record of the year 1805. 
Hayden was one of the first trustees for the 
tovra of Cape Girardeau, chosen in 1808. 
Among the other early lawyers in Cape Gir- 
ardeau were Nathaniel Pope, and James 
Evans. Evans was a very popular and able 
man, had a very large practice at one time, 
and was a member of the first constitutional 
convention. For a short time he served as 
circuit judge, but he ruined his career by be- 
coming an habitual drimkard. He removed 
from Cape Girardeau to Perryville, from 
Perry ville to Kentucky, where he afterward 

The Byrd family of the Cape Girardeau 
district was one of the influential families 
during the early history of ^Missouri. The 
leading members of the family were Stephen 
and Abraham. They were brothers, being 
the sons of Amos Byrd. They came to Upper 
Loui.siana from Tennessee about 1800. The 
home of the family was fixed at Byrd's creek, 
not far from 'Jackson. Stephen Byrd was fre- 
cjuently in office. He was a judge of the court 
of common pleas for the Cape Girardeau dis- 
trict, was one of the men who drew up the 
I'emonstrance concerning the organization of 
the Louisiana district and its connection with 
the Indian Territory, and was a number of 
times a member of the territorial assembly. 
He also took part in the convention that 
framed the constitution of the state and was 
afterward a representative of Cape Girardeau 
county in the general assembly of the state. 
Abraham Byrd was also a member of the 
state legislature at different times, and was a 
presidential elector in 1836. His family was 
a large one, and their descendants, many of 
them, still live in Cape Girardeau eoiuitj'. 

In 1817 there came to Cape Girardeau a 
young man named Thomas B. English. He 

was a native of Louisiana and was educated 
at St. Mary's college. He studied law with 
General Johnson Ranney, and was afterward 
admitted to the bar. He was a man of great 
euerg;!,-, and was modest and unassiuning in 
manner, but soon was able to take a very 
high rank in his profession, ilr. English was 
a Democrat, and had consicierable political 
experience. He was for a time circuit attor- 
ney, and in 1860 was a member of the state 
senate. In 1865 he was appointed judge of 
the tenth circuit, but died in 1866, 

John D. Cook came to Cape Girardeau dur- 
ing the time when ilissouri was a territor.y 
and in 1820 was chosen a delegate to the first 
convention which formed the constitution of 
the state. In 1822 he was appointed judge of 
the supreme court but held the position for 
only about a year, resigning to accept the po- 
sition of circuit judge of the southern judi- 
cial circuit. At the meeting of the first state 
legislature Cook was placed in nomination 
for one of the senatorships but was not chosen. 
He was a man of great ability and recognized 
tc be of the highest integrity and his friends 
said of him that if he had been as enterpris- 
ing as he was able he would have risen to the 
very highest places. He possessed, however, 
but little ambition and was inclined to be 
indolent. His homeliness was proverbial 
among his friends. Younger members of the 
bar foiuid in him a friend and he was always 
ready to give them advice and assistance. 

Under the territorial government as it was 
first organized the chief judicial authority 
was vested in a court of quarter sessions of 
the peace. This court was to be composed of 
all the justices of the peace in the county, 
who were to be appointed by the governor, 
not less than three were to constitute a quor- 
um. This court had general jurisdiction, ex- 



cept in capital eases, and it had also civil jur- 
isdiction ; besides its criminal and civil author- 
ity the court was charged with general ad- 
ministrative functions in the county; it was 
the authority for the letting of contracts, for 
levying taxes and supervising the expenditures 
of the eoimty. thus having the powers and 
duties which are now vested in a county court. 

Besides the court in general quarter ses- 
sions, there was also organized a court of 
common pleas composed of two or more jus- 
tices of the peace and having civil jurisdiction 
in eases involving less than $100. There was 
also a probate court and justice courts pre- 
sided over by single justices of the peace. 

In 1813 all the courts, except the single jus- 
tice courts, were combined to form a court of 
common pleas which thus had authority over 
both criminal and civil matters, over probate 
matters and was also vested with administra- 
tive authority in the county. 

In 1816 circuit courts were organized in the 
territory which was divided into two circuits, 
the northern and southern ; all judicial mat- 
ters were put under the supervision of the 
circuit courts as well as a large part of the 
administrative business in each county. This 
organization marks the greatest concentration 
of judicial and administrative authority to be 
foimd in the history of the state. The circuit 
court with its powers to try both civil and 
criminal cases was also vested with all powers 
now held by probate and coimty courts; this 
great concentration of power lasted until the 
adoption of the state constitution in 1820. 

Besides the courts which we have men- 
tioned the principal county officers were the 
sheriff, who was also collector and treasurer, 
coroner, assessor, recorder and the constables 
of the townships. The duties of these officers 
were not very different from the duties which 
they discharge today, the sheriff is no longer 

collector and treasurer, though uj) until with- 
in very recent years he was in many counties 
the collector as well as sheriff. 

The court of quarter sessions of the peace 
for Ste. Genevieve district was organized De- 
cember 11, 1804. The judges of this court 
were : JMoses Austin, Jacques Guibord, Ben- 
jamin Strother, John Hawkins and Francois 
Valle. William C. Carr was appointed as the 
acting prosecutor; Israel Dodge was the sheriff 
of the district and he brought in a jury which 
acted as a grand jury. The grand jury made 
no indictments at this first term of the court. 
The principal business transacted was the ap- 
pointment of constables for the different sec- 
tions of the district. The}' were: Andrew 
Morris for New Bourbon, Peter Laurel for 
Ste. Genevieve, Joseph Tucker for the terri- 
tory on the Saline, Thomas Donohue between 
the Saline and Apple Creek, John Paul for 
Bellevue and Bernard Fester for Mine a 
Breton. The sheriff, Israel Dodge, was di- 
rected to receive bids for the building of a 
jail. It was to stand on the public square in 
Ste. Genevieve, was to be 25x15 feet and to 
have double walls of timber one foot in thick- 
ness with rock filling. This jail was reported 
finished in September, 1805. In the same 
year, the court made a levy for taxes for the 
district. Assessors were appointed for the 
different settlements, who were instructed to 
make lists of the property held by each citi- 
zen. The amount of the tax levy for all of 
Ste. Genevieve district was $1,171.94. 

In 1807 the district was divided into six 
townships: Breton, Bellevue, St. Michaels, 
Big River, Ste. Genevieve and Cinque Homme. 
In 1814, Saline township was formed from 
parts of Ste. Genevieve and Cinque Homme 
and included the south part of the present 
county of Ste. Genevieve and the west part of 



Perry county ; in the same year Plattin town- 
ship was laid out, it was east of Big River. 
There was no court house building in the 
district. During the period imtil 1820, the 
courts were usually held in the various dwell- 
ings. In 1808 we find the court to have met 
in the house of James JIaxwell ; John Price 's 
tavern w-as frequently used, as was also the 
house of Henry Dodge. 

This court of quarter sessions, as may be 
seen from the record of its work, had some- 
what the same jurisdiction as the present 
county courts. It had also criminal juris- 
diction. Felony cases were tried by courts 
of oyer and terminer. The first murder trial 
in the district was held in 1810. Peter John- 
son was tried at this time for the murder of 
John Spear ; Edward Hempstead was the at- 
torney general and prosecuted the case, while 
Henry j\I. Breckenridge and James A. Graham 
appeared for the defendant. The trial re- 
sulted in the conviction of Johnson, and in 
execution of the sentence he was hanged on 
the third day of August. According to the 
barbarous custom of the time the hanging was 
public. It took place on the hill near the 
academy building and was witnessed by almost 
the entire population of the town. Only one 
other execution took place in Ste. Genevieve 
county during this period. There were other 
cases of homicide but only two persons were 
executed. One of the famous killings was 
that of Captain De Mun, who was the com- 
mander of the body of militia known as the 
Dragoons, who lived in New Bourbon, and was 
a very prominent citizen. He and William 
McArthur, who M'as a brother-in-law of Louis 
F. Linn, were candidates for the territorial 
house of representatives in 1816. A difficulty 
arose between them concerning some state- 
ments charging McArthur with connection 

with a band of counterfeiters. De Mun had 
repeated these charges and was challenged by ! 
I\IcArthur to a duel. This was refused by 
De ]Mun on the ground that the challenger 
was not a gentleman. Threats were then 
made on both sides and at the occasion of their 
first meeting, which occurred on the stairway 
in the house used by the court, they both 
fired. McArthur was not hurt, but De JMun 
was killed. No charge was preferred against 
]\IcArthur, as he was very generally held to 
be justified in the killing. We have given an 
account in another place of the celebrated 
duel between Thomas T. Crittenden and 
Doctor Walter Fenwick. Doctor Fenwick 
was buried in the Catholic cemetery and his 
grave is still to be .seen. 

The first county court luider the state gov- 
ernment met in Ste. Genevieve, May 21, 1821. 
It was composed of James Pratte, James Aus- 
tin and James W. Smith. The court ap- 
pointed Thomas Oliver as clerk, and he con- 
tinued to hold the office luitil his death in 
1826. At this first meeting of the court the 
county was divided into two to\\7iships. Ste. 
Genevieve and Saline ; the former was di- 
vided in 1827 and the north part was erected 
into the township called Jackson. In 1832 
Beauvais township was formed from parts of 
Saline and Ste. Genevieve and named in honor 
of St. Gem Beauvais; Union to\\'nship was 
created in 1834 from the western part of 

A jail was erected in 1875 at a cost of 
s'iS.OOO and at the same time a building for 
the use of the county clerk was erected. In 
1883 the present court house was built; it is 
a two-story brick building and cost $10,000. 
Ste. Genevieve county has a poor farm which 
it bought in 1880 from Jules F. Janis. 



The court of quarter sessions for Cape Gir- 
ardeau district was organized on JIarch 19, 
180,5. The following judges were present and 
took part in the organization of the court: 
Christopher Hays, Louis Lorimier, James 
Ballew, Robert Greene, John Byrd and Fred- 
eric Linibaugh ; Joseph I\IcFerron was clerk 
of the court and John Hays was sheriif. A 
grand jury was summoned which returned 
indictments for assault against William Har- 
per, and for burglary against Baptiste ]Manie. 
Both of these men were tried and convicted 
at the next term of the court. The court ap- 
pointed John Randall, Jeremiah Still, Will- 
iam Hand, William Ross, William Lorimier, 
;iud Michael Limbaugh as constables. 

At other meetings of the court licenses were 
issued to Louis Lorimier and Thomas W. 
Waters to run ferries across the ^Mississippi 
river. Rogers was also given a license to con- 
duet a tavern at Hubble 's Mill. The settlers 
at Tywappaty Bottom presented a petition, 
which was granted, for the opening of a road 
from that settlement to Cape Girardeau. An- 
other petition asked for a road from Hubble 's 
Mill by way of Andrew Ramsay 's to Cape Gir- 
ardeau ; this petition was signed by a number 
of settlers and was granted. Another petition 
prayed for the extension of the road from Ste. 
Genevieve to pass the upper Delaware to-ivns 
to John Byrd's thence to William Daugh- 
ertj-'s, thence to Jeremiah Simpson's, thence 
to the edge of the Big Swamp, to meet the 
New Madrid road. The court appointed 
viewers who were ordered to make a report 
at the next term of the court. 

The court also fixed rates of taxation. 
Each hoiise was taxed 25 cents, each head of 
cattle 6>< cents, each slave 50 cents, and each 
one hundred dollars' worth of property 25 
cents. Besides these a poll tax of 50 cents 
was levied on each able bodied single man 

Vol. I— 1 1 

who shall not have taxable property to the 
amoimt of four hundred dollars. This is 
probably one of the first instances in the state 
of a tax on bachelors. 

The courts convened in Cape Girardeau. 
This was in obedience to a proclamation made 
by Governor Harrison on January 1, 1805. 
In that proclamation Governor Harrison saj'S 
that he was not in possession of sufficient in- 
formation to determine the proper site for a 
permanent seat of justice but foimd it neces- 
sary to determine a temporary site. Accord- 
ingly, he directed that the courts of common 
pleas and general quarter sessions of the peace 
and the orphans' court be held at Cape Girar- 
deau upon the lands of Louis Lorimier. The 
proclamation further appointed the justices 
of the court of quarter sessions as commis- 
sioners to receive proposals and to make 
recommendation concerning the selection of a 
permanent site. 

The commissioners thus appointed for this 
selection of the seat of justice received pro- 
posals from Louis Lorimier, William Daugh- 
erty and Jesse Cain. Daugherty wanted the 
site to be placed on the Russell farm, which 
he then owned, near the site of Jackson ; Cain 
wanted it established on the farm afterward 
owned by August Henecke ; Lorimier pro- 
posed to give to the district four acres of land 
to be selected on any part of his grant north 
of his dwelling house, to furnish all neces- 
sary timber for the public buildings, and 
finally to give two hundred dollars and thirty 
days' labor of a man toward the erection of 
the buildings. As a further inducement he 
declared his purpose to reserve for the use 
of the inhabitants of the town, which he 
meant to lay oif at Cape Girardeau, all the 
timber on a certain part of his land. The 
rather peculiar method of land description 
is seen in the manner in which Lorimier de- 



scribes his land. In the proposition to fur- 
nish the timber for the public buildings, he 
says that it is to be taken off his land any- 
where "between Thome's creek and the 
Shawnee Path." The land on which timber 
was to be reserved for the people of Cape 
Girardeau is described as bounded on one side 
by a line from the mouth of Thome's creek 
and the intersection of his boundary line to 
the Sha^raee Path, and on the other side by 
the town and the river. This proposition of 
Lorimier was accepted by the commissioners 
and the governor issued a proclamation fixing 
the permanent seat of justice at Cape Girar- 
deau. In January, 1806, the court of quarter 
sessions appointed the following comanission- 
ers to lay off the town and locate the site of 
the public buildings: Anthony Haden, Ed- 
mund Hogan, Christopher Hays, Robert Hall 
and Benjamin Tennille. Other commission- 
ers were appointed to let the contract for 
the erection of a jail and court house. At the 
next session of court Commissioner Haden 
presented a plan of the to^\Ti as laid off ; three 
acres of the public square was divided into 
lots and sold. Ezekiel Abel bought lot No. 
1 for $62.00, Jolin Scott bought lots 2 and 4 
for $77.00 and $89.00, Joseph Meterron lot 
No. 5 for $62.00, and Jolm Risher lot No. 6 
for $69.00. The public square thus left con- 
sisted of one acre which was cleared by order 
■ of the court. The jail was completed in De- 
cember, 1806. It was built of oak timber and 
was 12x25 feet. It was never satisfactorj^ as 
p. jail, having been very poorly built. The 
grand jury reported in 1812 that prisoners 
did not stay in jail, but simply passed 
through it. 

The courts of common pleas and general 
quarter sessions of the peace were super- 
seded in 1813 by a court of common pleas 

with a jurisdiction equal to both the former 
courts. At the same time Cape Girardeau 
county was formed in the place of the Dis- 
trict of Cape Girardeau, and it was deter- 
mined to establish a new seat of jastice. For 
a short period of time, in 1814, the courts 
were held in Bethel Baptist church on Hubble 
creek, about one and one-half miles south of 
Jackson. It was on the plantation of Thomas 
Bull. In 1815 the circuit courts were organ- 
ized and the court of common pleas abolished. 
The circuit court, as then constituted, had 
jurisdiction over both civil and criminal mat- 
ters, over all probate business, and was also 
vested with the oversight of county affairs. 
Its jurisdiction was thus about as extensive as 
that of the present circuit courts, the probate 
courts and the county courts combined. This 
court held its first session in the hoiise which 
is now the residence of Mrs. Schmuke. This 
^^as in May, 1815, and Hon. Richard S. 
Thomas, judge of the southern circuit, was on 
the bench. 

The general assembly had appointed as 
commissioners, to establish the new seat of 
justice, John Davis, John Sheppard, S. G. 
Drnin, Abraham Byrd and Benjamin Shell. 
These commissioners selected as a site, a piece 
of ground then belonging to William H. Ash- 
ley on Hubble creek. They purchased fifty 
acres of this land, and the house then stand- 
ing on it was used as a court house. In 1818 
another building was erected for the purposes 
of the court. It was a frame building, large 
and rough, and cost $2,250, and was built by 
John Davis. The jail cost $1,400, and was 
destroyed by fire in 1819 ; it was immediately 
replaced by another which was erected by 
William L. Byrd. The to^Tn of Jackson 
itself was located in 1815. This was jvLst after 
the battle at New Orleans, and the town was 


J (33 

nanu'd in honcir of Andrew Jackson. There 
w as a sale of lots in the town, the sum of 
$f)UO being derived from this source. 

The divisions of Cape Girardeau count.^- 
were first made in 1806. At that time two dis- 
tricts, the northern and the southern, were 
formed and two assessors appointed for each. 
Charles G. Ellis and Abraham Byrd were 
assessors in the northern district and John 
Abernath}' and Frederick Bollinger on the 
southern. In 1807 the entire district was 
divided into five townships: Tywappity, 
German, Byrd, Cape Girardeau and St. Fran- 
cois. Tywappity was bounded on the north 
and west by the middle of the Big Swamp, on 
the south by the district line separating Cape 
Girardeau from New iladrid and on the east 
by the river. Cape Girardeau to\Miship was 
bounded on the east by the IMississippi river 
and on the south by the middle of the Big 
Swamp, and on the north and west by a line 
beginning at Joseph Waller's ferry on the 
Mississippi and riinning west and south to 
Hubble creek and do■^^^l Hubble creek to the 
middle of the Big Swamp. Byrd township 
was boimded on the east by Cape Girardeau 
township on the north of the district line, on 
the south by the Big Swamp, on the west by 
"Whitewater. German township extended 
from the district line on the north to the Big 
Swamp on the south and from Whitewater 
to Turkey creek. St. Francois township was 
west of Turkey creek, and included all the 
territory between the district line to the north 
and the middle of the Big Swamp on the 
south, extending as far west as there were any 
settlements. T.ywappity township was thus 
practically the same as Scott county. German 
township included Bollinger and a part of 
]\Iadison coiuities. St. Francois township in- 
cluded Wayne comity, while Cape Girardeau 

and Byrd townships included the present 
county of Cape Girardeau. 

Two of these townships. Tywappity and 
St. Francois, were later cut off to foriii Scott 
and Wayne coimties. In 1872 a new township 
called Randol was formed from portions of 
Byrd and Cape Girardeau ; Apple Creek was 
erected from a part of Byrd tov\-nship two 
years later and at the same time Lorance was 
formed from the southern part of German 
township. No other changes were made in 
the township line luitil 1840, when Union was 
created from portions of Apple Creek and 
German ; four years later a part of Lorance 
was taken to form a new town.ship called 
Liberty. The whole system of townships was 
revised in 1848. At this time eleven town- 
ships were marked out; they were Lorance, 
Clubb, Union, German. Liberty, Hubbell, Cape 
Girardeau, Randol, Shawnee, Byrd and Apple 
Creek. Bollinger county was organized three 
years later and Lorance, Clubb, Union, Ger- 
man and part of Liberty townships becom- 
ing a part of Bollinger county. In 1852 
WHiitewater township was organized, in 1856 
Welsh, and in 1872 Kinder. 

The court house had become unfit for its 
purposes by 1837 and the court in that j'ear 
appointed Edward Criddle, Nathan Vanhorn, 
Ralph Guild and Ebenezer Fh-nn as the 
commissioners to superintend the erection of 
a new building; it was built of brick and 
stone and was two stories in height. In 1870 
this building was destroyed by fire, and in 
November of that jear the court set aside 
$25,000 for the erection of a new building. 
It was a brick structure, standing on the pub- 
lic square in Jackson and was erected by Jos- 
eph Lansmann of Cape Girardeau. In 1905 it 
was determined to erect a larger building 
more suited to the of the court ; this build- 
ing was completed in 1908 and is still in use. 



The first jail, built in 1819, was used for 
thirty years, when a stone building two stories 
in height was erected on the public square 
west of the court house; it was in use only 
ten years and was superseded by the present 
brick jail. 

At one time in jMissouri the legislature cre- 
ated several courts called courts of conunon 
pleas; these were given limited jurisdiction 
coordinate in part with the circuit courts in 
civil matters. One of these courts was organ- 
ized at Clarkton in Dunklin county and an- 
other in Cape Girardeau, and others at differ- 
ent places in this section of the state. Of all 
of them, however, created throughout the en- 
tire state, only two of them continue to exist, 
one of them being the court of common pleas 
at Cape Girardeau. Its sittings are held in 
the common pleas court house situated on a 
bluff overlooking the I\Iississippi river, one of 
the most beautiful situations in the entire 
state. This building has recently been the 
cause of a rather unusual controversy. It is 
built on land once owned by Louis I/orimier 
and given by him to Cape Girardeau for court 
purposes. Whether it is the property of the 
municipality of Cape Girardeau or the coiuity 
is the question which has not yet been de- 
termined; neither county nor city desire to 
be vested with the o^vnership, for that carries 
with it the financial burden of repairs and 
maintenance. For a number of years the ex- 
pense was divided but recently there is an 
agitation to determine who is the owner of the 

Not only was Lorimier farsighted enough 
and patriotic enough to devote land in his new 
town for the purpose of building a court 
house, the terms of his will set aside certain 
tracts of land, also, to be used for school and 
also for recreation purposes, and the city of 
Cape Girardeau is fortunate in holding some 

very desirable park and school sites within its 
boimds, owing to the generositj^ of its founder. 

The courts of common pleas and general 
quarter sessions of the peace in New Madrid 
district were organized in March, 1805 ; the 
judges were Richard Jones "Waters, ElLsha 
"Windsor, Henry Master, John Baptiste Olive, 
and Michael Amoreaux; Joshua Humphreys 
was the clerk and George "Wilson was sheriff. 
The records of this court have been destroyed 
and there is practically no information avail- 
able concerning the work of this court. In 
1813 New Madrid district was changed into 
New Madrid covmty. It then had the follow- 
ing boimdaries : On the north it was bounded 
by the south line of Cape Girardeau 'county ; 
this line was described as "commencing on 
the Mississippi river at the head of Tywappaty 
bottom at the upper end of the tract of land 
where James Brady now lives (near Com- 
merce), thence west to the south side of the 
Big Swamp, thence on a direct line to the 
Shawnee village on Castor river, thence due 
west to the western boimdary line of the 
Osage purchase." On the east it was boimded 
by the main channel of the Mississippi river ; 
on the south by a line commencing in the river 
at Island No. 19, running thence in a direct 
line to White river at the mouth of Little Red 
river; thence up Red river to the western 
boimdary of the Osage purchase. 

In the organization of the county, Samuel 
Cooper, Thomas Windsor, Daniel Sparks, 
John Guerthing and John Tucker were 
named as a commission to locate a permanent 
seat of justice. 

Prior to this time the courts had met at 
New IMadrid and also at the house of Samuel 
Phillips in Big Prairie. The court of com- 
mon pleas as reorganized bj' the act changing 
the district into a coimty, was composed of 



Thomas Neal, John LaValle, William Win- 
chester, and William Gray. This court di- 
vided New Madrid county into townships. 
The territory about New Jladrid and Little 
Prairie was named New IMadrid township ; 
Big Prairie township was established to in- 
clude the settlements about Sikeston; Tywap- 
pity township included the territory lying 
east of St. John's Bayou and extending as 
far north as the Lucas place ; ^loreland town- 
ship embraced the territory between the north 
part of the Big Prairie and Cape Girardeau 
county. All the western part of the county 
of New jMadrid was organized into a township 
called White River. The court also appointed 
judges of election in each of the townships. 
For New Madrid township John E. Hart, 
George Tennille and Robert IMcCoy were 
made judges and the house of Samuel Cooper 
was appointed as the polling place. For Big 
Prairie township the judges selected were 
Enoch Liggett, Samuel Phillips and Thomas 
Bartlett. The election was to be held at the 
house of Samuel Phillips. John Tucker, 
Drakeford Gray and John Brooks were the 
judges of the election of Tywappaty township ; 
the polling place was the house of Edward 
N. ]\ratthews. For Moreland to\\Tiship the 
polling place was at the house of Charles 
Friend and the judges of election were John 
Ramsay, Hugh Johnson and Timothy Harris. 
The house of Captain Harris on Spring river 
was the polling place in White River town- 
ship and the judges were George Ruddell, 
Amos IMusick and Captain Hines. 

In March, 1814, the court, as reorganized, 
met at the house of Samuel Phillips in Big 
Prairie, and the June term was held at the 
house of Jesse Bartlett. In November, 1814, 
the commissioners for the seat of government 
selected fifty acres of land in Big Prairie 

v.'hich was donated by Steel Ross and i\Ioses 
Hurley. This land lay about one-fourth 
mile south of the present town of Sike.ston. 
Joseph Story was the county surveyor, and 
he Mas ordered by the court to lay the fifty 
acres off into lots. These lots were sold at 
public auction in November and December of 
that j'ear. The money thus derived was used 
for the erection of a jail which was built in 
1817. This place continued to be the comity 
seat of New Madrid county until the organi- 
zation of Scott county, when the county seat 
was removed to New Madrid. On the removal 
to New Madrid a new court house and jail 
became necessary ; the old jail was sold on the 
orders of the court and the new commission, 
consisting of Mark H. Stallcup, John Shanks, 
Thomas Bartlett, Francois Le Sieur, and John 
Ruddell, were appointed. They proceeded to 
erect a court house and jail. This was the first 
court house in the comity; they were both 
frame structures. The court house was used 
imtil 1854 and the jail luitil 1845. 

This organization of New JIadrid county 
into townships was maintained until 1822. 
In that year the area of the county having 
been very greatly reduced by the erection of 
new counties, townships were formed as fol- 
lows: Big Prairie was all that part of the 
county north of a line running in a westerly 
ttireetion north of Rawl's old mill to the 
western boundary of the county. New IMadrid 
tOMiiship was to consist of all of part of the 
county lying south of Big Prairie to%vnship 
and north of a line beginning on the Missis- 
sippi river and running west so as to divide 
the surveys of Robert McCoy and Joseph 
Vandenbenden ; thence to the west just south 
of the plantations of Robert G. Watson and 
Aaron T. Spear on Lake St. Ann to the west- 




ern boundary of the county. Le Sieur town- 
ship was to include all the remainder of the 

New Madrid county was made a part of 
the southern circuit at the time the territory 
was divided into judicial circuits, the presid- 
ing judge being Hon. Richard S. Thomas, of 
Jackson. The first session of court in New 
Madrid county was held in December, 1815, 
in the house of William Montgomery in Big 
Prairie. Colonel John D. Walker was sheriff 
and Greer W. Davis was circuit attorney. 
The most important case was that of the 
United States vs. William Gordon, for mur- 
der. Gordon was convicted and, afterwards, 

In 1831 St. Jolms township was formed in 
the eastern part of the county to include the 
territory along St. Johns Bayou. In 1834 
Little Prairie to^^'nship was organized and in 
1839 Pemiscot township; in 1842 Woodland 
was erected from the south part of Big Prairie 
township and at the same time Big Lake 
township was formed from parts of Le Sieur 
and Little Prairie; Woodland township was 
divided in 1845, a part of it being attached to 
Big Prairie and the other part to New Ma- 
drid. When Pemiscot county was organized 
in 1851 the size of New Madrid comity was 
considerably reduced and no more to\\'nships 
were organized until 1874, when Portage 
township was formed. 

The court house was destroyed by fire in 
1895 and since that time no special building 
for the use of the courts has been provided by 
the comity. An effort has been made on sev- 
eral occasions to vote bonds for the erection 
of a court house and the measure has always 
been defeated. The last attempt was made in 
1911; it failed, however, through the oppo- 
sition of Lilbourn, Marston and some of the 
ether towns of the coimty which desire a 

change of the county seat from New Madrid. 
At the present time the court offices are dis- 
tributed in various buildings in the city of 
New Madrid. 

We have seen that in 1815 the territorial 
legislature divided the county of New Madrid 
and established, out of the western part of 
that coimty, a new county to be known as 
Lawrence. Its boundaries were described as 
follows: "Beginning at the mouth of Little 
Red river on the line dividing said county 
from the county of Arkansas ; thence with said 
line to the river St. Francois ; thence up the 
river St. Francois to the division line between 
the coimties of Cape Girardeau and New jMa- 
dried; thence with said last mentioned line 
to the western boimdary of the Osage pur- 
chase ; thence with the last mentioned line to 
the northern boundary of the county of Ar- 
kansas ; thence with the last mentioned line to 
the place of beginning." A commission was 
appointed to fix the seat of justice, but in 
December, 1818, an act was passed which abol- 
ished this coimty and created another one. 

The new county was to include the eastern 
part of LawTence coimty and the southwest 
part of the coimty of Cape Girardeau. Its 
boimdaries were described as follows : ' ' Be- 
ginning at the southeast corner of the county 
of Madison rimning southwesterly on the 
road which divides the waters of Crooked 
creek and Castor until it strikes the edge of 
the Big Swamp between Jenkin's creek and 
Castor; thence west to the river Castor; 
thence down the main channel of the said 
river Castor until it strikes New Madrid 
county line ; thence south so far that a due 
west line will leave the plantation of Edward 
N. Mathews on the north; thence west to the 
Osage boundary line; thence north with the 
said line so far that a due east line would in- 



terseet the place of beginning." This coimty 
so bounded was called Wayne county and on 
account of its great size was often spoken of 
as the "State of WajTie. " The commission- 
ers to fix the seat of government were Over- 
t(.n Bettis, James Logan. Solomon Bollinger, 
"William Street and Ezekiel Ruebottom. The 
courts were held at first in the house of Ran- 
som Bettis. 

When Wayne county was organized, in 
]818, the commissioners selected as a site for 
the county seat the place where Greenville 
now is. The town was laid out in that year 
and has been the county seat ever since. For 
a number of years the courts were held in 
rooms rented for the purpose. 

The first court house was a two-story log 
building which was replaced in 18-1:9 by a 
brick structure; this was burned in 1853 and 
the county appropriated $2,500 to rebuild it. 
Jeremiah Spencer and L. H. Plinn were ap- 
pointed to supervise its construction ; they 
completed its erection in 1856. The first jail 
in the county was built of logs and stood on 
the south corner of the public square. It was 
moved away and a brick building erected in 
1849 ; this was used until 1873, when a new 
jail costing $9,000 was built. The present 
court house was erected in 1894 at a cost of 

The first clerk of the courts in WajTie 
county was Solomon R. Bowlin. Another 
clerk in the early period of the county was 
Thomas Catron, who resigned the office in 
1849; among his successors were Nixon Pal- 
mer and George W. Creath. One of the first 
sheriffs was Wiley Wallis. 

^Madison county was created by the territo- 
rial legislature by an act passed December 
14. 1818. At that time, as in other counties, 
the principal court was the circuit court. 

which transacted much of the business of the 
county. The firsst meeting of the court was 
held in the house of Theodore F. Tong on 
Jul}- 12. 1819. Judge Thomas was on the 
bench ; Charles Hutehings was clerk, but was 
afterwards succeeded by Nathaniel Cook ; Jos- 
eph J\Iontgomery was the sheriff. A grand 
jurj' was summoned and it returned indict- 
ments against a number of persons for larceny. 
The courts for a number of years were held 
in private houses. The county court of Mad- 
ison coimty was organized in 1821 ; it met at 
the house of J. G. W. ]\IcCabe ; William Dillon 
and Henry Whitener were the judges of the 
court, and Nathaniel Cook was clerk. The 
county boundary on the west was Black River, 
and up to the meeting of the county court in 
this year it had been divided into three town- 
ships : St. ]\Iichaels, on the west, Liberty, on 
the north, and Castor, on the east. In this 
year two new townships, Twelve Mile and 
German, were erected. In 1822 a court house 
was ordered to be erected and was built in the 
same year. It was built of brick and is still 
standing. The jail was built in 1820. and it 
was built of logs on the present jail lot. 

From the organization of the county until 
the year 1822 the courts were held at private 
residences. In that year, however, the present 
brick court house was completed ; it is the old- 
est structure of its kind now in use west of 
the Mississippi river. It was well built and is 
still in a good state of preservation. A jail 
had been built before the erection of the court 
house. It stood on what is still known as the 
jail lot. It was burned by an escaping pris- 
oner and a new building of brick was erected : 
it was also destroyed by fire and since that 
time the county has never erected a jail. 

In 1845 the town.ship of St. Francois was 
erected; Arcadia township in 1848 and Union 
township in 1850. On the organization of 



Iron county in 1857, Arcadia township, Union 
and Liberty were cut off to form a part of 
Iron covmty. Another township, known as 
Liberty, was later erected in Madison county 
and a new one created called Hope to^vTiship. 
The county early incurred a debt of more 
than $12,000 for the erection of the Frederick- 
town and Pilot Knob gravel road ; the total 
indebtedness of the comity in 1859 was $14,- 
946. In the same year its receipts were 
$4,542, and expenditures $5,931. This shows 
a gain over the year of 1822, at which time 
the total receipts were $249.42 and the ex- 
penditures were $343.72. 

Jefferson county was created December 8, 
1818. Parts of Ste. Genevieve and St. Louis 
counties were cut off to form the new coimty. 
It was named in honor of Thomas Jefferson. 
William Bates, Peter McCormack, Thomas 
Evans, Henry Metz, Jacob Wise and William 
Noll were commissioners to select the perma- 
nent seat of justice for the county. They 
decided upon Herculaneum. This decision 
was made because Herculaneum was the prin- 
cipal town in the county, though at this time, 
as we have seen, it consisted of only a very 
few houses. The tirst court room was in the 
log cabin o-\^Tied by a negro named Abe. After 
a time court was held in the back room of a 
.store occupied by Mr. Glasgow. The officers 
of the court rented offices in various parts of 
the .town, sometimes holding their delibera- 
tion, as we are told, in the shade of the trees. 

The first county court met March 22, 1819. 
The members of the court were H. B. Boyd, 
Elias Bates and Samuel Hammond. A lot in 
Herculaneum was donated by James Bryant 
as a building site for the county buildings, 
and upon this lot a log jail was erected; no 
effort was made, however, to build a court 
house. After considerable agitation a vote 

was taken in August, 1832, on the proposition 
to establish the county seat at Monticello. 
When the returns of this election were finally 
canvassed in 1833 it was declared that the 
proposition had been defeated, but in Septem- 
ber, 1834, the returns were again gone over 
and the court declared that the proposition 
had carried. Commissioners were appointed 
to look after the erection of a log court house. 
Delays, however, occurred and it was not imtil 
April 7, 1838, that a building site was ob- 
tained in Monticello. Hugh O'Neil and Sam- 
uel I\Ierry donated fifty acres of land for this 
purpose. On February 8, 1839, the general 
assembly passed an act establishing the seat 
of justice at Hillsboro, the name Monticello 
being changed because it was the name of the 
county seat of Lewis county. The court ap- 
pointed John J. Buren as commissioner to 
erect a court house. The building was of 
brick and stood near the present public school 
building and cost $4,600. The first meeting 
of the court was held in this building in 
April, 1840. A jail was built in 1841, and in 
1865 the present court hovise and jail were 
erected at a cost of $16,000. 

The first circuit court in Jefferson county 
was held in 1819 by Judge Nathaniel Beverly 
Tucker, who was judge of northern circuit. 

The territory now composing Washington 
coimty was a part of the Ste. Genevieve dis- 
trict and so remained imtil August 21, 1813, 
when Washington county was organized by 
an act of the territorial legislature. As it 
was organized it included a great amount of 
territory, being several times as large as the 
present county ; its limits were gradually re- 
duced as new counties were formed and in 
1868 its boundaries were finally fixed as they 
are now. The act creating the coimty ap- 
pointed Lemuel Brown, Samuel Perry, John 



Hawkins, Martin Ruggles and John Andrews 
to select the permanent seat of justice. They 
held a meeting in the fall of 1813 and selected 
Jline a Breton as a temporary meeting place 
for the court. The first judges of the court of 
common pleas were j\Iartin Ruggles, William 
Sloan and John Stanton, who met on the first 
Monday in January, 1814, in the house of 
Benjamin Elliott, with John Brickey as clerk. 
The first sheriff was Lemuel Brown. Brown 
was a nephew of Colonel Burr and was after- 
ward killed in a duel by John Smith T. The 
first business transacted by this court was the 
appointment of an administrator for the 
estate of William Blanford ; John Perry was 
appointed. At a meeting on the 13th of Jan- 
uary, 1814, Charles Lucas was granted per- 
mission to practice law before the courts of 
the county; he was the first lawyer admitted 
to the bar. For two j'ears there was no court 
except the court of common pleas, but in 1815 
the county court was organized and also the 
circuit court. At the time of the organiza- 
tion of these new courts a log jail was erected 
on the public scjuare in the original town of 
Potosi. This town was laid out on a tract 
of land northeast of the old town of Mine a 
Breton and donated by Moses Austin and 
John Rice Jones. Lots were sold in this new 
town and the mone.v from their sale was used 
for the building of a court house, the total 
cost of which was $5,595. The citizens of 
Potosi at this time wished to make the towa 
the capital of the state and the court house 
was designed to be used as a capitol building. 
The contractor for the court house was unable 
to finish the work and the upper story was 
never completed. In 1849 a contract was let 
for the building of the present structure at a 
cost of $10,000. 

The first term of the court was held at 
Mine a Breton in April, 1815, by David Bar- 

ton, judge of the northern circuit, and Rich- 
ard S. Thomas of the southern circuit. The 
lawj'ers who practiced before the courts of 
Washington county were, many of them, very 
able men ; among them were Israel McGready, 
Daniel Dunklin, David E. Perryman, John S. 
Bricke3', Phillip Cole and Henry Shurlds. 

The coimty was divided into eleven town- 
ships: Belgrade, Bellevue, Breton, Concord, 
Harmony, Johnson, Kingston, Liberty, Rich- 
woods, Union and Walton. 

Potosi was made the county seat. It was 
originally a mining camp near Mine a Breton. 
Potosi was separated from the old village of 
Mine a Breton by a fork of Breton creek. It 
was a typical mining village in the early days 
and contained several rather pretentious 
dwellings and was rather better built and 
a more pleasant town than other towns of 
the district. There were three stores, two 
distilleries, a flour mill, some lead furnaces, 
one saw mill and post office. The mail was 
brought from St. Louis and also from Ste. 
Genevieve once each week. There was also 
a monthly mail from Arkansas. The most 
pretentious and commodious residence in town 
was Durham Hall, which we have previously 
described as the home of Moses Austin. 
Austin and his son, Samuel Perry, John Rice 
Jones, Elijah Bates, and Brickey, were 
among the principal residents of the town in 
the early times. The town grew slowly and 
was supported almost entirely by the lead 
mines. These mines in the immediate vicin- 
ity of Potosi produced in the period from 
1798 to 1818 nearly ten million pounds of 

Perry county was created by the legislature 
by a law passed November 16, 1820, but the 
county court was not organized luitil May 21, 
1821. The meeting was held at the of 
Bede Moore, who lived about two and one- 



half miles north of the present site of Perry- 
ville. The judges of the court were: Louis 
Cissell, D. L. Caldwell and Samuel Anderson. 

The first clerk of the court was Cornelius N. 
Slattery. The county was divided into three 
townships: Brazeau, including the territory 
between the Cinque Homme and Apple Creek ; 
Bois Brule, in the northeast part of the 
county, and Cinque Homme, which included 
the remainder of the eoimty. Robert T. 
Brown was the first sheriff, and Joseph Tucker 
was the first assessor. Commissioners were 
appointed to locate the seat of justice, and 
thej' selected the present site of Perryville. 
Provision for the building of a court house 
was not made imtil 1825. Up to this time the 
courts met in rooms which were rented for 
the purpose, though a log jail had previously 
been erected. 

The second court house was erected in 1859. 
The court appropriated $8,000 for the build- 
ing and John E. Layton was appointed as 
superintendent of construction. This court 
house still stands and is in a fair state of 
preservation. A jail was erected about 1825 ; 
it was built of logs. This jail was used imtil 
1839, when it was superseded by a brick build- 
ing 32 feet long and 22 feet wide, which was 
put upon the public square near the court 

Judge Thomas organized the circuit court 
of Perry coimty June 4, 1821. There seems 
to have been but little business transacted by 
this court for a number of years. The first 
case of importance was the trial of Ezekiel 
Fenwick for the killing of William R. Bel- 
lamy; this was March 29. 1824. The circum- 
stances imder which Bellamy was killed are 
said to have been about these : Bellamy, who 
was a constable, had attempted to attach 
goods belonging to Fenwick, but found, the 
goods on a boat about to be removed across 

the JMississippi river. Fenwick resisted the 
constable's efforts to tie the boat up. A strug- 
gle ensued between the two men and during 
an exchange of shots Bellamy was wounded 
in the arm ; the wound finally resulted in his 
death. Fenwick escaped to Cape Girardeau 
county, but afterwards surrendered himself 
on a promise made by Judge Thomas that he 
would be achnitted to bail. It was this prom- 
ise of Judge Thomas that formed one of the 
charges in the impeachment case against him. 
Fenwick was afterward tried and acc^uitted. 
This was the last of the coimties organized 
before the admission of the state into the 
Union. The coimty was formed after the 
organization of the state government, but 
before the proclamation of the President ad- 
mitting the state into the Union. 

After the transfer to the United States in 
1804 there was very little trouble with the 
Indians until just before the breaking out of 
the war of 1812 with Great Britain. About 
1811 the British agents in the north and west 
began to stir up the Indians and induce them 
to commit depredations on the western and 
northern frontier. This brought the Indians 
upon the inhabitants of Missouri in the dis- 
trict of St. Charles. Every effort was made 
to induce the Indians to give up their raids 
and in May, 1812, an assembly of the chiefs 
of a large number of tribes was held at St. 
Louis. Later these chiefs visited Washington 
and endeavors were made to pacify them. 
Tecumseh's influence was too strong over 
them and many of the Indians, including the 
Sacs, Foxes. lowas, Sioux and some of the 
Sha^\-nees. decided to go on the warpath. 
IMost of the Sha\\Tiees and the Delawares were 
either neutral or assisted the settlers in J\Iis- 
souri. This determination of the Indians 
caused a very great increase in outrages and 



disturliances in the north part of the state. 
The militia of the St. Charle.s district did all 
that it could to protect that part of the terri- 
tory and a large number of forts were built 
there and troops stationed to garrison them. 
These troops were, however, entirely inade- 
quate to protect all the settlers, and accord- 
ingly a call was made on the districts south 
of the river for a.ssistanee. 

In response to this call for help, companies 
were organized to take part in the Indian 
wars. One of the first of these companies was 
recruited in Cape Girardeau district by An- 
drew Ramsay, Jr. ; this was in the spring of 
1813. The officers were Andrew Ramsay, cap- 
tain ; James Jlorrison. first lieutenant; Peter 
Craig, second lieutenant ; Drakeford Graj', 
third lieutenant ; William Ramsay, ensign ; 
Wilson Able, Edward Spear, John Giles, John 
Gray and James Ramsay, sergeants ; Daniel 
Ilarklerood, George Simpson, Willis Flanna- 
gan, Michael Ault, Alexander Scott and Ed- 
ward Tanner, corporals, and Solomon Fossett, 
trumpeter. This company took part in some 
of the Indian troubles, but soon was dis- 

In the summer of 1814 General Henry 
Dodge of Ste. Genevieve, collected a force of 
about three himdred, including some forty or 
fiftj' Shawnee Indians. The force consisted 
of a company from St. Louis under Captain 
John Thompson ; one from Cape Girardeau 
under Captain Abraham Daugherty ; one 
from the Boone's Lick settlement imder Cap- 
tain Cooper ; one from Ste. Genevieve under 
Captain Bernard Pratte, and the Indians who 
were under command of Captain J. B. St. 
Gem. This body of troops marched into the 
St. Charles district, were joined by another 
company under Captain Edward Hempstead, 
and attacked the camp of Miamis on the south 
side of the Missouri river. The camp was 

captured and the Indians, who had scattered 
in the woods, were taken prisoners ; there were 
152 of them. These were first sent to St. 
Louis and then to the site of every nation on 
the river. The company from Cape 
Girardeau and those from St. Louis then 
marched to Cape an Gris; they were then 
returned home. The officers of this Cape 
Girardeau company were: Abraham Daug- 
herty, captain; ]\Iedad Randol, first lieuten- 
ant ; Andrew Patterson, second lieutenant ; 
Robert Buckner, third lieutenant; Frederick 
Keep, ensign ; Jlichael Rodney, William Cox, 
James Thompson, Benjamin Anthony, ser- 
geants ; Jacob Yoiuit. Henry Shaner, Hall 
Hudson, John Davis, Xero Thompson and 
John Ezell, corporals. 

The most famous of these expeditions was 
that made in 1814 by a company of mounted 
rangers raised by Peter Craig of Cape Girar- 
deau county. Many of the members of the 
company had served under Captain Ramsay 
in 1813 ; they were now enlisted for a period 
of one year to serve on the frontiers of Mis- 
souri and Illinois, and they became a part of 
a regiment commanded b.y Colonel William 
Riissell. This company did very much service 
during these Indian troubles, and fought the 
famous battle of the Sink Hole. The officers 
of this company were : Peter Craig, captain ; 
Drakeford Gray, first lieutenant; Wilson 
Able, second lieutenant ; Edward Spear, third 
lieutenant ; John Giles, ensign ; John Rodney, 
Enos Randol, Daniel Ilarklerood, William 
Fugate, William Blakeney. sergeants; Abra- 
ham Letts, Perry W. Wheat, Jeremiah Able, 
William McCarty, Charles Sexton and Thomas 
S. Rodney, corporals. 

The privates of the company were : James 
Atkinson, John Able, Stephen Byrd, Jona- 
than Brickey, Jolui Brown, Tessant Barkume, 
James Brown, William B. Bush, George P. 



Bush, Peter Barrado, Francois Barraboe, 
Thomas Boj'ce, Burrel Castly, John Cameron. 
Charles Cardinal, William Crump, Jolin 
Cooper, Jesse Cochran, Baptiste Cotie, Alex- 
ander Cotie, James Cowan, Hugh Dowlin, 
Elias Davis, Ludwell Davis, John Dotson, 
Samuel Foster, Able Galland, Alexander 
Giboney, Louis Guliah, Charles Hamilton, 
Louis Heneaux, Abijah Highsmith, John 
Houk, Benjamin Hall, John Holcomb, James 
Hamilton, Frederick Hector, Thomas Hail, 
John Hodge, Stephen Jarboe, Jehoida Jeffrey, 
Andrew Johnson, Baptiste Janneaux, Jr., 
Baptiste Janneaux, Sr., William King, 
Charles Lloyd, Francis Lemmey, Joseph Lem- 
Ttiey, John Langston, Baptiste La Croy, Bap- 
tiste Labeaux, Stephen MeKenzie, James Mas- 
sey, Nathan IMcCarty, James ilasterson, Mark 
Murphy, William Martin, Benjamin Ogle, 
Samuel Parker, James Putney, Samuel Philip, 
John Patterson, Antoine Pelkey, John Roach, 
Tessant Reeves, Robert Robertson, Joshua 
Simpson, John Sorrells, John Shepherd. Alex- 
ander St. Scott, Joseph Sivwaris, Edward 
Stephenson, Solomon Thorn, Hubbard Tayon, 
John D. Upham, John Vance, Louis Vanure, 
Pascal Valle, George Wilt, John Watkins, 
Isaac Williams, John Wiggs, David Wilt. 
William Wathen, Jenkin W^illiams, William 
Wells, Levi Wolverton, Michael Wigo, Fred- 
erick Webber, Isaac Gregory, George Vanleer. 
After the company was organized and mus- 
tered into service it was sent to North Mis- 
souri and while there fought the battle of the 
Sink Hole. This was in Lincoln county, not 
far frorn Cape au Gris. The account here 
given of this battle was written by Colonel 
John Shaw of the Wisconsin Historical Soci- 
ety: "Captain Peter Craig commanded at 
Fort Howard. About noon five of the men 
went out of the fort to Byrne 's deserted house 
en the bluff, about one-fourth of a mile below 

the fort, to bring in a grindstone. In conse- 
quence of back water from the Mississippi 
they went in a canoe, and on their return were 
fired on by a party supposed to be fifty In- 
dians, who were under shelter of some brush 
that grew along at the foot of the bluff near 
Byrne's house, and about fifteen rods distant 
from the canoe at that time. Three of the 
whites were killed and one mortally woimded, 
and as the water was shallow the Indians ran 
out and tomahawked their victims. The peo- 
ple of the fort ran out and fired on the In- 
dians across the back water, a few inches deep, 
while another party of about twenty-five ran 
to the right of the water with a view of inter- 
cepting the Indians, who seemed to be making 
toward the bluff or high plain west and north- 
west of the fort. The party of twenty-five 
and Captain Craig's soon united. On the 
bluff was the cultivated field and deserted 
residence of Benjamin Allen. The field was 
about forty rods across, beyond which was 
pretty thick timber. Here the Indians made a 
stand and here the fight began. Both parties 
fired, and as the fight waxed warm the In- 
dians slowly retired as the whites advanced. 
After the fight had been going on perhaps 
some ten minutes the whites were reinforced 
by Captain David Musiek, of Cape au Gris, 
with about twenty men. He had been on a 
scout toward the head of Cuiver river and had 
returned to within about one-half a mile of 
• the fort and about one and a half miles of the 
scene of the conflict, and had stopped with his 
men to graze their horses when, hearing the 
firing, they instantly remounted and dashed 
toward the place of battle. Dismounting in 
the edge of the timber on the bluff, and hitch- 
ing their horses, they rushed through a part 
of the Indian line, and shortly after the enemy 
fied, a part bearing to the right of the sink 
hole toward Bob's creek, but the most of tliem 



t.'kiug refuge in the siuk hole, which was 
close by where the uiain fighting had taken 
place. About the time the Indians were re- 
treating, Captain Craig exposed himself about 
four feet beyond his tree and was shot through 
the body and fell dead. James Putney was 
killed before Captain Craig, and perhaps one 
or two others. Before the Indians retired to 
the sink hole the fighting had become ani- 
mated ; the loading was done quickly and shots 
rapidly exchanged, and when one of our party 
was killed or woimded it was announced 
aloud. The sink hole was about sixty feet in 
length, and from twelve to fifteen feet in 
width, and ten or twelve feet deep. Near the 
bottom, on the southeast side, was a shelving 
rock imder which perhaps some fifty or sixty 
pCTsons might have sheltered themselves. At 
the northeast end of the sink hole the descent 
was quite gradual, the other end much more 
abrupt, and the southeast side almost per- 
pendicular, and the other side about like the 
steep roof of a house. 

"On the southeast side the Indians, as a 
farther protection in case the whites should 
rush up, dug under the shelving rock with 
their knives. On the sides and in the bottom 
of the sink hole were some bushes, which also 
served as something of a screen for the In- 
dians. Captain Musick and his men took part 
on the northeast side of the sink hole, and 
others occupied other positions surrounding 
the enemy. As the trees approached close to 
the sink hole, these served in part to protect 
our party. Finding we could not get a good 
opportunity to dislodge the enemy, as they 
were best protected, those of our men who had 
families at the fort gradually went there, not 
knowing but a large body of Indians might 
seize the favorable occasion to attack the fort 
while the men were mostly away engaged in 
the exciting contest. The Indians in the sink 

hole had a drum made of a skin stretched over 
the section of a hollow tree, on which they 
beat quite constantly, and some Indian would 
shake a rattle called She-shuqui, probably a 
dried bladder with pebbles within, and even 
for a moment would venture to thrust his 
head in view, with his hand elevated, shaking 
his rattle and calling out ' ' peash ! peash ! ' ' 
which was imderstood to be a sort of defiance, 
or as Blackhawk, who was one of the party 
saj'S in his account of that affair, a kind of 
bravado to come and fight them in the sink 
hole. When the Indians would creep up and 
shoot over the rim of the sink hole they would 
instantly disappear, and while they sometimes 
fired effectual shots they in turn became occa- 
sionally the victims. From about 1 to 4 
'clock p. m. the firmg was incessant, our men 
generally reserving their fire till an Indian 
would show his head, and all of us were study- 
ing how we could more effectually attack and 
dislodge the enemy. At length Lieutenant 
Spears suggested that a pair of cart wheels, 
axle and tongue, which were seen at Allen's 
place, be obtained, and a moving battery con- 
structed. The idea was entertained favorably 
and an hour or more was consumed in its 
construction. Some oak floor puncheons from 
seven to eight feet in length were made fast 
to an axle in an upright position and port 
holes made through them. Finally the battery 
was ready for trial and was sufficiently large 
to protect some half a dozen or more men. 
It was moved forward slowly and seemed to 
attract the particular attention of the In- 
dians, who had evidently heard the knocking 
and pounding connected M'ith its manufac- 
ture, and who now frequentl.v popped up their 
heads to make momentary discoveries, and it 
was at length moved up to within less than 
ten paces of the brink of the sink hole on the 
southeast side. The upright plank did not 



reach to the ground within some eighteen 
inches, the men calculating to shoot beneath 
the lower end at the Indians, but the latter 
from their position had decided advantage of 
this neglected aperture, for the Indians, shoot- 
ing beneath the battery at an upward angle, 
would get shots at the whites before the latter 
could see them. The Indians also watched 
the port holes and directed some of their shots 
at them. Lieutenant Spear was shot dead 
through the head, and his death was much 
lamented, as he had proved himself an in- 
trepid officer. John Patterson was wounded 
in the thigh, and some others were also 
wovmded behind the battery. Having failed 
in its design, the battery was abandoned after 
sun-down. Our hope all along had been that 
the Indians would emerge from their covert 
and attempt to retreat to where we supposed 
their canoes were left, some three or four miles 
distant, in which case we were firmly deter- 
mined to rush upon them and endeavor to cut 
them off totally. The men generally evinced 
the greatest bravery during the whole engage- 

"Night was now coming on and the reports 
of a half a dozen guns in the direction of the 
fort by a few Indians, who rushed out of the 
woods skirting Bob's creek not more than 
forty rods from the north end of the fort, was 
heard. This movement on the part of the few 
Indians who had escaped when the others took 
refuge in the sink hole was evidently designed 
to divert the attention of the whites and alarm 
them for the safety of the fort, and thus 
effectually relieve the Indians in the sink hole. 
This was the result, for Captain Musick and 
men retired to the fort, carrying the dead and 

wounded, and made every preparation to re- 
pel a night attack. 

"The men at the fort were mostly up all 
night, ready for resistance if necessary. There 
was no physician at the fort and much effort 
was made to set some broken bones. There 
was a well in the fort, and provisions and 
ammunition to sustain a pretty formidable 
attack. The women were greatly alarmed, 
pressing their infants to their breasts, fearing 
they might not be permitted to behold another 
morning's light, but the night passed away 
without seeing or hearing an Indian. The 
next morning a party went to the sink hole 
and found the Indians gone. The.y had car- 
ried off all their dead and wounded except 
five dead bodies left on the northwest side. 
From all signs it appeared some thirty of 
them were killed or woimded. Lieutenant 
Gray reported eight of our party killed, one 
missing and five wounded. The dead were 
buried near the fort, and a man sent to St. 
Charles for medical assistance. Lieutenant 
Gray assumed command." 

Those who were killed in this battle were : 
Captain Craig, Lieutenant Spear, Alexander 
Giboney, James Putney, Antoine Pelkey, 
Hubbard Tayon and Francois Lemmey. John 
Patterson, Benjamin Hale and Abraham Letts 
were woimded. The company was soon mus- 
tered out and the men returned to their homes. 

In 1816 a regiment was formed in Cape 
Girardeau, Ste. Genevieve, St. Charles and 
St. Louis. John Shaw was the colonel and 
Levi Roberts was the major. They took no 
part in the hostilities as the war ended be- 
fore they reached their destination in Illinois. 


PERIOD FR0:M 1804 TO 1821 

Population — Character of Immigrants — Settlements in Various Parts of the Section 
— Early Settlers — Industries — Farming — Mining — Merchandising — Prevailing 
High Prices — Manufacturing — Hunting — Transportation — Steamboats — Social 
Life — Lawlessness — Gambling — Dueling — Some Famous Dltels — Hospitality — 


We have followed the changes in the gov- 
ernment of ilissonri under the United States, 
from the purchase in 1803 to the time when 
the territorial assembly petitioned Congress 
for the organization of a state government. 
We have seen that Louisiana was first made 
a district and attached to the territory of 
Indiana; that later it was organized as a 
territory of the first class, and known as the 
Territory of Louisiana ; that in 1812 it was 
organized as a territory of the second class 
under the title of the Territory of ilissouri ; 
that in 1816 it became a territory of the third 
or highest class. We have further seen the 
organization of a government, the various gov- 
ernors who held executive authority in the ter- 
ritory ; we have seen the formation of the gen- 
eral assembly and the gradual growth of self 
government among the people of the territory. 
We have now to recount the growth in popula- 
tion of the territory after its transfer to the 
United States. 

At that time the total population of Upper 
Louisiana, including the settlements in 
Arkansas, was not more than 10,000 ; at the 
time we have now reached, 1818, it is prob- 

able that there were, in IMissouri alone, nearly 
40.000 people. This was a remarkable growth. 
It is not strange, however, that the population 
increased very rapidly. There was a great 
movement of population from east to west 
and Missouri was situated on the line of the 
principal part of this early movement. We 
may not forget the great part played in west- 
ern immigration by the Ohio river. It offered 
a safe and easy road from east to west, and 
those who used this highway almost invariably 
came to Missouri. Not all of them remained 
within the borders of the state, but many of 
them did so, for not only was Missouri in the 
main highway of east-to-west travel, but it 
offered unusual attractions to settlers. Its 
soil, its climate, its timber, its minerals all 
combined to draw inhabitants. The fact that 
it had become a part of the United States, 
that restrictions on religion and on trade had 
been removed, were powerful inducements to 

These Americans who came to Missouri in 
this period were, for the most part, farmers. 
They came to cultivate the soil. Accordingly, 
we find them scattered over the state and 




opening up lands. The first settler in any 
community set himself down in the midst of 
the woods, cleared away a little space for his 
farm, and erected a rude log house. He was 
most probably miles and miles away from the 
nearest neighbor. This isolation, however, 
did not affect him very much. The very fact 
that he had made his way into a new country 
and faced the conditions of pioneer life was 
suifieient evidence that he was not to be 
daunted by the fact that neighbors were few. 
He was not long allowed, however, to dwell 
alone. Other people came, more of the forest 
was cleared away, and other log houses were 
erected. In a little while there was a settle- 
ment. The settlers, however, were not crowded 
into to\^'ns. they were scattered on their farms. 
There was something, however, of a com- 
miuiity life. There were some attempts made 
to hold schools in the settlements, in some of 
them church houses were erected. Many of the 
settlements were made by persons previously 
acquainted ; in some cases families came and 
opened up new lands. Where this was not 
true, it was not long until acquaintance was 
formed. The families thus living in the same 
communities intermarried and there came 
to be something of a solidarity and unity 
about the life of the community. The trans- 
formation was little less than marvelous; 
where all had been forest, and wild life had 
reigned supreme, there came to be cultivated 
fields and houses and even villages. This 
process went on all over Southeast Missouri. 

These immigrants were almost all of them 
Americans. They came from Ohio, Kentucky, 
Tennessee. Virginia, and other states. They 
were moved by various motives. Some of 
them were attracted by the cheapness of the 
lands, others felt that the states in which 
they lived were becoming overcrowded, many 
of them had that spirit that moves people out 

on the frontier. They did not like to live in 
communities where neighbors were near to 
them. "Whatever it was that brought them, 
they came, and in large and increasing num- 

At the time of the transfer to the United 
States there were only a few settlements out- 
side of the towns of Ste. Genevieve, Cape 
Girardeau and New Madrid. There were a 
few settlers in Jefferson, Perry, "Wayne, Bol- 
linger, Scott, Mississippi and Pemiscot coun- 
ties, but the great numbers of population were 
in the towns or immediately adjoining them. 
The growth of population under the United 
States was not confined to the country ; the 
towns grew rapidly in population. Those that 
were already established had, of course, the 
advantage ; but other towns sprung up also. 

In 1803 New Madrid district, including 
Little Prairie and Arkansas, contained 1,350 
people, two-thirds of whom were Americans 
and one-third were French. Cape Girardeam 
had 1,470 white population, besides a few 
slaves. All of the white population, except 
a few French families, were Americans. In 
Ste. Genevieve there were 2,350 whites, 520 
slaves, and more than one-half the population 
was American. In 1814 a census was taken of 
the white male population and the figures 
here given are those of this census : New 
Madrid had 1,548, Cape Girardeau 2,062, Ste. 
Genevieve 1,701, and "Washington coimty had 
1,010. It is probable that the entire adult 
population in each case was about twice the 
figures here given. 

By the year 1820 one or more settlements 
had been made within the limits of most of 
the coiinties in southeast Missouri. Several 
of these counties, however, had not yet been 
created. There were in existence only Ste.! 
Genevieve, "Washington, "Wayne, Jefferson.J 



Cape Girardeau, New Madrid, and Madison. 
The territory now in the limits of the other 
counties in the southeast, at that time, formed 
a itart of one or the other of these counties. 
\Yhen the counties were created, during the 
organization of the government of the terri- 
tory of Louisiana, they extended an unknown 
distance to the west. The western boundary 
was not determined and so the comities that 
bordered on the river — Ste. Genevieve, Cape 
Girardeau and New Madrid — included vast 
stretches of territory to the west. It was out 
of this M'estern territory that most of the new 
counties were created. After the treaty with 
the Osage Indians, however, which established 
them at first in western Missouri, counties ex- 
tended to the western boundary of the Osage 

Tlie principal settlements at this time in the 
various counties were these : 

In Ste. Genevieve county there were settle- 
ments at Ste. Genevieve and New Bourbon, 
and there was also a settlement on the Saline 
creek, which was called for a long time New 

In St. Francois count}' the principal settle- 
ments were Alleys Mines, the ilurphy settle- 
ment, and the Cook settlement. 

In Jefferson coujit.y there were a number of 
settlements. Among these were settlements 
on the Joachim, on Big river, and Hercula- 
neum on the Missississippi river. This settle- 
ment at Herculaneura was noted on account 
of its manufacture of shot. Very early in the 
period of ilissouri's territorial history the 
manufacture of shot was begim at this place. 
The high bluffs just north of the to-mi were 
used for this purpose. The melted lead was 
dropped from the tops of the bluffs thus doing 
away with the necessity of a shot tower. The 
manufacture was so profitable that there were 

three different establishments for making shot. 

In 1818 Peck visited Hereulaneum, which 
he described as "a river town, a landing and 
a place of some importance." It was situated 
on the alluvial fiat of the Joachim. This fiat 
was very narrow, and was bounded on each 
end by perpendicular cliff's, rising two hun- 
dred feet high. It was these cliffs which were 
used in the manufacture of shot, in place of a 
shot tower. At that date there were four 
stores and about thirty dwelling houses in the 
town. On the Plattin, a short distance below 
the Joachim, there were water mills and dis- 
tilleries. Hereulaneum was, even then, the 
depot for the lead trade of the interior. 

In Perry county there were a number of 
settlements, the chief of these were in the Bois 
Brule bottom, on the Barrens near Perrj'ville, 
and on Apple creek near the line between 
Cape Girardeau and Perry counties. 

The most flourishing of these settlements 
were those found in the bottoms. The soil was 
very rich there and attracted many settlers. 
The Barrens, as the land about the present site 
of Perryville was then called, was the place 
where Bishop DuBourg had foimded the first 
Catholic seminary in Louisiana. This semi- 
nary began its operations just before the close 
of this territorial period. 

The settlements in Madison county were 
those on Saline creek, and in the south part 
of the county ; the first being St. Michaels. 
Owing to great damage caused by flood the 
settlers on the original site of St. Michaels re- 
moved the to\\'n about one and a half miles 
west and re-established it there. After the 
removal the town was renamed Frederick- 
town, being so called in honor of Colonel 
George Frederick Bollinger, one of the pio- 
neers in Bollinger coiuity. This to^vn of 
Fredericktown grew very rapidly during this 
period, owing to activity in the operations of 



Mine LaMotte, M'hich is situated not far from 

In Iron county there were settlements made 
in Bellevue valley, and in 1805 Ephraim Stoiat 
settled near the present site of Arcadia. A 
little later John Short took up his residence 
close to where the town of Pilot Knob now 

There were other settlements within the 
limits of the coimty, but these were the prin- 
cipal ones. 

In Cape Girardeau county the principal 
settlements were at Cape Girardeau and in 
the immediate vicinity ; near Jackson on 
Byrd's creek; at Gordonville; on Randol's 
creek, and on Indian creek. The town of 
Jackson was founded during this period and 
so named in honor of President Andrew Jack- 
son. In 1815 Jackson was made the county 
seat of Cape Girardeau coimty. 

The settlements in Bollinger county were 
principally along the "Whitewater river, on 
Crooked creek, and near the present towns of 
Lutesville and Glen Allen. The settlements 
along Whitewater river were those made by 
Colonel Bollinger and his friends. John 
Lorance began a settlement on Crooked creek 
in 1805; about that same date Daniel Hahn 
settled on the creek afterward called Hahn's 
creek, named for him, about one-half mile 
west of Lutesville. Casper Schell and Peter 
Baker lived in the same neighborhood. Henry 
Baker and John Deck were others who lived 
in this part of the county. The settlement at 
Glen Allen was made by families from North 
Carolina; some of these were George and 
Jacob Nifong, Jacob Hinkle and Jacob Clod- 

In Wayne county the first settlement seems 
to have been made about 1802, by settlers 
from Virginia. Among them were Joseph 
Parrish, Thomas Ring, David, Charles and 

Robert A. Logan. The latter had lived in 
Kentucky. Some of these settled in the 
neighborhood of the village of Patterson and 
others on the St. Francois river. Some of the 
other early settlers were Isaac E. Kelly, Till- 
man Smith, James Caldwell and Francois 
Clark. Besides these there were Elijah Mat- 
thews, a man named Alston from North Caro- 
lina ; they lived on Otter creek. They became 
involved in a difficulty and Alston was killed. 
Elijah Ranson and Overton Beltis were others 
who settled in the same neighborhood. This 
was near Greenville. 

The principal settlements in New jMadrid 
coiuity were those at New Madrid and Point 
Pleasant. Besides these two settlements there 
was a small settlement at Portageville, and, 
as we have previously said, a number of per- 
sons lived along St. John's bayou and in other 
parts of the coimty. 

In Pemiscot county the principal settlement 
was at Little Prairie, though there were others 
scattered over the county. The settlement at 
Little Prairie was made in 1794 by Francois 
Le Sieur. 

Some of the early settlers were Jean Bap- 
tiste Barsaloux, George and Jolin Ruddell, 
Joseph PajTie. Louis Auvin, Charles Guibault 
pud Peter Noblesse. In 1799 there were 78 
people in the settlement and 103 in 1803. I*: 
was a prosperous village up to the time of the 
earthquake in 1812, when it was almost en- 
tirely destroyed. About 1810 Colonel John 
Hardeman Walker came to Little Prairie and 
was one of the few settlers who remained 
after the time of the earthquake. He was 
sheriff of the county and later one of the 
judges of the county court. He was the most 
prominent and influential citizen of the 
coimty for many years. The other settlements 
of which we have spoken as being in existence 
in the county were merely collections of two 



or three families. One of these was at Gayoso 
and another on Little river, and one not a 
great way from Big lake. 

In Scott county the first settlement seems 
to have been made near Sikeston by Edward 
Robertson and hi.s son-in-law, Moses Hurley. 
Robertson was a merchant and land speculator 
and became wealthy through his various oper- 
ations. He probably came to the eoimty about 
1790. In 1796 Captain Charles Friend from 
Virginia settled near Benton. He brought 
with him a large family of sons. In 1811 
John Ramsay came from Cape Girardeau and 
settled on what is now the county poor farm. 
Joseph Hunter, who in 1805 located in New 
Madrid, removed about a year later to Big 
Prairie and located near Sikeston. Hunter 
was a Scotchman and was a very influential 
man in the territory. He acquired consider- 
able wealth by trading and land speculation, 
and was appointed by President Madison as 
a member of the council of the territory. 

Thomas W. Waters from South Carolina 
was the first settler on the site of Commerce. 
About 1803 he established a trading post and 
.store there in partnership with Robert Hall ; 
the firm also operated a ferry across the Miss- 
issippi. Tiwappity bottom, between Com- 
merce and Bird's Point, was early settled. 
Some of the men who came were James Brady, 
James Curran, Charles Findlay, Edmund 
Hogan, Thomas. John and James Welbourn. 
The first settlement in Mississippi coimty 
was made in 1800 by one John Johnson, who 
secured a grant of land and located on it near 
Bird's Point. In 1801 a settlement on what 
is now called Matthews' Prairie was made. 
This prairie was first called St. Charles but 
was changed in name in honor of Edward 
Matthews, who made the first settlement there. 
Others who came here within a few years 
were Charles Gray, Joseph Smith. Jolm Wea- 

ver, George Becker and Absalom ]\IcElmurry. 
Abraham Bird bought the land which was first 
granted to Johnson, about 1805; Bird's Point 
was named for him. He remained there until 
1815, when he sold the homestead to his son, 
John, and moved to Louisiana. 

A settlement was made between Norfolk and 
Wolf Island in 1812 by Newman Beckwith of 
Virginia. In 1813 William Rush settled on 
Rush's Ridge. In 1802 James Lucas settled 
at the place afterwards called Lucas' Bend. 
The settlement at Norfolk was made in 1800 
by John, Andrew and James Ramsay from 
Cape Girardeau. The first settlers on Wolf 
Island were John Gray, Drakeford Gray and 
Thomas Phillips, while William D. Bush was 
a pioneer in Long Prairie. 

In 1819 the first settlement was made in 
Butler coiuity. This was on Cane creek. The 
settlement was located by Solomon Kittrel, 
who was a Kentuckian, and took up a large 
tract of land and also operated a store, a dis- 
tillery and a tan yard. Kittrel lived to be 
very old, dying in 1872. Other settlers on 
Cane creek were Thomas Scott and JIalachi 
Hudspeth. Some of the other pioneers in the 
county were Daniel Epps, Martin Sandlin, 
Samuel Hillis, the Whittingtons, Samuel 
Poke. James Bramum and the Applebj's and 

The first settlement in Washington county 
was made at Potosi. This was near Mine a 
Breton. The settlers were attracted on ae- 
coimt of the mines and the mine itself was 
opened in 1787. There were other settlements 
in the county but nearly all of them were 
grouped around the mines. When Washington 
county was separated from Ste. Genevieve in 
1816, Potosi was made the seat of government 
for the coimty. 

The first settlement in Reynolds coimty was 
made in 1812 by Henry Fry, who came from 



Kentucky and settled on the middle fork 
of Black river. Some of the other early set- 
tlers were the families of Henry, Logan and 
Hyatt. The territory embraced in the coimty 
was first a part of Ripley coimty, but was later 
attached to Washington. 

Zimri Carter made a settlement on Current 
river in 1820 ; this was not far from the pres- 
ent town of Van Buren. Other families, the 
Chiltons, Colemans and others, settled in the 
same vicinity at a somewhat later date. These 
were the beginnings of settlements in Carter 
cormty, which was named for Zimri Carter. 

The first settlement in Ripley counts- was 
made about 1819 on Current river. The set- 
tlers of that date were George Lee, William 
Merrill, Joseph Hall, Willis Dudley and Ab- 
ner Ponder. WiUiam Little and James Pul- 
liam settled about the same date on La 
Fourche de Main. 

According to this aceoimt we find that set- 
tlements had been made before the admission 
of the state, in all the counties in Southeast 
Missouri, except Stoddard and Dunklin. 
Stoddard coimty was settled in 1823, but no 
settlement was made in Dunklin coimty until 
about 1835. Owing to its location this latter 
county was very difficult of access. It was. 
therefore, not settled as soon as the other 
counties in the section. Of course it will be 
remembered that not all of these counties were 
in existence when the state was admitted. 
Most of them were organized after that time. 
The territory formed a part of some one or 
other of the existing coimties. 

The principal industry in this period, as in 
the one preceding it, was agriculture. A large 
part of the population was engaged in farm- 
ing. It is quite evident that the methods used 
were very primitive and the crops corre- 

spondingly small. The timber that grew upon 
the land selected was cut do\^-n, burned or 
otherwise disposed of in the easiest way pos- 
sible, and the land thus cleared was farmed 
in a rude, inefficient way. In spite of these 
handicaps, however, the crops obtained were 
better than we might expect, owing to the fact 
the the land was exceedingly rich. Corn, 
wheat, oats, formed perhaps the principal 
grain crops that were groA\-n. Nearly all farm- 
ers were also stock raisers on a limited scale. 
They were induced to grow cattle and horses 
partly on account of the necessity of their use 
and partlj' because it was possible to raise 
stock at comparatively little expense. It was 
easy to raise both cattle and hogs and prepare 
them in a way for market, with but verj- little 
food other than they obtained in the woods. 
The vast forests offered the very best range 
for stock, and it was not unusual for cattle 
to stay out through the entire year. Some of 
them became almost wild. Such a circum- 
stance, of course, made it easy for persons so 
disposed to kill stock which did not belong to 
them. So great was this abuse that the terri- 
torial assembly passed a law providing that 
any person who should kill any domestic ani- 
mal in the woods should report the matter to 
the justice of the peace within three days, and 
should bring to the justice the head of the 
animal slain. This was done in order to 
identify the animal by any marks which might 
be upon the head. 

The produce of the soil was very largely 
used by those who grew it. Some part of it 
was available for export and the towns in the 
territory derived their food supplies from the 
surrounding coimtry, but the greater part of 
all that was grown was used on the farms 
where it was produced. A number of small 
mills were erected and operated at convenient 



places, and to these the farmers carried their 
grain and received from the mill the flour or 
meal ground from their own grain. 

If farming was the most important of the 
industries in Southeast Missouri during this 
period of its history, mining was second in 
importance. Large numbers of families de- 
pended in whole or in part upon mining for 
support. Austin, who was given a great tract 

famous. They were worked by the French 
and were one of the prime motives for French 
exploration and settlement. 

The region to which the early French seek- 
ers after mineral Avealth gave most attention 
lies between the head waters of the St. Fran- 
cois and the Missississippi and between the 
Maramec on the north and Apple creek. So 
full of mineral wealth was this district that it 
was early ralli>(1 tlie mineral district of Louis- 

Happt Missouri Corn Grower 

of land by the Spanish for the erection of the 
first reverbatory furnace, says that it was the 
custom for the poor to resort to the mines 
after harvest, and to spend several months 
engaged in labor in these mines. The rich 
families sent their slaves about the same time, 
so that the greater part of the mining was 
done from August to December. This offered 
to those who farmed an opportimity, which 
they were not slow to use, to spend the months 
not needed upon the farms in labor at the 

The mines of the southeast had long been 

iana. Within its 3,000 square miles are found 
many minerals. Lead, iron and zinc are those 
of most importance, but besides these are cop- 
per, manganese, salt, antimony, cobalt, plum- 
bago and some others. All the early French 
explorers mention the richness of the lead 
mines. These deposits of lead were known 
and worked even by the Indians. The French 
began to take out lead in this district proba- 
bly before the year 1700. 

It is impossible to fix, with certainty, either 
the date when lead was first mined or the men 
M'ho opened this first mine. Schoolcraft, 



copied by Rozier, is of the opinion that Mine 
LaJIotte was the earliest mine and was dis- 
covered by one LaMotte, a gentleman in the 
company of Renault. This was probably in 
the year 1720 or 21. Houek, however, believes 
that this mine was probably opened much 
earlier than this and that it was named for 
Cadillac De La Mothe, governor of Louisiana, 
who seems to have visited the mine in 1714. 
We may be sure of this, that early ia the 
eighteenth century — perhaps before its begin- 
ning — the French overran this country in 
search for gold and silver. They failed to find 
the precious metals in any large quantities, 
but did find great quantities of lead in all the 
region about the Maramec and the St. Fran- 
cois. The first mining in the district was 
probably done on the Maramec under the 
direction of Governor Lochan; and Mine La 
Motte near the present site of Fredericktown, 
if not the first was one of the first and most 
important of these mines. 

In 1719, Philip Francois Renault left 
France with a well organized expedition for 
the mineral district of Louisiana. He brought 
with him supplies and material and 200 skilled 
miners. The expedition stopped on the way 
at San Domingo, where 500 slaves were pur- 
chased for work in the mines. These slaves 
were the first brought to Missouri. Renault 
came with his expedition to Kaskaskia and in 
1720 built a village called St. PhiUip, near 
Fort Chartres in Illinois. He proceeded with 
his search for mines, and discovered and 
opened a lead mine near Potosi in Washington 
county. This mine was called, after him, 
Mine a Renault. 

Renault had been commissioned by the 
Royal Company of the Indies, which at this 
time held control of Louisiana. In 1723 the 
authorities at Kaskaskia granted him a terri- 
tory six leagues by one and one-half leagues 

on the ]\Iaramec river, and two leagues at 
Mine LaJ\Iotte. From this time until his re- 
turn to France in 1742 Renault was actively 
engaged in working these mines. The lead 
from them was carried first to Fort Chartres 
and later to Ste. Genevieve and then shipped 
by boat to New Orleans and to France. Large 
quantities of ore were taken out of all these 
mines during this period. They were very 
profitable. A road was constructed from the 
river to the mines and it was in connection 
with the carrying of this lead and trade with 
miners that the town of Ste. Genevieve was 
founded. It was located at the river end of 
this road. This was the first road opened, not 
only in Southeast Missouri, but in the entire 
state, and is still in use. 

When Renault returned to France in 1742 
he seems to have abandoned his interest in the 
mines to others, and if his family or heirs ever 
received any part of his interests in the two 
great tracts of valuable mining property 
which were granted him, the fact is not of 
record. A great many lawj^ers have investi- 
gated the question of the ownership of the 
Renault claims, but the claims have never 
been successfully prosecuted by any member 
of Renault's family. 

In 1773 Francois Azar or Breton, while 
engaged in hunting, found lead ore lying on 
the ground near Potosi. He opened a mine 
at this place, which was called after him Mine 
a Breton. It became a celebrated mining field 
and attracted miners from all parts of the 
state. Breton, who was a native of France, 
had been a soldier in his youth and had served 
under Marshal Saxe. He was present, also, 
with the Indians who defeated Braddock in 
Virginia. He came to Louisiana as a miner 
and himter and discovered this mine quite by 
accident. He lived to be 111 years old and 
for many years before his death resided two 



miles above Ste. Genevieve. He died in 1821. 
At the time of his discovery he received a 
grant of four arpens. This was a very small 
recompense for the service he had rendered 
in the discovery of the mine. 

In 1779 Moses Austin, an American miner, 
agreed to erect a smelter near this mine of 
Breton, and on consideration of doing so he 
was granted a tract to contain 7,000 arpens, 
including one-third of the original mine. In 
performance of his agreement he erected here 
the first reverberatory furnace west of the 
river. This furnace, on account of its superior 
qualities, soon superseded all others. In 1797, 
when it was erected, there were twenty 
French furnaces in the district. In 1802 the 
Austin furnace was the only one in operation. 
In 1804 Austin made to the United States 
government the first report of the lead min- 
ing industry in Missouri. 

It seems certain, then, that Mine LaMotte, 
Mine a Renault and Mine a Breton were the 
great centers of the lead industry in early 
days, but there were other mines also in oper- 
ation ; many small ones were opened ; settle- 
ments sprung up around them. Some of these 
mines are still in successful operation. Some 
of the settlements have become flourishing 
towns, others have entirely disappeared. The 
whole lead region of southeast Missouri has 
many traces of the activity of the early 
French miners. 

Some of the famous lead mines which were 
operated during this period in addition to 
those already described are here mentioned : 

filine a Platte or Doggett mine was discov- 
ered in 1799, and was granted to DeLassus 
at one time. It was on Plattin creek in what 
is now St. Francois county. Mine a Gerboree, 
situated on the St. Francois river near De 
Lassus, is said to have been operated by 

Renault in 1745. The Hazel Run lead dis- 
trict was discovered about 1810; this district 
is in the northern part of St. Francois county. 
The mines now owned and operated by the 
St. Joe Lead company of Bonne Terre were 
also worked during this period. They seem 
to have been granted in 1800, together with 
800 arpens of land, to John B. Pratte. This 
land was surveyed in the same year by Antoine 
Soulard, the surveyor general of Upper 

These lead mines, together with some others, 
were all in operation in the period which we 
are now considering. Their output was con- 
siderable, when we remember the conditions 
under which they were worked. It was all 
surface mining and the greater part of the 
labor was performed by hand. While the 
output was small, measured by the standards 
of the present, it still meant a great deal to 
the people of Missouri. "While the greatest 
mining activity was, of course, in the lead 
regions, there began to be iron smeltered be- 
fore the year 1820. Some time prior to this 
date Paul De Guire and his partner, Asha- 
branner, built a furnace on the Frederick- 
town road near the Shut-In, in Iron county. 
Ou the creek near this smelter the.v set up 
a forge, and being thus equipped they pro- 
ceeded to work the iron ore. This ore was 
taken from mines in the vicinity, there being 
considerable deposit of iron in this county, 
and it was treated at this smelter. Their 
method of reducing the ore was first to roast 
it ; it was then beaten by hammers into a 
powder, which was then heated in the forge. 
This forge, situated as it was on the bank of 
the creek, had a blower attached, which was 
worked by water power. When the powdered 
ore had been fused in the forge, the mass was 
then placed under a heavy hammer, also 



operated by water power, and worked. This 
treatment secured iron of a fair grade in 
small quantities. 

The great handicap to mining, both lead 
and iron, was the absence of sufficient capital 
to provide proper equipment. It is quite cer- 
tain that even vast sums of capital could not 
have provided equipment such as in use today 
in mines, but it could have made a very great 
improvement in the methods of those days. 
It was, however, impossible to seciu-e capital 
sufficient for the purpose. It was a new coun- 
try and like all new countries, suffered from 
a scarcity of money. It was only by the slow 
process of growth and development that capi- 
tal coiild be produced in sufficient quantities 
to operate the mines in any adeciuate or effi- 
cient way. "We are inclined to smile at the 
modest efforts and poor facilities of the early 
miners, but we should not forget that their 
limited product was contributing to the for- 
mation of that store of wealth which makes 
possible the improved methods and splendid 
machinery of today. 

The early French mining was even more 
wasteful and less carefully organized than 
that of which we have spoken. There were a 
great many shallow diggings in many parts 
of the mineral district in which ore was taken 
out, but the only furnace used in the early 
times was an "Ash" furnace, that could not 
have saved more than sixty per cent of the 
lead, the rest being lost in the slack. 

When Louisiana was ceded to the United 
States, in 1803, the government reserved to it- 
self all mines and salt springs in the entire 
territory. This was in accordance with the 
usual policy in such cases. It was the pur- 
pose to lease these mines and springs and to 
collect a rental charge upon them. It was dis- 
covered, however, that the cost of clearing the 

land was greater than the revenue obtained, 
cmd the fact that the rental was not carefully 
collected explains the non-existence of accu- 
rate statistics concerning the reduction. It is 
said that in the year 1811 five million poimds 
of ore were delivered at Shiboleth, but in 1819 
it was reported that only one million poimds 
were yielded. Mine a Breton at one time 
yielded three million pounds a year, but in 
1819 the yield was not more than five hun- 
dred thousand pounds, and there were not 
more than thirty miners at work throughout 
the year. 

It was in 1819 that the government of the 
United States sent Schoolcraft to the mineral 
region to study and make a report on the 
condition of these mines. He found M. Bre- 
ton, the discoverer of the mine which bears his 
name, still living near Ste. Genevieve. He 
was at that time one himdred and nine years 
old. This report which Schoolcraft prepared 
and submitted to the government is the most 
accurate and authentic source of information 
concerning the mining industry which there 
is in existence. 

Its author, Henry R. Schoolcraft, who was 
born in Albany, New York, in 1793, and re- 
ceived rudimentary education, moved in 1817 
to Pittsburg. From his earliest j^ears he was 
very much interested in mining and geology. 
At his own expense he traveled over portions 
of the coiuitry west of the ilississippi and the 
South, then came to St. Louis. He was ap- 
pointed an agent of the government and made 
his headquarters for a time at Potosi. Here 
he studied the conditions of the mines in all 
the districts, especially in Washington eoimty, 
and drew up a formal and elaborate report 
concerning the entire mining region. 

]Most of the shafts were from ten to thirty 
feet deep and were sunk in stiff, red clay into 
the lead here found imbedded. This ore was 



also mixed with fragments — quartz, flint and 
other minerals. The shaft which had been 
sunk bj' Jloses Austin was eighty feet deep 
and one other, that of John Rice Jones, witii 
that of Austin, were the only ones in the 
neighborhood of Potosi extending into the 
rock itself. In both cases it was found that 
there were large quantities of ore in the cavi- 
ties of the rock, and from appearances School- 
craft concluded that the lower strata perhaps 
also contained lead. 

The average yield of all the mines in that 
district aboiit Potosi, from 1803 to 1819, was 
about three million pounds a year. It was 
estimated that its value was equal to one- 
fourth of the cost of all of the Louisiana ter- 
ritory. His list of mines, together with the 
number of persons employed and the pounds 
of ore raised during the year 1819, is as fol- 
lows: "Mine a Breton, 1,500,000 poimds, 160 
miners; Shiboleth, 2,700,000 pounds, 240 
miners; LaMotte, 2,400,000 pounds, 210 
miners; Richwoods, 1,300,000 poimds, 140 
miners; Bryan and Daggat's, 910,000 pounds, 
80 miners; Rock diggings. Citadel, Lamberts, 
Austin's and Jones' mines, 1,160,000 pounds, 
180 miners; all others, 550,000 pounds, 90 
miners. ' ' 

At that time there was only one regular 
hearth furnace and that not of the best char- 
acter. There were but four or five regular 
shafts in the more than forty diggings then 
worked and thei'e was not an engine of any 
kind in use for pumping from the mines. 

It was suggested by Schoolcraft that in all 
probability, judging from the European ex- 
perience, that beneath the lead ores, copper 
ores would be foimd. This prediction has 
been, in part, verified. He advised the govern- 
ment to sell the mineral lands, or at least to 
extend the leases upon them for a number of 

At the time that Schoolcraft observed these 
mines the principal minerals taken out, be- 
sides lead, were zinc, tiff, spar, pyrites, quartz, 
cobalt, sulphur, and clay. Schoolcraft gives a 
very interesting account of how the ore was 
mined and smelted in this early day. The 
only tools and implements used at that time 
were the pick ax, shovel, drill, rammer and 
priming rod; after having determined on the 
site for the mine the miners were accustomed 
to lay off a scjuare of eight feet and then throw 
out the dirt by the use of a hand shovel to a 
depth of from 8 to 15 feet; after that depth 
the windlass and bucket became necessary for 
further digging. "When ore was struck it was 
broken up bj' the use of pick and sometimes 
by blasting, black powder being iised for the 
purpose ; this ore as taken to the top by means 
of the windlass and bucket. It was then 
cleaned and broken up into small particles and 
heated in a wood fire for from 24 to 36 hours ; 
about 50 per cent of the lead was extracted 
bj' this first method of smelting. 

A considerable part of the lead was lost in 
the ashes of the fire. It was the custom after 
considerable quantities of ashes had accumu- 
lated to wash them very carefully after they 
had been run through a sieve and then the 
ashes were mixed with sand, flinted gravel 
and lime, and the whole mass put into a fur- 
nace; first a layer of ashes and then of the 
sand, gravel and lime and fired for about 
eight hours. This resulted in the saving of 
about 15 per cent more of the lead. 

In 1819 lead sold at $4.00 per cwt. at the 
mines; it was worth $4.50 per cwt. at St. 
Louis or Herculaneum on the river. At the 
same time the market price of lead at New 
Orleans was $5.50 per cwt. and at Phila- 
delphia. $6.00. 

He estimated there were received at Her- 
culaneum during the year 1817 somewhat 



more than three million pounds of ore, which 
was probably about one-half of the entire 
product of the region during the year. At 
this time there were about 1.100 men engaged 
in mining, this being a considerably smaller 
number than had formerly worked in the 
mines. Schoolcraft's explanation of this de- 
crease in the number of miners is that more 
men than formerly were engaged in manu- 
facturing and in farming. 

Besides farming and mining, perhaps the 
industries most important were trading and 
transportation. The stores of this period, 
while still small, with limited stock, were a 
great improvement over those of the earlier 
day, which we have described. There were 
to be found at Ste. Genevieve, Frederick- 
town, Cape Girardeau, Jackson, and New 
Madrid stores having considerable quantities 
of varied merchandise. A number of men 
were engaged in the business of buying and 
selling, and they were necessary to the growth 
of the country. They still continued to buy 
their goods in the east. We have noted the 
experience of the Jackson merchant who sent 
a team and wagon from Jackson to Baltimore, 
requiring three months to make the trip. 
These merchants acted as distributers of goods 
for other commvmities. Their profits were not 
large in the aggregate, because their total 
volume of sales was small. They usually 
realized a sufficient profit on each particular 
sale as it was made. 

The conditions of trade in the territory are 
shown, in part, by the following advertise- 
ment, which appeared in the Missouri Gazette 
in 1811: "Cheap Goods. The subscriber 
has just opened a quantity of bleached coun- 
try linen, cotton cloth, cotton and wool cards, 
German steel, smoothing irons, ladies' silk 
bonnets, artificial flowers, linen check mus- 

lins, white thread, wool and cotton, a hand- 
some new gig with plated harness, cable and 
cordelle ropes, with a number of articles 
which suit the country, and which he will 
sell on very low terms. 

"He will take in pay, furs, hides, whiskey, 
country made sugar and bees wax. 

(Signed) John Arthur. 

"P. S. A negro girl, eighteen years of age 
is also for sale. She is a good house servant. ' ' 

In 1806, the following prices were obtained 
for articles in Cape Girardeau: Calico, j 
$1.00 a yard, linen 75 cents a yard, pins 31 >^ 
cents a paper, sugar 25 cents a pound, note 
paper 50 cents a quire, and other articles 
proportionately high. 

In 1818, when John M. Peck moved to St. 
Louis he foimd high prices still prevailing 
there. The houses, shops and stores were aU 
small, most of them only one story and con- 
sisting of two or three rooms. For a single 
room, occupied by the family, he paid $12.00 
a month. The school room, which was four- 
teen by sixteen feet, cost them $14.00 a 
month. It was at that time very difficult to 
procure food at all. Butter sold from 37 to 
50 cents a poimd, sugar from 30 to 40 cents, 
coffee from 62 to 75 cents, flour, of an in- 
ferior grade, cost about $12.00 a barrel, corn 
in the ear was from $1.00 to $1.25 a bushel, 
pork raised on the range was regarded as 
cheap at $6.00 or $8.00 a hundred pounds. 
There was a ready market for chickens at 37 
cents each, and eggs from 37 to 50 cents a 
dozen. These high prices were, in part, due 
to the system of currency. The currency in 
use was what was afterward denominated 
"shin plaster." These bills were issued by 
banks which had been instituted without any 
adequate capital. The fact that the bills were 
not secure made people reluctant to take them 



and helped to produce the prevailing high 

Nuttall in speaking of the country about 
Point Pleasant says the land "is of a supe- 
rior quality but flat and no high grades have 
made their appearance since we passed the 
Iron banks; no rock is anj'where to be seen. 
The Banks are deep and friable, islands and 
sand bars, at this stage of the river, con- 
nected with the land are almost innumerable. 
In the midst of so much plenty provided by 
nature the Canadian squatters are here, as 
elsewhere, in miserable circumstances ; they 
raise no wheat and scarcely enough maize for 
their support ; superfine flour sold here at 
$11.00 per barrel. The dresses of the men 
consist of blanket capeaus, buckskin pan- 
taloons and moccasins, "t 

Besides these occupations, some men still 
made their living by hunting and trapping. 
As more and more the forests disappeared 
and lands were cleared and settled, hunting 
became less and less profitable. There were 
always some men left to engage hunting as a 
business. They did not contribute greatly to 
the wealth of the state, but they, undoubtedly, 
added something to it. 

The day of the Indian was practically closed 
by the time of the admission of the state into 
the Union. During part of the period, how- 
ever, there was stiU money to be made by 
trading and trapping with the Indians. Furs 
were still brought and offered to the trader 
at very low prices, and so there were few men 
who were engaged very largely in this busi- 
ness of trading with the Indians. 

A number of men were engaged in the very 
important and necessary business of transpor- 
tation. It required great labor and expense to 
move the products of the country to market. 

* Life of Peck, p. 84. 
t Nuttall Journal, p. 78. 

This was especially true of the lead and iron 
produced at the mines. It was true also of 
the goods sold by the merchant. These 
usually had to be transported for long dis- 
tances before reaching him. The river con- 
tinued to be the favorite route over which 
goods were carried when it was possible to 
use the river at all. This period of history 
saw the beginning of steamboat navigation. 
Its principal dependence was upon the keel- 
boat, but the keel-boat was destined to dis- 
appear before a better method of transpor- 

In a former chapter we have examined the 
use of the river for transporting goods. Traf- 
fic on the river increased very rapidly after 
the cession to the United States. The Amer- 
ican settlers very soon added largely to the 
exports. These exports, consisting of the 
various products of the country were sent 
usually by river to New Orleans and some- 
times to Pittsburgh on the Ohio river. The 
river was covered with fleets of keel-boats and 
travel was brisk ; however, the long time re- 
quired for a trip from Ste. Genevieve to New 
Orleans and return was a very great handi- 
cap to trade. It is one of the remarkable 
things in history that at this time, when there 
arose a very great necessity for improved 
methods of transportation, there should liave 
come into use the steamboat, which changed 
so greatly the trafSc on the river. In 1807 
Fidton had put in operation the first steam- 
boat the world had ever seen, the Clermont. 

Immediately upon the beginning of steam 
navigation, a suggestion was made to Fulton 
and his associates that the Clermont should 
be put in the Mississippi river trade. It was 
already known in the East that this trade was 
very extensive, and it seems that Fulton con- 
sidered the question of bringing the Clermont 
to the Mississippi. It is not kno^Mi how he 



expected to do this, and if he ever really in- 
tended it. He soon gave up the idea because 
the Clermont was put into use on the Hudson 
river, where it found waiting for it the great- 
est river traffic in the world. But, if the 
Mississippi river was not to have the Cler- 
mont for its trade, it was not long to be de- 
prived of steamboats. In 1811 a company of 
men built in Pittsburgh a boat which they 
called the New Orleans. This boat made the 
trip from Pittsburgh to New Orleans and 
was for some time concerned in the traffic on 
the Mississippi river. 

In a very short time other boats were built 
and in 1816 the first steamboat passed up the 
Mississippi above the moiith of the Ohio. 
This was the General Pike and was com- 
manded by Captain Jacob Reed. This steam- 
boat was looked upon by all of the inhabitants 
as a very remarkable and wonderful thing 
indeed, but it was only a little while luitil 
there were a great number of steamboats in 
operation. They possessed such remarkable 
advantages over the keel-boat that they were 
adopted for traffic as fast as possible. The 
second boat to come up the river above the 
mouth of the Ohio was the Constitution ; it 
reached St. Louis in 1817. 

The change produced by these steamboats 
was remarkable. They lowered not only the 
time necessary for the journey, but they low- 
ered in a remarkable way the expense of 
transportation. The rates on the steamboats, 
even, were enormous, but they were lower 
than the rates on the keel-boats. In 1819 a 
contract was entered into between the owners 
of two steamboats and the United States gov- 
ernment to carry freight from St. Louis to 
Council Bluifs and the rate charged was .$8.00 
a hundred pounds. This is enormous com- 
pared to our present rates, but seemed reason- 
able in those daj's when compared to the rates 

necessarily charged by other means of trans- 

Flint, who was a minister and traveled up 
and down the river very many times, has 
recorded the feeling of pleasure with which 
he took his first voyage on a steamboat. In 
speaking of his experience, he says: "It is 
now refreshing and imparts a feeling of 
energj' and power to the beholder, to see the 
large and beautiful steamboats scudding up 
the eddies, as though on the wing; and when 
they have run out the eddy, strike the cur- 
rent. The foam bursts in a sheet quite over 
the deck. She qiiivers for a moment with 
the concussion, and then, as though she had 
collected all her energj^ and vanquished her 
enemy, she resumes her stately march and 
mounts against the current five or six miles an 
hour." And in admiration at the won- 
derful advance from the slow upward move- 
ment of the keel-boat, at the rate of six miles 
a day, he saj's, "A stranger to this mode of 
traveling would tind it difiicult to describe 
his impressions upon first descending the 
Jlississippi in one of the better steamboats. 
He contemplates the prodigious establish- 
ment, with all its fitting of deck, common, and 
ladies' cabin apartments. Overhead, about 
him and below him all is life and movement." 
Then, speaking of the time when he first trav- 
eled on these western waters, and before the 
era of the steamboat, he says, "This stream, 
instead of being plowed by a hundred steam- 
boats, had seen but one. The astonishing fa- 
cilities for traveling, by which it is almost 
changed to fiying, had not been invented. 
The thousand travelers for mere amusement 
that we now see on the roads, canals and 
rivers, were then traveling only in books. The 
stillness of the forest had not been broken by 
the shouting of the turnpike makers. The 
Jlississippi forest had seldom resounded ex- 



cept with tlie ciy of wild beasts, the echo of 
tlmnder. or the crash of undermined trees, 
falling into the flood. Our admiration, our 
unsated curiosity at that time, would be a 
matter of surprise at the present to the thous- 
ands of hackneyed travelers on this stream, to 
whom this route and all its circumstances are 
as familiar as the path from the bed to the 
fire. ' '* 

It has been said that among all the settlers 
of Upper Louisiana there existed comparative 
quiet and freedom from disturbance, luider 
Spanish rule. The French were by nature 
and by the circumstances of their relation- 
ship and close connection in the towns, peace- 
able and law abiding people, and little effort 
w-as required to keep peace among them. The 
Americans were scattered over the country, 
and while they were bolder in some respects 
and a more difficult population to govern, the 
troubles that arose among them were usually 
settled b.y an appeal to physical strength, with 
the use of nature's weapons, so that there was 
little crime which needed the attention of the 
officers of the law. They stood, too, as we 
have said, in wholesome respect of the Span- 
ish authorities and had a dread of Spanish 
dungeons and mines. "When the territory 
passed imder the dominion of the United 
States, however, and when large numbers of 
immigrants from the states further to the east 
had filled up the country, there ensued a 
period of considerable lawlessness. It was, 
perhaps, the natural feeling of reaction after 
the repression of the Spanish government. 
Quarreling, fighting, and occasional crimes 
were present in all the settlements in the ter- 
ritory. The officers of the law had much to 
do in some of the settlements and the popula- 

*Houck, Vol. Ill, r- 199- 

tion was far from being as quiet and free 
from disturbance as it had been under the 
government of Spain. 

We have seen that one of the subjects which 
early occupied the attention of the territorial 
assembly was that of the suppression of vice 
and immorality on the Sabbath, owing to the 
lack of religious teaching, and to that free- 
dom of restraint of public opinion found in 
new communities. There was not a great deal 
of attention paid to the observance of the 
day of rest, so that the legislature endeavored 
to correct this evil. 

One of the prevalent vices of the popula- 
tion was gambling. There .seems to be some 
connection between the life of a new coimtry 
and the existence of the gambling spirit. 
Something of the exhilaration of the free life 
and of the spirit of taking chances which is 
cultivated by the daily circumstances under 
which the people live seem to incline large 
numbers of them to the gaming table. Gam- 
bling was exceedingly popular; it was, per- 
haps, the most prevalent form of amusement. 
The territory itself authorized a lottery, so 
that gambling was regulated and authorized 
bj' the law. 

But, perhaps, the thing that most impressed 
itself upon travelers from other countries with 
regard to the lawless condition of the terri- 
tory was the habit of dueling. Jlen were 
accustomed to settle dilferenees between them 
by an appeal to arms. Some one has pointed 
out that this method was not in use among all 
classes of people in the territory, the laboring 
class not being accustomed to resort to the 
duel, but professional men, especially law- 
yers and all those who regarded themselves 
as higher up in the scale of society were ac- 
customed to look with contempt upon the man 
who appealed to the law for the settlement of 



difficulties. Gentlemen were supposed to 
settle their owti troubles. The slightest 
ground for quarrel was sufficient to bring the 
parties face to face in a duel. These duels 
were not such as are said to exist in France 
today ; they were not arranged for show, and 
there was nothing of the spectacular in them ; 
the meeting was almost certain to result in 
the death of one or the other of the par- 
ticipants. The weapons most commonly used 
were pistols. The meeting between two per- 
sons was arranged by seconds and at the ap- 
pointed time they met and proceeded to shoot 
at one another. Ordinarily the exchange of 
one or more shots or the wounding or killing 
of one or the other of the antagonists was 
looked upon as satisfying the code of honor 
which governed the duel. Not infrequently 
after an exchange of shots the parties shook 
hands and the quarrel between them was at 
an end; very many duels, however, resulted 
fatally. It was a time when men M'ere ac- 
customed to firearms. Most of those who en- 
gaged in duels were expert shots with the 
pistol and there were very many chances of 
being at least wounded in one of these duels. 
Some of them are famous. There came to be 
recognized dueling places that were resorted 
to frequentl.y. One of these places, not, how- 
ever, in Southeast Missouri, but one to which 
persons from this part of the state sometimes 
resorted for the purpose of dueling was 
Bloody Island, in the Mississippi river near 
St. Louis. 

In 1811 a duel was fought in Ste. Genevieve 
between Dr. Walter Fenwiek and Thomas T. 
Crittenden. Crittenden was a lawyer and had. 
in the of a trial, denounced Ezekiel 
Fenwiek, who was a brother of Dr. Walter 
Fenwiek. Ezekiel Fenwiek thereupon chal- 
lenged Crittenden, who, however, refused a 
meeting on the ground that Ezekiel was not a 

gentleman. The challenge had been carried 
to Crittenden by Dr. Walter Fenwiek and 
this reply affronted Dr. Fenwiek, who, there- 
upon, issued a challenge on his own behalf. 
The duel was fought on Moreau Island just 
below Ste. Genevieve. Dr. Fenwiek was 
killed at the first fire. This duel was fought 
with pistols. 

In 1807 Joseph McFerron and William 
Ogle fought a duel on Cypress Island oppo- 
site Cape Girardeau. McFerron was an Irish- 
man, possessed good education and was clerk 
of the court in the Cape Girardeau district. 
He had been a teacher, but before accepting 
the position with the court he was a merchant 
in Cape Girardeau. For some reason there 
arose difficulty between these men and Ogle 
challenged McFerron to duel. It seems that 
McFerron had never even fired a pistol, but 
accepted the challenge. Ogle was killed, while 
McFerron was unhurt. The most famous 
duel, perhaps, fought in this period was not 
between citizens of Southeast Missouri, but 
took place between Thomas H. Benton and 
Charles Lucas. The first duel between them 
was fought in August, 1817. At this meeting 
Benton was wounded in the knee and Lucas 
in the neck. According to the usual custom of 
duels this exchange of shots would have ended 
the matter, but when Benton was asked if he 
were satisfied he declared that he was not 
and demanded a second meeting. Efforts 
were made to bring about a reconciliation be- 
tween the two men but all of them were futile. 
Benton seems to have been determined to fight 
another duel with Lucas. The second meet- 
ing was held on Bloody Island on the 27th 
day of September, 1817, and resulted in the 
death of Charles Lucas. 

In 1819 John Smith T. and Lionel Bro^\•ne, 
the latter a nephew of Aaron Burr and a 
lawyer of Potosi, fought a duel on an island 



opposite Herculaneum. Browne was instantly 
killed, while Smith escaped. There are but a 
few instances of the use of these barbarous 
methods of settling disputes. They came from 
false ideas of honor; there had grown up in 
the minds of men a notion that a man was in 
some way sullied if he did not resent an in- 
sult of any kind, even to the point of killing 
his antagonist. It required long years of con- 
stant agitation to displace this false notion 
that caused so many deaths. 

One of the virtues which di.stinguished the 
early settlers was hospitality. Any traveler 
was sure to be received with kindness in any 
part of the coimtry. The reason for this is 
to be foimd, in part, in the character of the 
people themselves and, in part, in the fact 
that there were no other provisions for trav- 
elers. It was not until after the transfer to 
the United States that public taverns, as the 
places of entertainment were called, were to 
be found except in a very few of the towns. 
The traveler, even up to the admission of the 
state to the Union, must depend either upon 
his own resources and sleep in the open and 
prepare his own food, or else be received into 
the homes of the people ; it was usually the 
latter that happened. It was regarded as a 
duty and also a pleasure to care for the 
traveler, a duty because they were unwilling 
to turn those away in need of shelter and 
food, and a pleasure largely because of the 
fact that the inhabitants depended for news 
upon the traveler. Newspapers were very 
scarce and, as we have seen, postage was so 
high and mail so irregular as practically to 
forbid any but the most necessary correspond- 
ence and for these reasons such news as was 
received was brought by persons traveling. It 
has been said that a traveler was rarely ever 
turned away from any door. His reception 

was not the most cordial in manner, the usual 
response to a request for accommodation be- 
ing the laconic reply: "Well, I guess we 
could keep you ; ' ' but though the welcome was 
not as cordial as might have been expected it 
was, nevertheless, a welcome and ample pro- 
vision was made for the unexpected guest. 
The best the house afforded was his. The mis- 
tress of the house, dressed in the garb which 
was made in the house itself, quiet and re- 
pressed in manner, without many of the 
graces of refined society, was yet kindly atten- 
tive to all the wants of the traveler. Any at- 
tempt at pay for these accommodations was 
repulsed and often looked upon as something 
in the nature of an insult. The head of the 
house disclaimed any idea of keeping tavern. 
Flint and Peck, both of them famous min- 
isters in the early days, recount their ex- 
periences as travelers and the almost uniform 
kindness and hospitality with which they were 
treated. Flint records as the most remark- 
able and unusual circumstance that at one 
place he was refused accommodation. 

The people, while not religious for the most 
part and in many settlements rude and bois- 
terous in their behavior, had a respect for re- 
ligion that prompted them to treat with con- 
sideration the ministers who came to hold 
services; this was true even of the roughest 
classes. The tavern-keepers, themselves, were 
frequently kindly disposed toward preachers. 
Both Flint and Peck were received in taverns 
and cared for. 

These taverns, or places of public enter- 
tainment, combined a house for the care of 
travelers with a place for the sale of liquor. 
A place where liquor was sold apart from the 
inn was called a grocerj'. Taverns were not 
numerous in the early days. They were 
licensed by the Spanish ofBeials and careful 
instructions were given as to the number of 



taverns permitted in any community. Effort 
seems to have been made to reduce the num- 
ber as low as possible. In a number of in- 
stances licenses for keeping tavern were re- 
fused on the ground that the commimity was 
already sufficiently supplied. After the or- 
ganization of the territorial government, ac- 
companying the growth of population, there 
was an increase in the number of taverns. 

By 1805 the United States government had 
established postoffices at Ste. Genevieve, Cape 
Girardeau and New Madrid. Provision was 
made for the carrying of mails between these 
points and for connecting these mail routes 
with those east of the river. The weekly mail 
which reached these and other points in the 
territory was, necessarily, irregular ; the roads 
were very poor, and many of those engaged 
in carrying the mails had very long journeys 
to make. It is rather curious to observe the 
constant complaint of the inhabitants of the 
territory concerning the mails, they were too 
irregular and at too infrequent intervals. 
Even settlers at the oldest of the towns, who 
had seemed to be content under Spanish gov- 
ernment without any mails at aU, were unable 
to be satisfied with one mail a week after the 
transfer to the United States. Doubtless the 
establishment of these postoffices and the reg- 
ular delivery of the mail into even remote 
communities was one of the powerful agencies 
by which the government fostered the growth 
of population in the new territory. Men who 
have enjoyed the advantages of the regular 
postal system are often miwilling to settle in 
a community where no postal facilities are 
provided. The government could have done 
nothing that would have offered greater in- 
ducement to many prospective settlers than 
to arrange to keep them in contact with civili- 

zation by providing for the delivery of mail. 
The rate for carrying letters and parcels 
v.-as, of course, very high compared to the 
present rates. The roads over which the mails 
were carried were very bad, and in many 
cases hardly existed at all. As a consequence, 
all mails were transported for a time on horse- 
back and this was for many years the prin- 
cipal method of carrying them. There was no 
fixed rate of postage for a letter at that time. 
The price was not fixed then as now by 
weight. The distance it must be carried de- 
termined the cost and not its weight. In no 
case was the amoimt charged by the govern- 
ment small. The ordinary rate on letters was 
from twenty-five to seventy-five cents. 

The first newspaper published in Southeast 
Missouri was the Missouri Herald. It was 
established at Jackson in 1818 by Tubal E. 
Strange. It was a weekly newspaper, but its 
publication was discontinued in 1819 ; it was 
revived in 1820 under the name of the Inde- 
pendent Patriot, published by Stephen Rem- 
ington & Company. In 1825 a paper under 
the title the Ste. Genevieve Correspondent 
and. Record was established at Ste. Genevieve. 

While these were the first papers actually 
published in Southeast Missouri, the first 
Missouri paper was established in St. Louis in 
1808 by Joseph Charless; this was the Mis- 
so^iri Gazette. It is still published under the 
title. The St. Louis Bejmhlic. This paper had 
some circulation in Southeast Missouri, even 
at this early date. The publication of news- 
papers in a new territory such as this was at- 
tended with very great difficulty; it was al- 
most impossible to secure sufficient subscrib- 
ers to pay the expense of publication. For 
this reason we find a constant change of 
proprietors taking place in almost all the early 



It is uot now possible to fix the exact date 
of the first school taught iu Southeast Mis- 
souri. There is some evidence that members 
of the Russell famih' conducted private 
schools in Cape Girardeau county about the 
year 1800; however, this date is not definitely 
determined. In 1806 Benjamin Johnson 
opened a private school on Sandy Creek in 
Jefferson coiuitj'. In 1808 a number of citi- 
zens of Ste. Genevieve established the Ste. 
Genevieve Academy, and employed as teacher 
Mann Butler, afterward a distinguished teach- 
er and writer of history. In 1815 Joseph Hei'- 
tich opened a school in Ste. Genevieve. Her- 
tieh was the first to introduce the new prin- 
ciples of education and methods of teaching 
which had been worked out by Pestalozzi. Ac- 
cording to Houck, Hertich was a very able 
man and his school in Ste. Genevieve exer- 
cised a remarkable influence for several years. 
A number of his students achieved consid- 
erable reputation, three of them having be- 
come, afterwards, members of the United 
States senate.* 

There was a school conducted in Hercu- 
laneum in 1815 and one at Potosi in 1817. 
A number of persons conducted private 
schools in Jackson in the years 1817 to 1820. 
Flint, the minister who has been referred to 
often, was one of these. In 1820 Thomas P. 
Green, a Baptist minister, opened a school in 
Jackson which he conducted for a number of 
years. It was in 1818, as we have seen, that 
St. Mary's Academy was established near 
Perryville. "We may be sure that all these 
early efforts at conducting schools were lim- 
ited in scope. Equipment was exceedingly 
meagre or altogether absent. The number of 
students was small, and the compensation of 
the teachers correspondingly small. Some of 
those who imdertook to teach were very poorly 
qualified for the work. The subjects of in- 

* Houck. Vol. HI, p. 68. 
Vol. I— 1 3 

struction in most cases were simply the merest 
rudiments of education. The terms of school 
were short, and perhaps the greatest handicap 
of all was the lack of continuous instruction. 
Perhaps a settlement had school for a few 
months in one year and then would have no 
school for two or three years. Under these 
conditions it was impossible for any sj'stematic 
education to be secured. There were excep- 
tions, of course, to this. Some of the men, 
notably Hertich and some of the ministers, 
were highly educated men and cjuite capable 
of conducting schools. 

This lack of proper means for education 
was one of the great drawbacks to the country. 
Part of these conditions which were so un- 
favorable were inseparably connected with life 
in a new country ; they could not be removed. 
One of the great difficulties, however, was in 
the failure of many people to appreciate the 
necessity for education. The life of the fron- 
tier has little in it to inspire children with 
desire for learning; it also fails to disclose 
the necessity for an education. A living was 
very easily made b.y manual labor, and there 
seemed to be little demand for educated men. 
Physical strength and skill and native shrewd- 
ness were sufficient to enable a man not alone 
to live, but to accumulate property. Some of 
the wealthy men in the time which we are 
considering were unable to read or write and 
others had the most meagre and limited educa- 
tion. It was possible for a boy, if taught in 
the ordinary things of life, to care for him- 
self and family and yet have no knowledge of 
books at all. Flint, who was from the East, 
and perhaps not altogether free from preju- 
dice in the matter, says that many of the 
people living in the more remote districts 
made no effort to teach their children; that 
boys at fourteen or fifteen had learned to use 
the axe and the rifle, to perform the simple 



operations of farming as it was then prac- 
ticed, and that thus equipped thej' were inde- 
pendent and scorned any notion that they 
needed to know more than these things. 

Peck says that "after having gained correct 
knowledge, by personal inspection in most of 
the settlements, or by the testimony of reliable 
persons * * * the conclusion was that at least 
one-third of the schools were really a public 
nuisance, and did the people more harm than 
good. Another third about balanced the ac- 
count by doing about as much harm as good, 
and, perhaps, one-third were advantageous to 
the community in various degrees. Not a few 
drunken, profane, worthless Irishmen were 
perambulating the country and getting up 
schools, and yet they could neither speak, 
read, pronounce, spell or write the English 
language. ' '* 

Peck further says that there existed a cus- 
tom of turning the schoolmaster out of the 
house at Christmas and Easter. He records 
one instance of a schoolmaster who provided 
a treat for the children, in order to be per- 
mitted to re-enter the house. The treat con- 
sisted of a drink known as "Cherry Bounce." 
Both teacher and pupils were partly intoxi- 
cated by their treat and the teacher was dis- 
missed. Peck gives this picture of the life 
of some of the people in the frontier settle- 
ments. He is careful to discriminate and 
point out that not all the people, by any 
means, were like those described. After la- 
menting their deplorable condition, religious- 
ly, and their ignorance of the Bible, and their 
indifference to the calls made upon them, and 
saying of them that few could read and fewer 
had Bibles or other books to read, he says that 
they were almost equally as poorly off con- 
cerning other matters. A small corn field, he 
says, and a truck patch was the height of their 
ambition. Venison, bear meat, and hog meat 

*Life of Peck, p. 123. 

dressed, cooked in a most slovenly and filthy 
manner, with corn bread baked in the form 
of a pone, and when cold as hard as a brick 
bat, constituted their provisions. Coffee and 
tea, he says, were prohibited articles amongst 
this class, for had they possessed the articles, 
not one woman in ten knew how to cook them. 
He adds, however, "doubtless in a few years, 
when the land came into market, this class of 
squatters cleared out." 

In June, 1808. the territorial assembly char- 
tered the Ste. Genevieve Academy with the 
following as trustees : James ^Maxwell, John 
Baptiste Valle, Jacques Guibord, St. James 
Beauvais, Francois Janis, John Baptiste 
Pratte, Joseph Pratte, Walter Fenwick, An- 
drew Henry, Timothy Phelps, Aaron Elliott, 
Nathaniel Pope, Joseph Spencer, Jr., William j 
James, Frank Oliver, Joshua Penniman, Wil- 
liam Shannon, George Bullett, Henry Dodge 
and Harry Diel. 

The trustees were authorized to receive and 
expend money for the use of the academy, and 
they were bound to have instruction given 
in both French and English. One clause of 
the act of incorporation forbade their making 
any distinction in the employment of teachers, 
or in filling vacancies in the board of trustees, 
regarding religious beliefs. The academy was 
a necessity for all people and no religious dis- 
tinction was to be made. The trustees were 
further commanded to admit poor children 
and children of Indians to the academy free 
of any charge for instruction. Power was 
conferred on them, also, to arrange, when- 
ever it seemed best to them, to open an insti- 
tution for the instruction of girls. 

On October 14th, 1820, the territorial as- 
sembly chartered the academy in Jackson 
with the "following trustees: David Armour, 
Joseph Frizzell, Thomas Neal, Van B. De 



Lashinutt and William Surrell. The same 
restriction was placed on them with regard 
to religious privileges and discrimination as 
in the case of the Ste. Genevieve academy. 

In spite of these things, there was a feeling 
among the leading men in the territory that 
provision must be made for a system of public 
education. Congress was early asked to set 
aside lands for the support of schools. 

We have seen that one of the early assem- 
blies chartered an academy at Potosi and also 
organized a public school board for St. Louis. 
Ste. Genevieve and Little Prairie, along with 
one or two other towns, received grants of 
the land which was held in common, the in- 
come from the property to be used for school 
purposes. Out of these feeble beginnings and 
most unpromising circumstances there grew 
up a great system of public schools. 

We may suppose that under the coi.ditions 
we have described there were few libraries 
in the southeast part of the state. In fact, 
there was not a public library of any kind in 
all this section until 1820. There were only a 
few private libraries deserving of the name. 
In many homes there were no books of any 

kind whatever, in others there were copies of 
the Bible and very few other books. A few- 
men who lived in the district, however, had 
good libraries; these were usually the minis- 

The dress of the people did not differ much 
from the dress as described in a formt^r chap- 
ter ; evei'ybody wore home-spun. Every house 
was a factory, the women spun the thread and 
wove the cloth and made the garments for 
the entire family. By the close of the terri- 
torial period there had grown up in the larger 
towns something of the society that gave at- 
tention to dress. Some people began to bring 
clothing from the eastern states and to devote 
time and money to these matters. The great 
majority of people, however, were dressed as 
we have seen. To them dress was not an 
adornment nor a luxurj', but a necessity. 
John Clark, the famous pioneer minister, who 
spent many years in traveling throughout 
Southeast Missouri, preaching, was always 
dressed in home-spun. He was a bachelor and 
his clothing was made for him by members 
of his congregations. 



Visits of Protestant Ministers — John Clark — Josiah Dodge — Thomas Johnson — An- 
drew Wilson — Religious Condition of the Settlers — Motives Which Brought Them 
TO Louisiana — The Work op the Baptists — David Greene — Bethel Church Near 
Jackson — Its Early Members — The First Meeting House — Relics of old Bethel 
Church — ^Memorlil Services in 1906 — Growth op the Church — Other Churches Or- 
ganized BY Members of Bethel — Early Ministers op the Church — Wilson Thompson 
— Thomas Stephens — Thomas P. Greene — The First JIissionary Collection — The For- 
mation of an Association op Churches in Missouri — John M. Peck — The Work of the 
Methodist Church — First Preachers — John Travis — Organization of ^IcKendree — 
Early Members — First Meeting House — Jesse Walker — The First Circuits — First 
Sermon in Cape Girardeau — Campmeeting at McKendree in 1810 — Harbison — New 
Circuits Formed — Organization op the Missouri Conference — Rucker Tanner — The 
First Conference Held in Missouri — The Work of the Presbyterians — Hempstead's 
Letter — A Church Organized in Washington County, 1816 — Organization of the 
Presbytery of Missouri — Early Ministers — Timothy Flint — The Columbian Bible 
Society — Flint's Writings — Disciples op Christ — William McAIurtry — First Organ- 
ization IN Missouri, 1822 — Difficulties Under Which Early Ministers Labored — 
Progress Made — Peck's Description — Debt Owed to Pioneer Ministers. 

We have seen something of the work of the cases of families moving to Upper Louisiana 
missionaries who came to the state in the early then, on finding what they were required to 
years, and have traced and outlined the subscribe to, declining to stay and returning 
growth of the Catholic church up to the time to the east side of the river. Of course, these 
of the transfer in 1804. Of course, up to this restrictions were swept away with the trans- 
time there was no religious history of the fer to the United States. The principle rec- 
state, except of the activity of the Catholic ognized by the American people of absolute 
church. While, as we have seen, there were toleration in religious matters was extended 
other persons living in the state, they were to Louisiana. It was not long before the 
required to conform to the Catholic religion, activity of the Protestant ministers brought 
to rear their children in the Catholic faith, them to the new territory, 
and they were forbidden to hold public serv- 
ices of any kind. These restrictions, while We have seen, in fact, that even before the 
they did not prevent Protestant immigration, transfer some ministers had, in violation of 
hindered it greatly. There are a number of the provisions of the Spanish law. come to 




Louisiana and held services. John Clark, a 
minister of the Methodist church, was one of 
these who as early as 1796 came to Louisiana 
and visited a number of the settlements. 
Clark is described as a man simple, unaffected, 
and wholly disinterested. He violated the 
Spanish law in holding these sei'vices, but the 
lieutenant governor, then at St. Louis, Zenon 
Trudeau, was very much in favor of the com- 
ing of American settlers and, in order not to 
discourage them, he was disposed to allow 
these visits. He seemed to have warned Clark 
on a number of occasions, but he never really 
molested him, though he threatened him with 
imprisonment. Clark at the time resided in 
Illinois ; he died in 1813 ; he became a Baptist 
at some time subsequent to his visits to Louis- 

Doubtless the earliest of these ministers 
was Josiah Dodge. Dodge lived in Kentucky 
and was a Baptist. He was a brother of Israel 
Dodge, who lived near Ste. Genevieve. Dur- 
ing his visits to his brother. Rev. Josiah Dodge 
was accustomed to preach to the American 
settlers in the vicinity. It is possible that 
these sermons were the first non-Catholic ser- 
mons delivered west of the Mississippi river. 
This was in 1794. In the same year, it is 
recorded that he crossed the river to Illinois 
and baptized four persons in Fountain creek. 
Perhaps these were residents of Upper Louis- 
iana who were thus baptized in the Illinois to 
avoid violating the law regarding baptisms in 
Upper Louisiana. In 1799 Rev. Thomas John- 
son, another Baptist minister, came to Cape 
Girardeau district ; he was a native of Georgia. 
In that year he baptized Mrs. Agnes Ballou 
in Randol creek. This was, doubtless, the 
first baptism, not performed by a Catholic 
priest, west of the river. 

One of the men who came with ^Morgan to 
New Madrid was Andrew Wilson. He was a 

Scotchman and had been a Presbyterian min- 
ister. He never preached in New Madi'id and 
it is probable that he had previously given 
up the ministry. 

The testimony of almost all observers as to 
some of the American settlers prior to the 
transfer to the United States is that their con- 
dition, religiously considered, was deplorable. 
We cannot believe it to have been otherwise. 
In the first place, the fact that though they 
were Protestants they were willing to con- 
form to the nominal requirements of the 
Spanish law with regard to the rearing of 
their children as Catholics, and the further 
fact that they were compelled to forego any 
public religious services, are sufficient to show 
that they were not distinctly or deeply re- 
ligious. Cut off, as they were, from all re- 
ligious teaching by their situation and the 
requirements of the laws under which they 
lived, they must have fallen into a deplorable 
condition. It was reported by some observers 
that in some cases they had even forgotten 
the days of the week and that they made no 
attempt whatever to observe the Sabbath in 
any way, and where it was observed, too often 
it was a day given up to amusements such as 
the country offered. Andrew Ramsay's place 
in Cape Girardeau was used as an assembly 
place for all the people of the neighborhood. 
They came together, not for worship, but for 
the purpose of whatever amusement could be 
found. The condition of the early settlers, as 
here set out, unfavorable as it was with regard 
to religion, must not be taken to represent the 
feelings and convictions of all the people of 
Upper Louisiana. While those who were Prot- 
estants in belief had to give up, as we have 
seen, the open practice of their religion, it 
should not be forgotten that the motives that 
impelled men to settle in the Louisiana terri- 




tory were very strong. American settlers who 
lived in the Northwest territory and who 
owned slaves found that in order to continue 
holding them they must give up their home- 
steads and seek another territory after the 
passage of the Northwest Oi'dinance of 1787. 
Many of these men crossed the Mississippi 
river to Upper Louisiana : others came because 
they were attracted by the ease with which 
land might be secured from the Spanish gov- 
ernment, and still others were moved by the 
love of adventure and of a free life in the open 
which characterized so many Americans in the 
early period of history. These motives were 
very strong and they induced many respect- 
able, honest and upright people to give up 
their homes and to take up their residence in 
what is now Missouri. 

These people no doiibt felt the deprivation 
of religious service and experience. That 
they still meditated on religion and wished for 
an opportunity to exercise it openly is made 
evident by the cordial reception which was 
given to the few Protestant ministers who, in 
spite of the proclamation of Spain, made their 
way into the territory. In the life of John 
Clark, which was no doubt written by John 
Mason Peck, it is clearly set out that the 
American families were very glad indeed to 
receive Clark into their homes and to listen 
to him as he read and preached, and were re- 
joiced at an opportunity to hear the Gospel 
in their new territory and according to their 
own beliefs again. 

It seems that the first Baptists in ]\Iissouri 
M-ere Thomas Bull, his wife and mother-in- 
law, Mrs. Lee. They moved to the Cape Gir- 
ardeau district from Kentucky in 1796. They 
were followed, in 1797, by Enos Randol and 
wife, and the wife of John Abernathy. For a 
number of years they lived without any re- 

ligious services, except such as they held at 
private houses. At one time they were in 
fear of being required to leave the province 
on account of their religious belief, but Lori- 
mier was favorable to them and they con- 
tinued to reside here. Elder Thomas John- 
son, of Georgia, was perhaps the tirst Baptist 
minister who preached in Upper Louisiana. 
He was a resident of Georgia. He came to 
the Cape Girardeau district on a visit in 
1799, and while there he preached. He per- 
formed the first non-Catholic baptism west of 
the river. He baptized Mrs. Ballou in Ran- 
dol's creek. In 1805, Elder David Greene, a 
native of Virginia, but at that time a resi- 
dent of Kentucky, came to the district. 
Greene preacliQd. first, about the settlements 
near Commerce. He organized a church in 
Tywappity bottom in 1805. This was the 
first Baptist church in Louisiana. It had only 
some six or seven membei-s and soon dis- 
banded. Elder Greene, after a visit of some 
months, returned to Kentucky. He was im- 
pressed, however, by the importance of the 
field in Upper Louisiana and came back to the 
Cape Girardeau district in 1806. He resided 
in the district with his family until the time 
of his death in 1809. 

On July 19, 1806, Elder Greene gathered 
together the Baptists near Jackson and or- 
ganized a church which was called Bethel. It 
is not definitely known just where the organi- 
zation took place, but it is believed to have 
been made in the house of Thomas Bull. This 
church so organized was the center from 
which sprang the large niunber of early Bap- 
tist churches in Llissouri. The members who 
took part in the organization of the church 
were David Greene, Thomas English, Leanna 
Greene. Jane English, Agnes Ballou, Thomas 
Bull, Edward Spear, Anderson Rogers, John 
Hitt, Clara Abernathy, Katherine Anderson, 



Robecca Randol. Frances Hitt and William 

The board which took part in the organiza- 
tion of the church was composed of Elder 
David Greene and Deacons George Laurence 
and Henry Cockerham. The officers of the 
church as organized were: David Greene, 
pastor; Thomas English, deacon. In August, 
after the organization, Thomas Bull was 
elected writing clerk, and in the following 
April, "William ^latthews was elected singing 

Thomas English, who was thus one of the 
charter members of the church, was a native 
of Georgia. He came to Missouri about 1804, 
and lived in the Ramsay settlement. He re- 
mained a member of the church and a deacon 
until his death, May 16, 1829. He left a 
large family of sons and daughters, and his 
descendants still live in Cape Girardeau 
county. His wife, Jane, was also a member. 
He died in 1842. 

"William Hitt, who became a member of 
Bethel church in 1812, and who afterward 
served as its clerk for a number of years, was 
one of the prominent members. He was the 
grandfather of the late Deacon Smith Hitt 
of the Cape Girardeau Baptist church. Ben- 
jamin Hitt, who also united with Bethel 
church in 1812, was the father of the late 
Judge Samuel Hitt, of Cape Girardeau. 

The Randol family was one of the early 
Baptist families in the district. Enos Randol 
united with Bethel church in 1808. His son. 
Enos, was a sergeant in Peter Craig's com- 
pany of mounted rangers that fought the 
battle of the Sink Hole. The Randol family 
still live in Cape Girardeau county. 

Edward Spear, who was one of the charter 
members of the church, was afterward a lieu- 
tenant in Craig's company, and was killed at 
the Sink Hole. 

Some of the other members of the church in 
the early time were "William Smith, John 
Sheppard and his wife, Nancy ; Isaac Shep- 
pard, who united with Bethel church in 1809. 
Isaac Sheppard was elected deacon and treas- 
urer, and was also one of the judges both of 
the common pleas court at Cape Girardeau and 
the county court. 

Ezekiel Hill, Rachel Hill, William Hill, the 
Thompson family, John Daugherty and Hiram 
C, Davis were also among the early members, 
having imited with the church prior to the 
year 1820. 

John Juden, Sr.. was a native of England, 
and came from Baltimore in 1805 to Missouri. 
In 1820 he and John Juden, Jr., joined Bethel 
church. This family and its descendants were 
very prominent in Cape Girardeau county for 
many years. 

On October 11, 1806, the congregation voted 
to erect a meeting house. In pursuance of 
this resolution, a small log house was built on 
the farm of Thomas Bull. It proved, however, 
to be too small and in 1812 was replaced by a 
he-nil log building. This second hoase was 
well and strongly constructed of poplar logs. 
It was thirty feet by twenty-four feet in size. 
This house was used by the church until about 
1861. The church then transferred its ses- 
sions to a house northwest of Jackson on 
Byrd 's creek. Sometime, about the same date, 
the old house was sold to a resident in the 
neighborhood who moved it away, about the 
distance of a mile, and rebuilt it into a barn. 
Some of the logs of the old house were saved 
at the time of the sale, and from them were 
constructed a number of walking canes and 
two gavels. One of these gavels was pre- 
sented to the Baptist General Association of 
the state at its meeting in St. Joseph in the 
year 1875 by the Rev. Dr. J. C. Maple. 
It was handsomely inscribed and is still in 



use by the moderator of the general associa- 
tion. The other of the two gavels made at 
the time remained in the possession of Dr. 
Maple imtil the year 1910, when it was pre- 
sented by him to the moderator of the Cape 
Girardeau Baptist Association at its meeting 
in Crosstown, Perry county, in September of 
that year. The old house as rebuilt still 
stands. The site on which it was erected has 
been purchased and is now owned by the Bap- 
tist General Association of Missouri. In 1906 
this association held its annual meeting in 
Cape Girardeau. This was the one hundredth 
anniversary of the founding of Bethel 
church. One reason for the selection of Cape 
Girardeau as the place of meeting was to hold 
appropriate exercises in commemoration of 
the founding at the site of the old church, 
and to imveil a monument which had been 
erected on the spot. 

One day during the meeting of the body 
was set a.side for a visit to the site. After a 
session held in the Baptist church in Jackson 
on the morning of October 24t.h, the Associa- 
tion adjourned to meet in the grove of trees 
on the spot where the old church stood. This 
is about two miles from the town of Jackson 
and was reached after some difficulties. The 
meeting was called to order by E. W. Steph- 
ens of Columbia, the moderator of the Gen- 
eral Association. After prayer and singing, 
E. W. Stephens delivered an address on the 
subject, "The Reason for Baptist Existence 
and Baptist Work One Ilundred Years Ago 
and Now." The" monument was then un- 
veiled by Mrs. E. W. Stephens and ]\Iiss Mae 
Brown of Jackson. 

The monument which was erected by the 
association is four feet high of granite and 
bears this inscription : ' ' Here stood Bethel 
Baptist church, the first permanent non- 
Catholic church west of the Mississippi river. 

Constituted July 19, 1806, with these mem- 
bers: David Green, Thomas English, Will- 
iam Matthews, Leanna Green, William Smith, 
Jane English, Agnes Ballou, Thomas Bull, 
Clara Abernathy, Catherine Anderson, An- 
dei-son Rogers, Edward Spear, Rebecca Ran- 
dol, John Hitt, and Frances Hitt. What 
Hath God Wrought?" 

The membership of the church had grown 
to eighty by the year 1812 and in 1813 it was 
one hundred eighty-six. In June, 1814, forty- 
five of its members were dismissed to organize 
a church in what is now St. Francois coimty, 
but even after this dismissal there remained 
one hundred seventy -three members. In 1809 
Bethel church became a member of the Red 
River Association, which held its meeting that 
year at Red River church, near Clarksville, 
Tennessee. It remained a member of this 
association until 1816, when it was decided to 
form a new association of the churches in 

One thing which distinguished the members 
of Bethel church from the very day of the or- 
ganization was their fervent missionary spirit. 
They were untiring in their efforts to have the 
gospel preached in every possible place within 
the bounds of Upper Louisiana. To this end 
they contributed money and encouraged their 
ministers to visit the different parts of the dis- 
trict. We find them organizing congregations 
wherever that was possible. These congrega- 
tions remained for a time as members of 
Bethel church, and were looked after, as much 
as possible, by the pastor of that church. As 
soon as these congregations became large 
enough they were organized into regular 
churches and their direct connection with 
Bethel church ceased. 

The first of these in point of time was or- 
ganized in the Bois Brule Bottom in what was 
then Ste. Genevieve county, but what is now 



Perrj' countj'. ilembers were received there 
in 1807. Amoug them was Thomas Donohoe, 
who afterward became a preacher. This con- 
gregation of members seems to have disap- 
peared after the year 1815. Donohoe and, 
perhaps some of the other members, then 
joined a church called Barren church in the 
same vicinity. This church was constituted in 
1816 at the house of Jesse Evans. It soon 
disappeared, also, and was succeeded by an- 
other church known as Hepzibah. 

The second organization constituted by 
Bethel was that at St. Michaels. This was in 
October, 1812. On the same day John Farrar 
was obtained as a minister. He was a mem- 
ber of this congregation. In 181'± this con- 
gregation was organized into a church kno^vn 
as Providence church, and Farrar became its 

In January, 1813, a committee was sent 
from Bethel to organize a congregation on 
Saline creek. This soon became a church and 
seems to have been united, later, with Barren 
church and still later with Hepzibah. 

In 1813 there were twenty-three members 
of Bethel church who lived about twenty-five 
miles south of Fredericktown. In 1814 they 
were organized into a church called St. Fran- 

A church was organized on Turkey creek 
in 1815. There had previouslj' been a num- 
ber of members of Bethel church living in 
that vicinity. 

In June, 1820, an organization was estab- 
lished on Apple creek, near Oak Ridge, and 
it was formed into a church in September of 
that year. The committee which had charge 
of the organization of the church was com- 
posed of Elders T. P. Greene, James Williams, 
and J. K. Gile, and Isaac Sheppard, Benjamin 
Thompson, Abraham Randol, Thomas Eug- 
lisli and Benjamin Hitt. 

In June, 1821, it was resolved to constitute 
a church in the Big Bend. The church so 
organized was called Ebenezer and was sit- 
uated near the site of Egj^pt Mills. 

On Ma.y 11, 1822, fourteen members of 
Bethel church were dismissed for the purpose 
of organizing Hebron church, five miles south- 
east of Jackson. These members so dis- 
missed, were, most of them, of the Randol, 
Poe and Hitt families. Seven members of 
Bethel were dismissed in April, 1824, and they 
constituted a church at Jackson. 

In the period from the organization of the 
church in 1806 to 1824, nine church were con- 
stituted through the efforts of Bethel church. 
Of these nine churches, only two seem to have 
survived to the present date. They are Prov- 
idence church at Fredericktown and the Jack- 
son church. 

The ministers of Bethel church from its 
foundation were David Greene, 1806 to 1809; 
Wilson Thompson, 1812 to 1814; Thomas 
Stephens, 1817; Thomas P. Greene, 1818 to 
1826; Benjamin Thompson, 1826 to 1853; 
John Canterbury, 1853 to 1861, and Joel 
Foster, 1866. 

David Greene, who organized the church, 
had spent some years as a minister in the 
Carolinas. He loved the life of the frontier, 
and moved from Carolina to Kentuclvj', where 
he preached among the frontier settlers of that 
date. In 1805. as we have said, he visited 
IMissouri and stopped for a time in the Ty- 
wappity Bottom. There were some Baptists 
living in the neighborhood, and he preached 
to them and organized a church. The mem- 
bers of this church were Henry Cockerham, 
John Baldwin, William Ross and a few others. 
After residing in this settlement for a few 
months. Elder Greene paid a visit to the vi- 
cinity of Jackson, but after preaching for a 



time he returned to Kentucky-. The condi- 
tion of the Baptists in Missouri, however, 
rested heavily on his mind, and, though he 
was old and had spent a long life in the min- 
istry, he resolved to visit the Cape Girardeau 
district again. This time he moved and lo- 
cated with his family near Bethel church. He 
was the pastor of the church until his death 
in 1809. 

The second pastor of Bethel church was 
Wilson Thompson. It was the work of Thomp- 
son that made the church a power in Missouri. 
Like so many other famous preachers, he was 
of Welsh descent. He was born in Woodford 
county, Kentucky, August 17, 1788. In 1810 
he was married to Miss llary Gregg, and in 
January, 1811, they moved to the Cape Girar- 
deau district, settling near Jackson. They 
were accompanied by his father and mother, 
and the entire family united with Bethel 
church. He had begun preaching at the 
age of twenty, before his removal from Ken- 
tucky, and his preaching was attended with 
marvelous results. Shortly after he united 
with Bethel church there occurred the great 
earthciuake at New Madrid, and the shocks 
were felt over a large part of Upper Louisi- 
ana. In the following February Thompson 
began a revival service in Bethel church. It 
was one of the most remarkable religious 
manifestations in Missouri. It covered a 
period of two years, and spread to almost all 
the congregations which had been organized 
by the church. There was evidence of the 
power of the revival at Bois Brule, Saline, 
Providence and St. Francois, and during its 
progress Thompson baptized about five hun- 
dred persons. LTp to this time he had not 
been an ordained minister, but on April 11, 
1825, a council composed of John Farrar and 
Stephen Stilly ordained him. The following 
Julj' he was chosen pastor of the church and 

served imtil September, 1814. At that time he 
resigned, and with his family moved to Ohio. 
He died in Indiana in 1865. He was, doubt- 
less, the most powerful of the preachers ever 
connected with the church. 

For some years the church seems to have 
been without a regular pastor, but in Febru- 
arj^, 1817, it called Thomas Stephens, who 
was a resident of Louisville, Kentucky. He 
served the church until December of that year. 
In the following year Thomas Parish Greene, 
a native of North Carolina, who had lived for 
some time in Tennessee, was chosen as the 
fourth of the church's pastors. This was in 
March, 1818. Elder Greene had moved to 
Missouri in 1817. He served as pastor of the 
church for eight years, and it was under his 
leadership that an interest was aroused in 
missions and Sunday schools. Elder Greene 
was an ardent advocate of the church's duty 
to assist in preaching the gospel to the entire 
world. While he was pastor of the church it 
was voted that the association should cor- 
respond with the board of foreign missions. 
Under his leadership the church welcomed the 
visit of John ilason Peek, who had come from 
the east under the direction of the board of 
missions to evangelize Missouri. During 
Peck's visit to Bethel church he organized a 
missionary society, and on November 8, 1818, 
after a missionary sermon, he took up a col- 
lection for missions, amounting to $.31.37. 
The entire work of the church prospered, so 
long as Greene was its pastor. He closed his 
pastorate of the church in 1826, when he was 
called to the care of Hebron church. In 1828 
he removed to Rock Springs, Illinois, where 
he was associated with Peck in publishing the 
Western Pioneer. He was also at the time 
agent of the American Sunday School Union, 
and assisted in establishing Sunday schools 
and libraries in New Madrid, Scott, Cape Gir- 



ardeau. Perry, iladison, St. Francois, Wayne 
and Stoddard counties. He later became a 
missionary for the American Baptist Home 
Mission Society. In 1834 he organized a Bap- 
tist church at Cape Girardeau. There were 
nine members at that time and Elder Greene 
became the first pastor. After two years he 
removed to St. Louis, where he was pastor of 
the Second Baptist church. Elder Greene 
had been educated as a printer, and had at 
one time conducted a little weekly paper him- 
self. This was a combination paper, being 
part a religious weekly and in part a news- 
paper. It was this training and experience 
which led to Greene's selection as an associate 
of John Jlason Peck in the attempt to publish 
a paper at Rock Spring, Illinois. He was to 
look after the actual details of printing and 

Thomas P. Greene was a man of great abil- 
ity. He is said to have resembled Senator 
Benton, and to have possessed something of 
Benton's oratorical capability. He had only 
limited opportunities for education, but con- 
tinued his studies all through his life and 
became quite a scholar. Hon. Samuel M 
Greene, of Cape Girardeau, is his son. 

Some of the other ministers who were con- 
nected with Bethel church, or with the asso- 
■ciation during this period, were John Farrar, 
William Street, James P. Edwards and W^in- 
gate Jackson. William Street was one of the 
early settlers in Wayne county, and was held 
in high esteem both as a citizen and a minis- 
ter. He died iu 1843. John Farrar was a 
resident of Madison county until 1825, when 
he was removed to Washington county. He 
died there in 1829. In 1811 James P. Ed- 
wards moved to Cape Girardeau from Ken- 
tucky. He was a lawyer, but was ordained as 
a minister in 1812, and afterward removed to 
Illinois. Wingate Jackson was a Virginian. 

He was born in 1776 and resided for a num- 
ber of years in Kentucky. About 1804 he 
located at New Tennessee, Ste. Genevieve 
county, where he died in 1835. It was under 
his ministry that Hepzibah church was estab- 
lished in 1820. The constituent members were 
Wingate Jackson, Obadiah Scott, Noah Hunt, 
and Joel and Enos Hamers. 

In 1814 a committee of Bethel church was 
appointed to draw up a plan for the organi- 
zation of an association of the ^Missouri 
churches. Invitations were sent to the va- 
rious churches to meet the committee from 
Bethel church and for the consideration of 
this matter the representatives of the various 
churches met in Bethel in June, 1816. Bethel 
church was represented bj' Thomas Bull, John 
Sheppard, Benjamin Thompson and Robert 
English. Tywappity church was represented 
by Henry Cockerham, John Baldwin, and 
William Ross. Providence church was rep- 
resented by William Savage; Saline church, 
by Elder Thomas Donohoe and John Duvall ; 
St. Francois church, by Elder William Street 
and Jonathan Hubble; Turkey Creek church, 
by W^illiam Johnson, Daniel Johnson, E. Re- 
velle and S. Baker. 

The organization thus effected was in the 
nature of a preliminary organization and it 
was decided to hold another meeting in Sep- 
tember, 1816, at Bethel church. At this meet- 
ing, which was participated in by Bethel, 
Tywappity, Providence, Barren, Bellcvue, St. 
Francois and Dry Creek churches, an associa- 
tion was constituted which was named Bethel 
association. These seven churches had an 
aggregate membership of 280, and there were 
five ministers included in the association. 

One of the famous and most active Baptist 
ministers of this time was John Mason Peck. 



He did not live in Southeast Jlissouri, but 
spent most of the years of his residence within 
the state, in St. Louis. On various occasions 
he visited the churches in Southeast Missouri 
and exercised a great influence on the devel- 
opment of religious work in this section. He 
resided for a time in New York and began his 
ministerial work there. He was appointed by 
the Home Missionary Society to prosecute the 
work of the church in Missouri. Accompanied 
by his family and by another minister named 
James E. Welch, he came to the state in 1817. 
The next twenty years of lis life were spent in 
teaching, preaching and organizing all over 
the section. He was a student and collected 
most copious notes on social, religious and po- 
litical conditions of Missouri. He was an in- 
defatigable writer. His influence was very 
great over the course of Baptist development, 
and he, more than any other man. was respon- 
sible for the missionary spirit that prevailed 
among the churches of the early day. 

The itinerant preachers of the IMethodist 
church have always been found among the 
first in every new country. As soon as the 
restrictions on religious worship were removed 
from the people of Louisiana by the transfer 
to the United States, arrangements began to 
be made for sending a Methodist preacher to 
the territory. The Western Conference, which 
included all the territory west of the Alle- 
ghany mountains, at its meeting in Greenville, 
Tennessee, in 1806, appointed John Travis to 
the Missouri circuit. He entered upon his 
work here and established two districts, the 
Missouri district and the Maramec district, 
the latter being south of the Missouri river. 
In 1807 Edward Wilcox was appointed to the 
Maramec circuit, and in 1808 Joseph Oglesby 
was appointed; he, however, did not take up 
the work and his place was supplied by 

Thomas Wright, and Z. Maddox v.'as ap- 
pointed as local preacher to look after the 
Cape Girardeau district. 

The first jMethodist society west of the ]\Iis- 
sissippi river was organized about 1806 at 
ilcKendree, three miles west of Jackson in 
Cape Girardeau county. Among the members 
of this church were William Williams and 
wife, John Randol and wife, Thomas Blair, 
Simon and Isaiah Poe, Charnel Glascock and 
the Seeleys. Within a short time after the 
organization of this church a meeting house 
was erected of large, hewn poplar logs. The 
house was in a beautiful situation near a 
spring and shaded by large oak trees. It soon 
became famous as a camp ground and was the 
site of many camp meetings. The house, with 
some alterations and repairs,' is still in exist- 
ence. It is, perhaps, the oldest Protestant 
meeting house west of the Mississippi river. 

It is a cjuestion as to what minister organ- 
ized this early Methodist society. When John 
Travis came to Missouri he found this church 
already in existence, and it seems probable 
that it had been organized by Rev. Jesse 
Walker, who, in 1804, was stationed near the 
mouth of the Cumberland river, and who 
afterward came to Missouri. In 1806, while 
the Western Conference sent Travis to Mis- 
souri, it also sent Walker to Illinois. It 
seems, however, to be fairly certain that he 
did not confine his labors to Illinois, but 
crossed over, preached, and organized churches 
in what is now Missouri. When the confer- 
ence met in 1807, at Chillicothe, Ohio, Travis 
reported that the two circuits. Cape Girar- 
deau and the Maramec, had one hundred and 
six members. At this time Walker was as- 
signed to the Cape Girardeau circuit. He 
came to Missouri in the summer of that year 
and was accompanied on his trip by William 
McKendree, who was then presiding elder of 



the Illinois district. He held the first quar- 
terly meeting with Travis in that year on the 
JIaramec river, it seems, at the place where 
Lewis chapel is now located. 

In 1808 the Western Conference appointed 
the Rev. Jesse Walker for the Cape Girar- 
deau circuit and Rev. David Young and Rev. 
Thomas Wright for the Maramec circuit. 
This territory was then part of the Indiana 
district, over which Samuel Parker was pre- 
siding elder. Rev. Parker visited the Cape 
Girardeau circuit in that year, and came to the 
town of Cape Girardeau, where he preached 
the first sermon ever heard in the town. This 
was at the house of William Scripps, who was 
an Englishman, having come to America in 
1791 and to Cape Girardeau in 1808. Scripps 
was a tanner by trade and he and Rev. Parker 
had been acquainted in Virginia. One of the 
sons of William Scripps, whose name was 
John, was admitted, at the conference in 
1814, as a preacher on trial. Later, he was 
taken into full connection with the church 
and was active as a minister until his removal 
to Illinois in 1820. 

In 1810 Jesse Walker and John Scripps 
crossed the big swamp to the New Madrid dis- 
trict and organized the New Madrid circuit. 
They traveled this circuit in connection with 
the Cape Girardeau circuit. There were thirty 
members in this circuit the first year. In this 
year, 1810, the first camp meeting in Cape 
Girardeau county was held on the camp 
ground in connection with McKendree 
chapel. Walker, Wright, and Presiding 
Elder Parker were present and conducted the 
camp meeting. 

The conference of 1810 assigned John Mc- 
Farland to the Maramec circuit and reap- 
pointed Walker to the Cape Girardeau circuit. 
Walker did not remain and McParland min- 

istered to both the circuits. In 1811 McFar- 
land was placed in charge of both Cape Gir- 
ardeau and New Madrid circuits and Thomas 
Wright was sent to the Maramec. In 1812 
Cape Girardeau and the New Madrid circuits 
were divided. Benjamin Edge was appointed 
to the work at Cape Girardeau and William 
Hart to that at New ^Madrid. In 1813 Thomas 
Wright was assigned to Cape Girardeau and 
Thomas Nixon to New Madrid. 

In 1812 a camp meeting was held in what 
is now Madison county, though it was then 
a part of Ste. Genevieve county. The meet- 
ing was conducted by Thomas Wright and it 
was the first camp meeting held in Ste. Gene- 
vieve county. Like the great revival meeting 
by Wilson Thompson, in Bethel Baptist 
church, it followed very closely after the 
earthciuake at New Madrid. 

In 1814 the conference received John C. 
Harbison on trial. Harbison had been a resi- 
dent of the district since 1798, but up to this 
time had been employed as a teacher at ilt. 
Tabor, and had also practiced law for a short 
period. He was of Scotch-Irish descent and 
had lived in other states before coming to 
Missouri. His descendants still live in Scott 
county. It is said that Harbison had been, 
for a long time, addicted to gambling and 
drunkenness before he became a member of 
the church, and that after he was converted 
and living an exemplary life as a minister, he 
met some of his former companions who chal- 
lenged him to play a game of poker. He 
agreed to do this, provided that after the 
game was over they would listen to the ser- 
mon which he was to preach at the church. 
They agreed to this, and he preached such a 
powerful and convincing sermon that those 
who heard abandoned their wicked courses of 

In the same year Thomas Wright was ap- 

*Houck, Vol. Ill, p. 238. 



pointed to the Cape Girardeau circuit, and 
Asa Overall began work in the New Madrid 
circuit. There was also formed this year a 
new circuit to include the territory between 
the Maramec and Apple creek. This was 
given the name of Saline circuit. Preaching 
was held at several points within this circuit, 
principally at the Murphy settlement, Cook 
settlement, Callaway settlement and new Ten- 

The Murphy settlement was the oldest 
aiethodist community west of the jMidsissippi 
river, and probably contained more ]\Iethod- 
ists than any other. The first Methodist ser- 
mon west of the river was preached in the 
Murphy settlement in 1804, by Joseph Ogles- 
by. This was at the house of Mrs. Sarah 
Murphy. One of the early Methodist preach- 
ers in the Saline circuit was Jacob White- 
side. This circuit had, at the close of the 
year 1815, one hundred and fifteen members. 

The conference in 1815 appointed Philip 
Davis to the New Madrid circuit, Jesse Haile 
for the Cape Girardeau circiait and Thomas 
Wright for the Saline circuit. 

In 1816 a new conference was organized 
at Shiloh meeting house near Belleville, Illi- 
nois. It comprised Saline, Cape Girardeau, 
New Madrid and the St. Francois circuits and 
was called the Missouri Conference. Samuel 
H. Thompson was made presiding elder of 
the conference, and Bishop Roberts presided 
at the meeting. The conference appointed 
Thomas Wright and Alexander McAlister to 
the Cape Girardeau and New IMadrid circuits, 
and John C. Harbison to Saline circuit. In 
1817 Thomas Wright was sent to Saline cir- 
cuit, Joseph Spiggott to New Madrid circuit 
and Rucker Tanner to St. Francois circuit, 
while the Cape Girardeau circuit was left to 
be supplied. 

Tanner was a rather remarkable man. He 
had been a very reckless youth and had spent 
his early life in the New Madrid district. It 
is related of him that on one occasion he and 
an elder brother made a trip to New Orleans, 
and while there ran short of funds. After 
all their money was exhausted, it was ar- 
ranged between them that R. Tanner, whose 
complexion was very dark, should be sold by 
his brother as a slave. This arrangement was 
carried out and the elder brother departed 
with the money. After a considerable diflS- 
culty, R. Tanner succeeded in regaining his 
freedom and escaped from the country. He 
started to walk home but on the way hired 
himself out to a local Methodist preacher. 
He lived with this preacher for some time, 
becoming converted and professing a desire 
to preach. It may be imagined that his re- 
turn home was a great surprise to his friends, 
who had thought him long since dead. Almost 
immediately upon his return he announced an 
appointment to preach. It was such a sur- 
prising thing that this reckless youth should 
be preparing for the ministry, that a very 
large congregation assembled to hear his first 
attempt. He was very soon admitted to the 
conference and appointed, as we have said, . 
to the St. Francois circuit. For the years 
1818 and '19 Saline circuit was served by 
Thomas Wright, Cape Girardeau circuit by 
John Scripps and the St. Francois circuit by 
John McFarland. 

There is a question as to when the first con- 
ference west of the river was held. Septem- 
ber 14, 1819, is sometimes given as the date of 
the beginning of the first conference. This 
conference was held at McKendree chapel. 
There is some authority, however, for believ- 
ing that there had been a conference held in 
1818 at Mt. Zion church in the Murphy set- 
tlement, at which conference Bishop ]McKen- 



dree presided. The appointments made in 
1819 were John MeFarlaud to the Saline cir- 
cuit; Joseph Spiggott to the Bellevue circuit 
(which had, in the meantime, been organ- 
ized) ; Philip Davis to the St. Francois cir- 
cuit; Samuel Glaize to the Cape Girardeau 
circuit, and William Townsend to the New 
]\Iadrid circuit. 

When the conference met in 1820 it was 
decided to create a new district. This was 
called the Cape Girardeau district and 
Thomas Wright was appointed as presiding 
elder. The preachers for the year were : 
Bellevue circuit, John Harris ; Saline and St. 
Francois circuits, Samuel Bassett ; Spring 
River, which was a new circuit, Isaac Brook- 
tield; White River, another new circuit, W. 
W. Redman ; Cape Girardeau circuit, Philip 
Davis ; and New Madrid circuit, Jesse Haile. 

When Mifssouri was admitted to the Union 
in 1821, Thomas Wright was continued as 
presiding elder, Thomas Davis was sent to 
the Cape Girardeau circuit, Philip Davis to 
the Saline circuit, John Cord to the St. 
Francois circuit, Abram Epler to Spring 
River, and Washington Orr to the New Mad- 
rid circuit. 

The Presbyterians did not begin their work 
in Southeast Missouri quite so early as the 
Baptists and Methodists. The beginning of 
their interest in Missouri probably dates from 
the year 1812. In that year the Missionary 
Society of New England appointed two men, 
the Rev. John T. Schermerhorn and the Rev. 
Samuel J. Mills, as agents to ascertain the 
religious conditions of the western country 
and the places most in need of religious in- 
struction, and to formulate some plan for 
the preaching of the gospel in the destitute 
places. These two men seem to have intended 
to visit St. Louis, and perhaps other parts 

of the territory', but, for some reason, they 
abandoned their visit and contented them- 
selves with writing a letter of inquiry to 
Stephen Hempstead, of St. Louis. In the 
letter they asked concerning the condition of 
religion in Upper Louisiana, the number of 
clergymen and the places where they were 
settled, whether there was much infidelity ex- 
isting, whether the Sabbath was observed, and 
whether it was thought best to attempt to 
found a Bible society. They offered to send 
two or three hundred Bibles and some tracts 
for distribution among the poor, provided it 
was thought best to do so. Mr. Hempstead 
replied to these inquiries, and gave a picture 
of the religious conditions existing in the ter- 
ritory. He says that "the Catholic church 
has services ; that there are some Methodists 
in the territory; that some of the Presby- 
terians, in the absence of their own preachers, 
have joined the Methodists, and that the Bap- 
tists have ten churches and two hundred and 
seventy-six members." And finally says that 
he "knows of no place in the United States 
that needs a Presbyterian missionary more 
than Missouri." He further requests that the 
Bibles and tracts be sent, which was done. 

The first church in Southeast Missouri of 
the Presbyterian faith was organized in the 
Bellevue. settlement in Washington county 
August 2, 1816. The Presbytery of Missouri 
was formed by the Synod of Tennessee and 
held its first meeting in St. Louis, December 
18, 1817. Its territory was all of the United 
States west of the Cumberland river. The 
Presbytery of Mi.ssouri had, as its ministers, 
Solomon Giddings, Timothy Flint, Thomas 
Donnell and John Matthews. The only 
churches represented were those at Bellevue, 
Bonhomme, in St. Louis county, and St. Louis. 
In 1819 he number of ministers was increased 
bv the addition of Rev. C. S. Robinson and 



the Rev. David Tenney. IMr. Tenney died in 
the same year. Th§ Rev. Edward HoUister 
was connected with the Presbytery for a short 
time in 1821. The Rev. Timothy Flint was 
one of the most active of the Presbji:erian 
ministers in Southeast Missouri in the early 
times. He seems to have organized a Bible 
society in Jackson about 1820 and also a 
Sunday school at the same place. This so- 
ciety was called the Columbian Bible Society. 
Its officers were Jasou Chamberlain, president ; 
Christopher G. Houts. treasurer; and A. 
HajTie, secretary. Rev. Timothy Flint seems 
to have traveled all through Upper Louisiana. 
He preached at Jackson, New Madrid, St. 
Charles and in Arkansas. He was a very vig- 
orous, energetic and earnest man, had been 
thoroughly educated at Harvard college, and 
wrote a number of books bearing on Missouri 
history. He spent the winter of 1819 at New 
Madrid. He was a man who had considerable 
influence but, also, considerable trouble, as he 
was not alwaj-s able to adapt himself to the 
conditions imder which he found himself 

Among the publications written by Flint 
were the "Life of Daniel Boone," a "History 
and Geography of the ^Mississippi Valley," 
and "Recollections of the Last Ten Years in 
the Mississippi Valley." 

In 1818 a presbytery was held at Potosi 
and a young man, who had been a ministerial 
student was ordained by Rev. Timothy Flint 
and Rev. ^Matthews. They rode from St. 
Louis to Potosi on horseback to perform this 

That one of the Christian denominations 
known as Disciples, or simplj' Christians, 
seems to have begun its labors in Soiitheast 
Missouri in 1819. The teachings of this de- 
romination had spread from Kentucky and 

Pennsj'lvania to the west, and in the year 
mentioned the Rev. William Mcilurtry came 
from Virginia and located in iladison coimty. 
He was a carpenter by trade, but preached 
also. He began to teach the doctrines of the 
church as soon as he was located within the 
state, and in 1822 organized a church in what 
is now the town of Libertj"ville. There were 
only three members of the church at that 
time, and they held their meetings in the log 
school house. The increase was slow at first, 
for in 1826 there were only niae members of 
the church. 

We have thus recounted something of the 
beginning of effort bj' the Christian denom- 
inations in the early years in Missouri. We 
find that the only formal organization before 
180-J- was the organization of the Catholic 
church ; that its teachings had spread in prac- 
tically everv community in L^pper Louisiana ; 
that its work had been organized and at least 
two houses of worship constructed. There 
were members of other denominations in Up- 
per Louisiana before the transfer; that they 
held their regular services in private fam- 
ilies, but were not allowed to build meeting 
houses or to perfect any kind of organiza- 
tions. LTpon the transfer to the United 
States, the Baptists and Methodists, and a 
little later the Presbj-terians and Christians, 
or Disciples, began to prosecute the work of 
evangelism in a s.vstematic way. There seem 
to have been two distinct methods of carrying 
on the work. The first Baptist church within 
the state was organized through the efforts of 
a visiting minister, and this church became 
the center for the sending out of the gospel 
to other parts and for the organization of 
other churches. In the same way the organi- 
zation of the Disciples was begun. The first 
work performed by the Presbyterians within 



the state, as M'e have seeu, was the result of 
the sending of missionaries from the East. A 
similar movement assisted and encouraged the 
work of the Baptists, when Peek and his 
companion, Welch, were sent into the terri- 
tory. The work of the Methodists began in 
an organized form by the erection of part 
of the territory into a circuit, and the ap- 
pointment of a minister to supply the needs 
in the vast territory included within his cir- 

By the time of the transfer to the United 
States these denominations were flourishing, 
their work was progressing and they were 
building houses of worship, establishing Sun- 
day schools and schools in many parts of the 
territory. It is plain to be seen that they 
labored under very great difficulties. The ter- 
ritory over which the ministers were called to 
travel was very extensive,^ the means of trans- 
portation very poor, the roads were simply 
paths and there were but few accommodations 
provided, in most places, for visitors. Many 
of the ministers were accustomed to travel on 
foot for distances that seem almost impossible. 
It is said of Clark, who was an early min- 
ister of the Baptist church, that he would 
never ride to his appointments. Some of his 
friends presented him with a horse, but he 
was dissatisfied with it and returned it, pre- 
ferring to walk from one place to another. 
Some of the Methodist circuit riders traveled 
over immense distances to reach their various 
appointments. Those who lived east of the 
river, not infrequently walked for miles to 
reach a place where the river might be crossed 
and, having crossed, walked a long distance 
on this side to the place where they were to 

■Another thing which very greatly retarded 
and made more difficult the work of the early 

ministers, was a feeling among the people 
that these ministers should labor without 
pay. Not all of them were of this belief, but 
it was sufficientlj' prevalent to render the sup- 
port of the ministers very meagre and very 
uncertain. Perhaps all of the preachers in 
the early time were compelled to recoup their 
salary by work of one kind or another, that 
they might support their families. We have 
seen that Elder McMurtry, an early minister 
of the Christian church, was a carpenter, and 
we find that Peck supported himself, in part, 
by teaching, as did Flint and many others. 

Another thing which made their work diffi- 
cult and their lives hard was the condition of 
many people among whom they must labor. 
]\Iany of them were illiterate and could not 
appreciate the efforts which were being made 
for them. Some of these people lived under 
the most severe conditions of life, and some 
of them had no hope or ambition for better 
things. It was a work of the very greatest 
difficulty to arouse the people to action and to 
get them to accept the things which the min- 
isters brought to them. Peck and Flint both 
relate amusing but unpleasant experiences 
concerning their visits in different parts of 
this section. They frequently were received 
into homes, if a single roomed log cabin may 
be so described, in which only the barest 
necessities were to be found. 

These hardships are set out fully in the ac- 
count which Peek gives in describing one of 
his trips from St. Louis, on horse back, to 
Bethel association in Cape Girardeau county. 
He made this trip in September, 1818, and 
the experience through which he passed in- 
duced him to moralize a little on the hard- 
ships which attended the life of the traveler. 
He says : ' ' The route was the same one I last 
traveled until I got below Herculaneum, and 
then gradually bearing to the left and down 



the direction of the Mississippi, through an 
extensive tract of barrens very thinly set- 
tled. It was in passing through these barrens 
that Joseph Piggott, a ilethodist circuit 
preacher, in the year 1820, came near freez- 
ing to death, on an extremely cold night, and 
without food for himself or his horse. He 
gave the writer a narrative of his sufferings 
that night, four years after, at his residence 
on the Macoupin, Illinois, and yet we were so 
hard hearted as not to express a word of sym- 
pathy. A few stunted and gnarled trees, and 
a sprinkling of brushwood, with now and 
then a. decayed log, appeared above the snow. 
He was nearly chilled, after wandering about 
a long time in search of a path, and with 
great difficulty with his tinder-box, flint and 
steel, could he get a fire. He then scraped 
away what snow he could, and with his 
blanket lay down, broadside to the fire ; but 
before he secured much warmth the other 
side was nearly frozen. Then he would turn 
over, but finding no relief would get up and 
stamp his feet, while the wind seemed to pass 
through him. When daylight appeared he 
was too cold to mount his horse, but led him 
while he attempted to find his way on to some 
lonely cabin, which proved to be not many 
miles distant. There he spent the day and 
enjoyed the hospitality of the squatter fam- 
ily. "We listened to the distressing tale 
with amazement ! This man was born and 
raised in Illinois and accustomed all his life 
to the frontiers, and yet had never learned 
one of the indispensable lessons of a back- 
woodsman — how to camp out, make a fire and 
keep warm. Eating was not so very impor- 
tant, for any man in the vigor of life in those 
days in this frontier country who could not 
go without food for twenty-four hours, and 
more especiallj' a preacher of the Gospel, 

ought to be sent back where he came from, to 
the kind care of his friends. 

"The writer had not been in the coimtry 
one year before he had learned half a dozen 
lessons in frontier knowledge of great value 
in practical life. One branch was how In- 
dians, hunters, surveyors, and all others who 
had to travel over iminhabited deserts, made 
their camping-place and kept themselves com- 
fortable. The first thing is to select the right 
place — in some hollow or ravine, protected 
from the wind, and if possible behind some 
old forest giant which the storms of winter 
have prostrated. And then, reader, don't 
build your fire against the tree, for that is 
the place for your head and shoulders to lie, 
and around which the smoke and heated air 
may curl. Then don 't be so childish as to lie 
on the wet, or cold frozen earth, without a 
bed. Gather a quantity of grass, leaves and 
small brush, and after you have cleared away 
the snow and provided for protection from 
the wet or cold earth, you may sleep comfort- 
ably. If you have a piece of jerked venison, 
and a bit of pone with a cup of water, you 
may make out a splendid supper — provided 
you think so — ' for as a man thinketh so is he. ' 
And if you have a traveling companion you 
may have a social time of it. So now offer 
your prayers like a Christian, ask the Lord to 
protect you, wrap around you your blankets 
with your saddles for pillows, and lie down to 
sleep under the care of a watchful Providence. 
If it rains, a very little labor with barks or 
even brush, with the tops sloping downward, 
will be no mean shelter. Keep your feet 
straight to the fire, but not near enough to 
bum your moccasins or boots, and your legs 
and wliole body will be warm. The aphorism 
of the Italian physician, which he left in a 
sealed letter as a guide to all his former pa- 



tients, coutains excellent advice to all frontier 
people: 'Keep your feet warm, your back 
straight, and your head cool, and bid defiance 
to the doctors.' " — ("Life of Peck," pp. 103 
to 105.) 

In spite of these and manj- other difficulties, 
of which we can have no proper appreciation 
at this time, the work progressed. There were 
men in the early days whose hearts were filled 
with enthusiasm for the work. They were not 
daunted by difficulties nor stopped by hard- 
ships. They labored unceasingly in season 
and out of season. The journals and diaries 
of these early men reveal to us a remarkable 
story of energy and of self-sacrificing devo- 
tion to the work which they had in hand; 
that their labors were abimdantly blessed and 
that they exercised a great influence over the 
course of early history is amply evidenced. 
Under their ministrations hundreds, and even 
thousands, of men and women were changed 
in their lives ; received something of inspira- 

tion and uplift; schools were founded by 
them and the beginning of culture, as well as 
of religion, were made imder their direction. 
]Many of these early ministers were educated 
men. They brought with them a knowledge 
of the world and they brought, also, the first 
libraries within the state. The example of 
their devotion and earnestness of purpose was 
contagious. The great religious denomina- 
tions now within the state owe to the memory 
of these early pioneer preachers a debt which 
it is impossible for them to pay. 

It should not be forgotten, either, that not 
only do the churches owe to them a debt; the 
state as a state is equally under obligations to 
them. If intelligence and morality are the 
twin pillars on which popular government 
rests, then these men who so largely contrib- 
uted, not only to morality but also to the 
spread of education and the increase of intel- 
ligence, certainly deserve well at the hands 
of all the people in the state. 



Time and Area — Unique Among Earthquakes — Contemporary Accounts Mentioned — 
The Scene Described — Direction of the Shocks — Size of Affected Area — Character 
OF Disturbances — Small Loss of Life Explained — A Death from Fright — Persons 
Drowned — Appearance op the Air — Vapors — Lights and Glows — Earth Changes — 
Fissures — Lignite — Areas of Surface Raised — Sunk-Lands — Observations Made by 
Lyell— Distribution op Sunk-Lands — Effect on Timber — Expulsion of Material 
from the Earth — Water-Sand — Sand Blows — Sand-Sloughs — Sinks — Suggested 
Causes — Contemporary Accounts — Mrs. Eliza Bryan — Long — Bradbury — Flint — 
Faux — LeSieur — Col. John Shaw — Letter op an Unknown Writer — Long — Nuttall 
— Flagg — Former Drainage as' Described by LeSieur — Government Assistance to Suf- 
ferers — The New Madrid Claims — DeLisle vs. State of Missouri — Loss of Popula- 

On the night of December 15, 1811, there 
occurred the first of a series of severe earth- 
quake shocks in the region about New Madrid, 
which caused great suffering and distress 
among the inhabitants, changed the surface of 
the earth in places, and resulted in the de- 
population of parts of the region affected. 
This earthquake has been the subject of much 
contention among historians and scientists, 
and has recently been made the subject of 
much careful study. 

Myron L. Fuller, a member of the United 
States Geological Survey, has given as much 
time and study to the phenomena of the New 
Madrid earthquake as any other person. In 
1912 the Geological Survey issued a bulletin 
by Mr. Fuller, entitled "The New Madrid 
Earthquake." His introductory statement is 
as follows: "The succession of shocks desig- 
nated collectively the New Madrid earthquake 

occurred in an area of the central Mississippi 
valley, including southeastern Missouri, north- 
eastern Arkansas, and western Kentucky and 
Tennessee. Beginning December 16, 1811, 
and lasting more than a year, these shocks 
have not been surpassed or even equaled for 
number, continuance of disturbance, area 
affected, and severity by the more recent and 
better-known shocks at Charleston and San 
Francisco. As the region was almost im.settled 
at that time relatively little attention was 
paid to the phenomenon, the published ac- 
counts being few in number and incomplete in 
details. For these reasons, although scientific 
literature in this coimtry and in Europe has 
given it a place among the great earthquakes 
of the world, the memory of it has lapsed from 
the public mind." 

Shaler, writing of the earthquake in 1869, 
said: "The occurrence of such a shock in a 




region like the Mississippi valley, on the bor- 
ders of a great river, is probably lanprece- 
dented in the history of earthquakes. * * * 
Many of the events of that convulsion were 
without a parallel. Scientifically this earth- 
quake may be regarded as a type, exhibiting 
in unusual detail the geologic effects of great 
disturbances upon unconsolidated deposits. 
For this reason its phenomena have an im- 
portance which, in the absence of any previous 
systematic discussion, warrants detailed con- 

It is the intention here to give as full an 
account of the earthquake itself as collected 
from contemporary accounts as is possible, 
and a description of the condition of 
the lands affected by the shocks. It is 
fortunate that there are in existence a 
number of accounts written by eye wit- 
nesses, some of them being scientific men 
and some others, men of education and train- 
ing. Perhaps the best known scientist who 
felt the shocks and described them, was the 
great naturalist, John James Audubon, who 
at the time was in Kentucky. John Brad- 
burj^ an English botanist, was on a keel boat 
on the Mississippi river a few miles below 
New Madrid; the expedition of Major Long 
was passing through the region on its way 
from Pittsburgh to the Rocky mountains ; L. 
Bringier, an engineer and surveyor, was on 
the scene of the shocks ; and Captain Roose- 
velt was on board a steamer going down the 
river. Besides these men of scientific train- 
ing who were on the scene, there were others 
at a somewhat greater distance who made a 
record of the shocks, among them being Dan- 
iel Drake at Cincinnati and Jared Brooks at 
Louisville ; while S. L. Mitchill, a well known 
geologist and member of congress, collected 
all the available information about the earth- 

quakes. It was fortunate, too, that the scene 
was visited by Timothy Flint, a Presbyterian 
minister and a writer on geography, and by 
Sir Charles Lyell the great English geologist. 
In addition to these there were accounts writ- 
ten by a number of other persons ; one of these 
accounts, that of Mrs. Eliza Bryan, is given 
in this chapter. Godfrey LeSieur, the former 
well-known citizen of New Madrid and a mem- 
ber of the famous French family that founded 
the town, was at the time at Little Prairie 
and has given a vivid and interesting account 
of his experiences ; this account is abbreviated 
in this chapter, also. Senator Lewis F. Linn 
was interested in the catastrophe and collected 
information concerning it which he made 
public in a letter containing a full account 
of the shocks. Besides all these there exist 
fragmentary statements from a number of 
other persons, so that contemporary accounts 
of events are reasonably full. 

A comparison of aU these accounts discloses 
the fact that they are in reasonable accord in 
their description and the main facts con- 
cerning the earthquake shocks seem to rest 
on the concurring testimony of these wit- 
nesses. The night of December 15, 1811, was 
as quiet and undisturbed during its early 
hours as any other of the hundreds of nights 
that had passed. There seems to have been 
nothing to give warning of any change im- 
pending. Some who wrote afterwards speak 
as if there was a peculiar condition of the air, 
but these accounts indicate only that it was 
probably damp and foggy weather. About 
2 o'clock in the morning of December 16, the 
earth suddenly shook and vibrated with ter- 
rific force ; the houses, most of them built of 
logs, M'ere greatlj^ shaken, some of them being 
thrown into instant ruin. The inhabitants 
made their way as best they could out of 



their houses into the open. The shocks con- 
tinued; they were accompanied by low riun- 
bling sound ; the earth was throwTi into waves 
like the waves of the sea ; this waving motion 
was so violent that it was impossible to stand 
or to walk. One man gives it that he at- 
tempted to return to the house for a member 
of the family who was sick; he was thrown 
down five or six times in attempting to walk 
a short distance owing to these waves. The 
crest of the waves was elevated some three 
or four feet above the usual level of the earth, 
forming long lines rimning from the south- 
west to the northeast, and having depressions 
between them; some of these waves or swells 
burst, forming fissures in the earth some three 
to seven feet in width and extending to an 
unknown depth. These fissures were in some 
eases short, but others of them extended for 
miles. Out of the fissures thus formed there 
spouted great quantities of water, sand, and 
a kind of charcoal or lignite. In many cases 
there seems to have been a sort of gas having 
a sulphurous smell. The banks of the rivers 
fell into the stream owing to their being split 
•off by these fissures. The quantities of earth 
■carried into the river were verj' great, hun- 
dreds of trees being swept down into the 
stream. The shaking of the earth and the 
rising and falling of these swells or waves 
threw down whole forests and inclined many 
of the trees left standing at an angle, gome 
of the timber wa.s split and much of it snapped 
off, as told by Mrs. Bryan. In places on the 
side of the high bluffs faults were formed in 
the earth, resulting in occasional land slides ; 
the surface of some areas seem to have been 
raised, while other areas were sunk several 
feet below their former level. In other 
places small craters were opened in the 
earth from which spouted quantities of sand 
and water, the sand being deposited on top 

of the alluvium forming sand blows. The 
river itself was greatly agitated. In many 
places there were falls formed in it, due to the 
faulting of the surface ; these falls were in 
places six to eight feet in height and the pour- 
ing of the water of the streams over them 
produced tremendous and imusual sounds. In 
other places the bottom of the river seems to 
have been raised, ponding water before these 
places so that the level of the river was raised 
several feet in a very short time. The waters 
receded from either shore to the center of the 
river and were piled up there for a time, 
lea\4ng boats stranded on the bare sands. In 
a moment the waves returned and washed up 
on the shore and oiit into the timber, carry- 
ing the boats with them. Through the de- 
pressions formed in the banks of the river 
great volumes of water made their way, cov- 
ering parts of the coimtry to a depth of sev- 
eral feet. The falHng of trees into the river 
and the shaking loose from the bottom of 
thousands of logs previously accumulated, 
covered its whole surface with floating tim- 
bers; the waters were agitated and churned 
into a foam so that it was almost impossible 
for a boat to live upon its surface. The in- 
habitants of the coimtry were of course ex- 
ceedingly terrified by these things and even 
the wild animals and fowls were thrown into 
confusion and uttered cries of alarm. This 
shaking of the earth continued at intervals for 
more than a year, though the last severe shock 
of the series was felt on the 7th of February, 
1812. The shaking was felt over great re- 
gions, extending to the lakes on the north and 
to the Atlantic seaboard on the east, being 
observed in such widely separated places as 
Charleston, N. C. ; Cincinnati, Ohio ; Savan- 
nah, Ga. ; St. Louis, Mo. ; "Washington, D. C, 
and Pittsburgh, Pa. In all these places the 
shocks were violent and aU of them were 



noted as occurring about the same time as the 
shocks at New Madrid. 

The shocks seemed to travel from the south- 
west to the northeast, and a study of all the 
recorded evidence indicates that the center 
of the disturbance was within the alluvial re- 
gion. It is the opinion of Mr. Puller, who has 
made a careful study of the situation, that 
the line marking the center of disturbance 
extended from a point in New Madrid county 
just east of Parma, in a southwesterly direc- 
tion, crossing the sand ridge just east of Ken- 
nett, and ending south of St. Francis lake in 

The area affected, as we have said, was very 
large, including perhaps the east half of the 
United States. The smaller area in which 
there was an unusual earth disturbance char- 
acterized by sunken lands, fissures, sinks, 
sand-blows, etc., includes the New J\Iad- 
rid region as it is called, which extends from 
a point west of Cairo on the north to the lati- 
tude of ilemphis on the south, a distance of 
more than 100 miles, and from Crowley's 
ridge on the west to the Chickasaw bluffs on 
the east, a distance of over 50 miles, the total 
area affected in this striking way being from 
30,000 to 50,000 square miles. 

It is not possible to give the number of 
shocks that were felt, biat there were probably 
at least a himdred that could be detected 
without the use of instruments, a number of 
them being severe. 

Attempts have been made to determine the 
exact character of the disturbances that took 
place in the surface of the earth. Here de- 
pendence must be put upon the observations 
within the area of the great disturbances. It 
is difficult to reconcile the opinions of the 
different observers on this particular point 
differences arising, doubtless, from the difS- 

*U. S. Geological Survev, Bulletin 494, Plate 1. 

culty experienced during the earthquake in 
observing and recording the facts as they 
actually existed; the feeling of terror was so 
great that it was almost a matter of impossi- 
bility to make accurate and exact observa- 
tions. The disturbances of the crust is said by 
Bringier to have been like the blowing up of 
the earth accompanied by loud explosions.** 

Casseday says : "It seems as if the .surface 
of the earth was afloat and set in motion by a 
slight application of immense power and when 
this regular motion is moved by a sudden cross 
shove all order is destroyed and a boiling 
action is produced, during the continuance of 
which the degree of violence is greatest and 
the scene most dreadful.*** 

Flint was told by other witnesses that the 
movement was an imdulation of the earth 
resembling waves, increasing in elevation as 
they advanced, and when thej^ had attained 
a certain fearful height the earth would 
burst, t 

This agrees with LeSieur's account also, 
and Haj'wood writes that the motions were 
undulating, the agitating surface quivering 
like the flesh of beef just killed, and the mo- 
tion progressed from west to east and was 
sometimes perpendicular, resembling a house 
rising and suddenly let fall to the ground.J 

Audubon, describing his experiences in 
Kentucky, says that the groimd rose and fell 
in successive furrows like the ruffled waters of 
a lake ; the earth moved like a field of corn 
before the breeze.^l 

This wave motion of the crust seems to have 

** Bringier, American Jour, of Science, 1st se- 
ries. Vol. Ill (1821), p. 1546. 

*** Casseday, History of Louisville, p. 122. 

t Timothy Hint, Recollections of the Last Ten 
Years, p. 223. 

t Haywood, Natural and Aboriginal History of 
Tennessee, p. 124. 

H Audubon, .J. J., Journal. Vol. II, p. 234. 



been the most common form of disturbance 
though there were also certain vertical mo- 
tions which seem, however, not to have been 
so destructive as the wave motion. 

It is plainly evident that if these accounts 
of the waving of the earth are accurate the 
shocks must have been very severe and de- 
structive. That such was the case is amply 
evidenced by the testimony of men who visited 
the scene shortly afterward, Flint, who saw 
the country within a short time after the 
shocks, says: "The country exhibited a 
melancholy aspect of chasms, of sand covering 
the earth, of trees thrown down, or lying at 
an angle of 45 degrees, or split in the middle. 
The earthquakes still recurred at short inter- 
vals, so that the people had no confidence to 
rebuild good houses, or chimneys of brick."* 

One of the remarkable things connected 
with the earthquakees is that notwithstanding 
their very great violence, few people were 
killed. The inhabitants were very naturally 
greatly alarmed and for a time refused to live 
within their houses, but they finally came to 
pay little or no attention to them. It seems 
that the earthquakes killed only one person 
by means of falling walls. This remarkable 
fact, when we compare the record of this 
earthquake with the record of other shocks 
which were possibly no more severe, is due to 
a number of circumstances. In the first place 
the country was very thinly settled. Within 
the whole New Madrid region as we have de- 
fined it, there were only a few hundred per- 
sons living. The character of the buildings 
also contributed to this escape from death. 
There were no brick or stone buildings ; most 
of the houses were built of logs and were only 
one story in height. These log houses were 
strongly built and at the same time were 
elastic and fitted to give before the shock of 
* Flint, Recollections of the Last Ten Years. 

the earthquake. Then, too, the most severe 
shocks came after the people had gotten out 
of their houses. Besides the person killed by 
the falling of a house, one woman died from 
the effects of fright. She was so terrified that 
she ran imtil she was entirely exhausted and 

A number of men seem to have been 
drowned, some of whom were in boats that 
were overthrowTi and simk by the violence of 
the waves. And there were others who were 
drowned, it seems, by falling into the river 
from caving banks. Some men were drowned 
by the disappearance of Island No. 94 near 
Vicksburg. Broadhead says: "They tied 
up at this island on the evening of the 15th of 
December, 1811. In looking around they 
found that a party of river pirates occupied 
part of the island and were expecting Sarpy 
with the intention of robbing him. As soon 
as Sarpy found that out he quietly dropped 
lower dowTi the river. In the night the earth- 
quake came and next morning when the ac- 
companying haziness disappeared, the island 
could no longer be seen. It had been quietly 
destroyed, as well as its pirate inhabitants." 

Having given some of the general features 
of the earthquake, of the effect upon the peo- 
ple living within the district, it is now 
intended to give a more particular account 
of some of the phenomena that accompanied 
the shocks. Many of the observers speak of 
the darkness that accompanied the most severe 
disturbances. In the account of Eliza Brj^an, 
given herewith, she speaks of the awful dark- 
ness of the atmosphere ; Godfrey LeSieur says 
a dense black cloud of vapor overshadowed 
the land. At Herculaneum it is said that 
the "air was filled with smoke or fog so that 
a boat could not be seen twenty paces, nor a 
house fifty feet away ; the air did not clear 
t Flint, Eecollections of the Last Ten Years, 
p. 223. 



uutil the middle of the day after the shocks. ' '* 
At New iladrid it is said that at the time 
of the shoclc the air was clear but in five min- 
utes it become very black and this darkness 
returned at each successive shock, t 

Geologists have sought an explanation of 
this darkness and some have ascribed it to 
dust projected into the air by the agitation 
of the surface, the opening and closing of fis- 
sures in dry earth, land slides, and falling 
chimnej's and buildings. Besides the dust it 
is probable that the water vapors coming from 
the warm water sent up from the cracks and 
small craters w-as condensed and helped to 
make the air foggy. The darkness observed 
in places outside of the earthquake area may 
very probably be ascribed to other causes than 
the earthquakes themselves ; perhaps to storms 
and clouds. 

Besides the darkness the shocks seem to have 
been accompanied by sulphurous or other ob- 
noxious odors and vapors. Mrs. Bryan speaks 
of the saturation of the atmosphere with sul- 
phurous vapors ; other observers tell of sul- 
phur gas escaping through the cracks and 
tainting the air and even the water so that it 
was not fit for use. These vapors or odors 
were probably due to buried organic matter 
which had been covered by the alluvium. Gas 
from this matter was released through the 
fissures and small craters formed by the earth- 

Some accoimts speak of the light flashes and 
glows in connection with the shocks. D — • 
says that there issued no burning flames but 
flashes such as would result from an explosion 
of gas or of the passing of electricity from 
cloud tf) cloud, and Senator Linn says the 

* Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Philos. Soc, New 
York, Vol. I, p. 291. 
t Mitchill, p. 297. 

shock was accompanied by flashes of electric- 
ity. Another observer says sparks of fire were 
emitted from the earth. Over all the affected 
area, indeed, there were reports of lights and 
flashes like lightning about the time of the 
earthquake shocks. 

It is not possible to accoimt for these lights 
and glows in any satisfactory way. Some 
have doubted their presence at all, but they 
are mentioned by so many observers as to 
make it difficult to deny their existence alto- 
gether. They might possibly have been light- 
ning accompanying storms. There seems to 
be no good reason for ascribing them to burn- 
ing gas. The suggestion has been made by 
some that the light was due to magnetic dis- 
turbances and was perhaps of electrical char- 

One of the phenomena accompanying the 
earthquakes and one of the noticeable of 
all, was the noise. This noise was remarked 
by many persons. Among the quotations 
given from contemporary accoimts, a number 
speak of the tremendous sounds terrifj-ing in 
their nature, Haywood says: "A murmuring 
noise, like that of fire disturbed by the blow- 
ing of a bellows, issued from the pores of the 
earth ; a distant rumbling was heard almost 
without intermission and sometimes seemed 
to be in the air." (Haywood, Natural and 
Aboriginal History of Tennessee.) Senator 
Linn compares the sounds to those produced 
by a discharge of one thousand pieces of artil- 
lery and says also that hissing sounds accom- 
panied the throwing out of the water from the 
crevices. Flint says the sounds of the ordi- 
nary shocks were like distant thunder, but 
that the vertical shocks were accompanied by 
explosions and terrible mixture of noises. 
Mrs. Bryan speaks of the "awful noises re- 
sembling loud and distant thunder but more 
hoarse and vibrating." The noise of the escap- 



ing water is compared to the escape of steam 
from a boiler by some of the observers. Au- 
dubou speaks of the sound as if it were "the 
distant rumbling of a violent tornado," while 
Bradburj- mentions the fact that he "was 
awakened by a tremendous noise" and noticed 
the fact that the soiuid which was heard at 
the time of every shock always preceding it at 
least a second and uniformly came from the 
same point and went off in the opposite direc- 

Other observers describe the sound in dif- 
ferent waj's. One said "'when the shocks 
came on the stones on the surface of the earth 
were agitated by a tremulous motion, like 
eggs in a frying pan, and made a noise similar 
to that of the wheels of a wagon m a pebbly 
road." Others speak of the sound as resem- 
bling a blaze of fire acted upon by the wind, 
or the wind rushing through the trees, or a 
carriage passing along the street, or distant 

The effects of the earthquake on the surface 
of the earth itself may be summed up as con- 
sisting of fissures, sand-blows, a rising of parts 
of the earth and sinking of other portions, 
faulting of the crust and in some cases land 
slides. One of the most common of these 
phenomena was fissuring; the earth waves 
which we have described as accompanying the 
shocks burst in many cases, leaving a fissure, 
some of these as long as five miles. This was 
an estimate made by LeSieur ; others mention 
fissures 600 or 700 feet long and 20 to 30 feet 

Flint says that some of the fissures were 
wide enough to swallow horses or cattle, t 
He also says that people fell into these 
fissures and were gotten out with great diffi- 

* Foster, The Mississippi Valley, p. 19. 

+ Flint, BeeoUections of tiie Last Ten Tears, p. 

eulty. In some instances the inhabitants 
felled trees crosswise of the fissures and took 
refuge on their trimks to prevent being swal- 
lowed up. Out of these fissures there were 
ejected quantities of water and sand ; mixed 
with the sand in many cases were particles of 
coal or lignite. This lignite seems to have 
been a feature of the sand which was thrown 
oiit from the fissures, and much of it is still 
to be found in many places throughout the 
district. Most of the contemporary accoimts 
speak of it as "carbonized wood" or lignite. 
The material seen by Lyell near New Madrid 
is described in one place as bituminous coaly 
shale (clay), such as outcrops in the river 
bank and is found in shallow wells 35 feet 
or so below the surface and in another as 
lignite. The best description of its behavior 
on combustion is given by Mitchill, who ex- 
amiaed samples submitted by a correspondent. 
I found it very inflammable ; it consumed with 
a bright and vivid blaze. A copious smoke 
was emitted from it, whose smell was not at 
all sulphurous, but bituminous in a high de- 
gree. Taken out of the fire in its ignited and 
burning state, it did not immediately become 
extinct, but continued to burn until it was 
consumed. "While blowed upon, instead of 
being deadened it became brighter b.y the 
blast. The ashes formed during the combus- 
tion were of a whitish color and when put 
into water imparted to it the quality of turn- 
ing to a green the blue corolla of a phlox whose 
juice was subjected to its action 

Some specimens of the lignite matter were 
coated with a whitish or yellowish substance, 
suggesting sulphur, but it was probably the 
sulphate of iron common in lignite and cer- 
tain coals. Wood not lignitized was also re- 
ported hj some observers. J 

Another form of fissure seems to have been 
formed only near banks of streams; the por- 
t IT. S. Geological Survey, Bulletin 46. 



tion of the alluvial soil between the fissure 
and the stream bank moved in the direction of 
the stream and left a considerably larger fis- 
sure than would otherwise have been formed. 
All these fissures of both characters extend in 
the general direction of the earthquake shocks. 
To understand their formation and also to 
account for the depth to which they extended, 
it must be remembered that practically all of 
the country affected by the earthquake is 
underlain at a depth of 10 to 20 feet by quick- 
sand and that over this quicksand is a coating 
of alluvial soil consisting at the top of loam 
and then of layers of sand and clay alternat- 
ing. The fissures opened out usually to the 
laj-ers of quicksand, a depth of 10 to 20 feet. 
There are numbers of these fissures still to be 
seen. They have been partly filled by the 
action of the weather and by blowing in of 

When Lyell visited the New Madrid region 
in 1849 he saw a number of fissures still open, 
some of which he followed continuously for 
over a mile. They ranged in depth from five 
to six feet and from two to four feet in width. 
Lyell also saw a fault produced by the earth- 
quake near Bayou St. John east of New Mad- 
rid, where the descent was eight to ten feet. 
Fuller says that at Beeehwell, northeast of 
Campbell in Dunklin county, is a fine fissure 
filled with sand. Pieces of lignite and shaly 
clay were seen in the trench, which appears 
to have been pushed diagonally upward into 
the clay alluvium, but not with sufficient force 
at least on one side, to break through.* 
He also gives an accoimt of various fissures 
seen by him near Caruthersville, near Blythes- 
ville. and many of them across the Arkansas 
line. They are also to be seen east of the 
Mississippi river. 

These fissures in many cases were partly, if 
*U. S. Geological Survey, Bulletin 494. p. 54. 

not entirely, filled. This was caused bj' the 
caving in of banks or walls and also bj- the 
pushing up of material from below. As the 
walls of the fissure opened, sand and water 
below the alluvium were pushed up, in some 
cases overflowed the walls of the fissure. It 
seems evident, too, that many of these cracks 
or fissures did not extend entirely to the sur- 
face of the earth but were stopped before 
reaching it. Into these cracks sand was forced 
up from below, filling the cracks and forming 
what geologists term a dike. These dikes are 
sometimes seen in the digging of wells or 
cellars and take the form of a narrow streak 
of sand pressed in between the other mate- 
rials. Thomas Beckwith of Charleston photo- 
graphed a remarkable dike of this character 
in Mississippi county, f 

Besides these fissures there were also formed 
what geologists term "faults" in the surface, 
though these were nothing like so common as 
the fissures. It was probably due to these that 
falls were formed in the Mississippi river, the 
faults running crosswise of the channel. Sev- 
eral accoimts speak of these falls, some of 
them being as much as six feet in height and 
extending entirely across the river. 

No other effect of the earthquake has caused 
so much discussion or so wide a difference of 
opinion as that effect which geologists call 
"warping." a term used to include the rising 
of part of the crust and the depression of 
other parts. The accoimts given by several 
of those who witnessed the shocks speak of 
the uplifting of parts of the surface of the 
earth. In the account of Mrs. Brj'an it is 
said that the beds of some ponds were lifted 
up so that the ponds were drained and their 
former beds raised several feet. A. N. Dillard 
says : ' ' Previous to the earthquake keel boats 
would come up the St. Francois river and 
t U. S. Geological Survey, Bulletin 494, plate 3. 



pass into the Mississippi river three miles be- 
low New jMadrid; the bayou is now dry 

Others mention the terrible depression in 
the river, which was probably due to the up- 
lift of part of its bed. 

More general and much more important, 
probably so far as Southeast Missouri is con- 
cerned, were the effects of the earthquake in 
producing a depression of the surface. Fuller 
divides the lands which were depressed and 
which are characterized as sunk lands, into 
three divisions— the first, those marked by 
sand-sloughs; second, those characterized by 
river swamps, and third, those covered by 
lakes of standing water. 

The sand-sloughs are broad, shallow sloughs 
generally of considerable length, several feet 
in depth and marked by well defined ridges 
covered by extruded sand and interspersed 
with depressions, in which the timber has been 
killed by standing water. 

The river swamps include the depressed 
areas along certain of the streams, the level 
of which is .such that water stands over them 
for considerable periods but does not cover 
them so deep as to prevent the growth of 
timber. They are, therefore, characterized by 
wet-land timber, most of which is young 
growth. Often the stumps of characteristic 
upland varieties of trees killed by the sub- 
sidence may be seen. 

The sunk-land lakes are broad, shallow and 
essentially permanent bodies of water occur- 
ring in depressions of the bottom lands near 
the Mississippi and other streams or along the 
depressed channels of streams like the St. 

The amount of depression caused by the 
earthquakes varied in different localities from 

* Foster, The Mississippi Valley, p. 9. 

t TJ. S. Geological Survey, Bulletin 494, p. 65. 

two to probably twenty feet. According to 
Fuller the sunk lands are limited to the flat 
bottom lands in Mississippi, Little and St. 
Francois rivers. The testimony of those who 
were present is that the land where New 
Madrid now stands subsided fifteen feet. 
Lyell, who visited the region in 1846, when 
the evidences were much clearer than at pres- 
ent, says : ' ' The largest area affected by the 
convulsions lies eight or ten miles westward 
of the Mississippi and inland from the town 
of New Madrid, in Llissouri. It is called the 
'sunk country' and is said to extend along 
the course of the White Water (Little river?) 
and its tributaries for a distance of between 
70 and 80 miles north and south and 30 miles 
or more east and west. Throughout this area 
innumerable submerged trees — some standing 
leafless, others prostrate — are seen, and so 
great is the extent of the lake and marsh that 
an active trade in the skins of muskrats, 
minks, otters and other wild animals is now 
carried on there. In March, 1846, I skirted 
the borders of the sunk country nearest to 
New Madrid, passing along the Bayou St. 
John and Little Prairie, where dead trees of 
various kinds — some erect in the water, others 
fallen and strewed in dense masses over the 
bottom, in the shallows and near the shore — 
were conspicuous." (Lyell.) 

Farther south similar conditions existed. 
Dillard says: "I have trapped there (in the] 
region of the St. Francois) for thirty years. 
There is a great deal of sunken land caused j 
by the earthquake of 1811. There are large| 
trees of walnut, white oak and mulberry, such 
as grow on high land, which are now seen 
submerged ten and twenty feet beneath the 
^vater. In some of the lakes I have seen 
cypresses so far beneath the surface that with 
a canoe I have paddled among the branches. ' ' 



Ac'L'ording to the map published by the 
United States geologieal survey in 1912, the 
principal areas of depression due to the earth- 
quake which are to be found in Southeast 
Missouri are as follows: The low land lying 
south of Morley and on both sides of the 
Sikeston ridge, two narrow strips between 
Sikeston and Charleston, a part of the valley 
of Little river Ij'ing west of Lilbourn, a small 
area northwest of Hayti and another similar 
area lying south of Hayti, the bed of Little 
river south of the crossing on the Frisco be- 
tween Hayti and Kennett, the section called 
Lake Nicormy and extending south of Big 
lake, a large section lying east and south of 
Maiden, the section west of Maiden known as 
West Slough and extending as far as Chillete- 
caux Slough, a large part of the valley of 
Buffalo creek, the sloughs lying between Buf- 
falo creek and the St. Francois river includ- 
ing Seneca and Kinnamore, the bed of Varner 
river, and a part of the valley of the St. 
Francois west and south of Kennett. These 
are the principal areas of land submerged at 
the time of the earthquake in Southeast Mis- 
souri. Other large areas are to be foimd in 
Craighead and Green counties in Arkansas 
and include the territory about Lake City and 
the St. Francis lake. 

In some places the sinking was enough to 
cause the land to be covered with water dur- 
ing the entire year. This resulted in the death 
of the timber. Some of this was timber found 
onl.y on high land. The stumps are still to be 
seen. In man.v places the remains of 
old trees are still to be seen, sometimes stand- 
ing up above the water and in other cases 
entirely submerged. The writer remembers 
to have seen the bed of Little river, east of 
Hornersville, at a time of low water, when 
the stumps of hiuidreds of trees were visible, 
showing conclusively that this channel of the 

river was at one time nuich higher land. 
Its level was in all probability changed by 
the earthquake and the timbers killed by the 
incoming of the water. 

At other places throughout the submerged 
region old cypress trees are to be found grow- 
ing in the water, having still a feeble, linger- 
ing life in them, although the large bole at 
the root of the tree which is characteristic of 
the cypress, is entirely submerged. Some of 
these old trees were at Coker Landing on 
Little river and at many other places along 
that stream. 

The sinking of the land is evidenced not 
alone by the existence of the stumps and 
trunks of trees killed by the water, but also 
by the existence of parts of the old banks of 
Little river. It was said by the inhabitants 
of the section before the earthquake, that the 
territory now known as Little river swamps, 
extending from within New Madrid coimty 
to within Dunklin county, was formerly a level 
plain covered with timber, but not a swamp ; 
and that through this level plain Little river 
made its way, a stream with high banks and 
a well defined channel. That this was the case 
seems to be shown by the fact that at a num- 
ber of places along the course of Little river 
there are still to be seen parts of these high 
banks. Throughout the greater part and 
eourse of the river it spreads out over im- 
mense territory, with scarcely anything to 
define its banks; but at places there are seen 
what are believed to be the remains of its 
former banks. 

One other effect of the earthquake on the 
land is still to be described, and that is the 
forcing out upon the surface of water, 
sand, mud and gas. Bringier says the water 
forced its way by blowing up the earth with 
loud explosions. "It rushed out in all quar- 
ters bringing with it enormous quantities of 



carbonized ■wood reduced mostly into dust, 
which was ejected to the height of 10 and 15 
feet and fell in a black shower mixed with 
the sand which its rapid motion had forced 
along. At the same time the roar and whis- 
tling produced by the impetuosity of the air 
escaping from its confinement seemed to in- 
crease the horrible disorder. * * * i^ f jig 
meantime the surface was sinking and a black 
liquid was rising to the saddle-girths of my 

Great quantities of this water were thrown 
out. Flint says that the amount ejected in 
the neighborhood of Little Prairie was sutS- 
cient to cover a tract many miles in extent 
from three to four feet deep. Some districts 
were still covered Avhen he saw them seven 
years after the earthquake.! 

Out of the fissures and small craters there 
was blo^\Ti, along with other material of vari- 
ous kinds, great quantities of sand, which 
came from below the strata of claj^ which 
underlies the alluvial top soil of the district. 
It was in this sand that the lignite was prin- 
cipally contained. 

The sand thus ejected formed the sand 
blows characteristic of part of the New Madrid 
area. The name seems to have been given 
them from the fact that the sand was blo\vn 
out of the craters or fissures. The ordinary 
sand blow is a patch of sand nearly circular 
in shape, from 8 to 15 feet across, and a few 
inches higher than the surroimding soil. Some 
of them are much larger and man,y of them 
are not circular. The material contained in 
the sand blows is a white quartz sand, mixed 
in some cases with clay, and in nearly all 
cases with lignite. 

These sand blows at the present time are 

* Bringier, Amer. Jour, of Science, 1st Series, 
Vol. Ill, p. 15. 

+ Flint, EecoUefftioDS of the Last Ten Years, 
p. 222. 

found scattered over a considerable part of 
the area covered by the earthquake. They do 
not occur, however, in all parts of it. They 
are not found immediatelj- along the river 
nor seldom upon the domes or viplifts previ- 
ously described. Many of them are to be 
found in the neighborhood of New Madrid, 
along the railroad leading to Campbell, about 
Campbell, in the neighborhood of Lilbourn 
and Portageville. There are also many be- 
tween Hayti and Caruthersville, and about 
Pascola, and some are found on the ridge 
extending south from Dexter, especially in the 
southern part of Dimklin countj'. 

The origin of these sand blows, as we have 
said, seems fairl.y evident. Out of the cracks 
opened in the alluvial top soil was forced sand 
and water in the form of a fountain and the 
sand was distributed over a small area about 
this crack. 

Besides the sand blows there are certain 
depressions three to five feet in depth bor- 
dered on either side b}' ridges of sand parallel 
with one another, which are called sand 
sloughs. Some of these sloughs are wide and 
they are found onlj- in the lower lands of the 
district. It has been considered by some stu- 
dents that they were formed at the time of 
the earthquake. The fissures which were 
opened were in many cases large, and out of 
them were forced enormous quantities of sand, 
which was piled in ridges coinciding in part 
with the sides of the fissures and spread over 
the area between them, helping to form the 
channel now kno^xTi as a sand slough. 

Of the phenomena of the earthquake among 
the most interesting are the sinks still to be 
seen in some places of the earthquake area. 
They are perhaps the most conspicuous of all 
the evidences of the shocks and perhaps the 
rarest. They are circular depressions in the 
alluvium originally from a few feet up to 
fifteen yards or more in diameter, and from 




5 to 30 feet iu depth. Lyell gives this account 
oi the cavities which he saw at New Madrid: 
"Hearing that some of these cavities still 
existed near the town, I went to see one of 
them, three-ciuarters of a mile to the west- 
ward. There I found a nearlj' circular hol- 
low, 10 yards wide and 5 feet deep, with a 
smaller one near it, and I observed, scattered 
about over the surrounding level groimd, 
fragments of black bituminous shale, with 
much white sand. Within a distance of a few 
hundred yards were five more of these sand- 
bursts, or sand blows, as they are sometimes 
termed here, and rather more than a mile 
farther west, near the house of 'Mr. Savors, 
mj' guide pointed out to me what he called 
'the sink hole where the negro was drowned.' 
It is a striking object, interrupting the regu- 
larity of a flat plain, the sides very steep and 
28 feet deep from the top to the water's edge. 
The water now standing in the bottom is said 
to have been originally very deep, but has 
grown shallow by the washing in of sand and 
the crumbling of the bank caused by the feet 
of cattle coming to drink. I was assured that 
many wagon loads of matter were cast up out 
of this hollow, and the quantity must have 
been considerable to account for the void: 
yet the pieces of lignite and the quantity of 
sand now heaped on the level plain near its 
borders would not suffice to fill one-tenth part 
of the cavity. Perhaps a part of the e.iected 
substance may have been swallowed up again 
and the rest may have been so mixed with 
water as to have spread like a fluid over the 

Bringier says: "The whole surface of the 
country remained covered with holes which, 
to compare small things with great, resembled 
so many craters of volcanoes surrounded with 
a ring of carbonized wood and sand, which 

rose to the height of about seven feet. I had 
occasion a few months after to .soimd the 
depth of several of these holes and found them 
not to exceed 20 feet; but I must remark the 
quiclvsand had washed into them." 

Perhaps the most noticeable of these sinks 
still to be found in the earthquake region are 
along the west side of the Little river bottoms. 
Just east of the town of Caruth in Dimklin 
county there are a number of these sinks well 
defined in portions and still known to the 
inhabitants as having been caused by the 
earthquake shocks. They exist, of course, in 
other parts of the .section, but are not numer- 
ous. It is difficult to determine exactly how 
thej^ were caused, but in all probability were 
the result of the forcing out of large quanti- 
ties of sand through the cracks in the allu- 
vium, or through the sinking awaj- of the sand 
at the bottom into the nearby bed of some 
stream. It must be remembered that the sand 
was in a semi-fluid condition and would easily 
flow away through a crack opened in the bank 
of a stream. 

Various conjectures as to the cause of these 
shocks have been suggested. A few persons at 
the time advanced the idea that thej' were 
caused by volcanic action. This idea was 
rejected, however, by those acquainted with 
the country, owing to the absence of any indi- 
cation of volcanic action. Another opinion 
was that they were due to disturbances in the 
mountains to the west. 

Some have thought the earthquakes were 
caused by some change taking place in the 
alluvial soil itself; the.v have suggested the 
caving of the banks of the river, the filling in 
of underground caverns, the explosion of 
masses of gas and oil. The quotation of Nut- 
tall in another place refers to the earthquake 



as caused by the decomposition of beds of 
lignite near the level of the river and filled 
with pyrites. 

It is sufficient to point out in an analysis 
of these suggested causes that they are entirely 
inadequate to accoiuit for the violence of the 
shocks and especially for the wide area over 
which they were felt. The caving of the 
banks of the river, no matter how extensive, 
could have affected the soil for only a few 
feet, and no explosion of gas could have 
shaken the western half of the United States. 
In fact, no disturbance of any character what- 
ever, taking place within the alluvial soil, 
could have been communicated through the 
Appalachian mountains to the east coast. 
There seems to be but one alternative and that 
is to suppose the earthquakes to have been 
caused by a movement not in the alluvial soil 
but in the imderlying rocks, which extend not 
only under the alluvium but also throughout 
the eastern half of the country. Faulting or 
other disturbances in these underlying rocks, 
no matter where originating, might have been 
communicated to any part of the country, 
Such movement seems on the whole to be the 
most probable origin of these tremendous dis- 

There follow the accounts of a number of 
persons who witnessed the scenes of the earth- 
quakes or studied them shortly afterward. 
They are given in order to preserve as many 
as possible of the facts of that time. The first 
of these is a letter written in 1816 b3' Mrs. 
Eliza Bryan, who at the time of the shock 
was at New Madrid. 

New IMadrid, Territory of IMissouri, March 

22, 1816. 

On the 16th of December, 1811, about 2 
o'clock a. m., we were visited by a violent 

shock of an earthquake, accompanied by a 
very awful noise resembling loud, distant 
thiuider, but more hoarse and vibrating, which 
was followed in a few minutes by a complete 
saturation of the atmosphere with sulphurous 
vapor, causing total darkness. 

The screams of the affrighted inhabitants 
running to and fro, not knowing where to go 
or what to do; the cries of the fowls and 
beasts of every species ; the cracking of trees 
falling, and the roaring of the Mississippi, the 
current of which retrograded for a few min- 
utes, owing as is supposed to an eruption in 
its bed, all formed a scene truly horrible. 
From that time until nearly sunrise a number 
of lighter shocks occurred, at which time one 
still more violent than the first took place, 
with the same accompaniments as the first, 
and the terror which had been excited in 
everyone, and indeed in all animal nature, was 
now, if possible, doubled. The inhabitants 
tied in every direction to tlie country, suppos- 
ing that there was less danger at a distance 
from tlian near the river. 

There were several shocks of a day, but 
lighter than those mentioned, until the 23d 
of January, 1812, when one occurred as vio- 
lent as the severest one of the former ones, 
accompanied by the same phenomena as the 
former. From this time until the 4th of 
February the earth was in continual agitation, 
visibly waving as a gentle sea. On that day 
there was another shock nearly as hard as the 
preceding ones. Next day four shocks, and 
on the 7th about 4 o'clock a. m., a concussion 
took place so much more violent than those 
which had preceded it that it was denominated 
the hard shock. The awful darkness of the 
atmosphere, which was as formerly saturated 
with sulphurous vapor, and the violence of the 
tempestuous thundering noise that accom- 
panied it, together with all the other phenom- 



eua mentioned, formed a scene the description 
of which required the most sublimely fanciful 
imagination. At first the Mississippi seemed 
to recede from its banks and its waters gath- 
ered up like a mountain, leaving for a moment 
many boats on the bare sand, in which time 
the poor sailors made their escape from them. 
It was then seen rising fifteen or twenty feet 
perpendicularly and expanding, as it were, at 
the same moment, the banks were overflowed 
with a retrograde current rapid as a torrent. 
The boats which before had been left on the 
sand were now torn from their moorings and 
suddenly driven up a creek at the mouth of 
which they laid, to the distance in some in- 
stances of nearly a quarter of a mile. The 
river falling as rapidl.y as it had ri.sen, receded 
within its banks again with such violence that 
it took with it whole groves of yomig cotton- 
wood trees which hedged its borders. They 
were broken off with such regularity in some 
instances that persons who had not witnessed 
the fact would be with difficulty persuaded 
that it had not been the work of art. A great 
many fish were left on the banks, being imable 
to keep pace with the water ; the river was 
covered with the wrecks of boats. 

In all the hard shocks mentioned the earth 
was horribly torn to pieces; the surface of 
hundreds of acres was from time to time cov- 
ered over, of various depths, by sand which 
issued from the fissures which were made in 
great numbers all over this country, some of 
which closed up immediately after they had 
vomited forth their sands and water ; in some 
places, however, there was a substance some- 
what resembling coal or impure stone coal 
thrown up with the sands. It is impossible to 
say what the depth of the fissures or irregular 
breaks were ; we have reason to believe that 
some of them are very deep. The site of this 
. town was evidently settled down fifteen feet. 

and not more than half a mile below the town 
there does not appear to be any alteration on 
the bank of the river, but back from the river 
a short distance the numerous large ponds, or 
lakes, as they were called, were nearly aU 
dried up. The beds of some of them are ele- 
vated above their former banks several feet, 
and lately it has been discovered that a lake 
was formed on the opposite side of the Jlissis- 
sippi river in the Indian eoimtry upwards 
of one hundred miles in length and from one 
to six miles in width, of the depth of from ten 
to fifty feet. It has connection with the river 
at both ends and it is conjectured the princi- 
pal part of the Mississippi river will pass 
that way. "We were constrained by the fear 
of our houses falling to live twelve or eighteen 
months after the first shocks in little light 
camps made of boards; but we gradually be- 
came callous and returned to our houses again. 
Most of them who fled from the country in 
time of the hard shocks have returned home. 
We have slight shocks occasionally. It is 
seldom we are more than a week without feel- 
ing one and sometimes three or four in a day. 
There were two this winter past much harder 
than we have felt them for two years before. 
Since, they appear to be lighter, and we begin 
to hope that ere long they will entirely cease. 
There is one circumstance worthy of re- 
mark ; this country was subject to very hard 
thunder, but for twelve months before the 
earthquake there was none at all, and but verj' 
little since. 

Your humble servant, 

Eliza Bryan.* 

Long sa.ys that the Missouri Indians be- 
lieved earthquakes to be the effort of a supe- 
rior agency connected with the immediate 
operations of the Master of Life. The earth- 
*Le Sieur, in Kcw Madrid Eecord, October 4, 1892. 



quakes which in the year 1811 almost de- 
stroyed the town of New Madrid on the Missis- 
sippi, were very sensibly felt on the upper 
portion of the Jilissouri eoimtry and occa- 
sioned much superstitious dread among the 

Bradbury, who at the time of the earth- 
quake was on a keel boat not far south of the 
Chickasaw bluffs, says that on the night of 
the first shock they had tied their boat to a 
small island about 500 yards above the en- 
trance to the channel known as the Devil's 
channel. He was awakened about 10 o'clock 
in the night by a most treme7idous noise ac- 
companied by so violent an agitation of the 
boat that it appeared in danger of upsetting. 
He foimd the other four men on the boat in 
very great alarm and almost vmconseious from 
terror. When he reached the deck of the boat 
and could see the river he found it agitated 
as if by storm and although the noise was 
inconceivably loud and terrific, he could dis- 
tinctly hear the fall of trees and the scream- 
ing of the wild fowl of the river. After some 
moments, during which all on the boat 
thought they would be destroyed, they made 
their way to the stern of the boat in order to 
put out a fire which had been kindled on the 
fiat surface of a large rock. By this time the 
shock had ceased, but they were further 
frightened by the fact that the perpendicular 
banks, both above and beloAV the boat, began 
to fall into the river in such vast masses as 
to nearly sink the boat by the large swells 
which it occasioned. 

After some difficulty he managed to send 
two men up the bank of the island to which 
they were moored to see if the island itself 
had not been cut in two by the shock; they 
had suspected this was the fact, owing to the 
noise which they had heard. Bradbury him- 
self went on shore at about half past two in 

* Long Journal, p. 57. 

the morning; just as he was making his way 
to the shore another shock came, terrible in- 
deed, but not equal to the first. On reaching 
the shore he found that the bank to which his 
boat was tied was divided from the rest of the 
island by a chasm four feet in width and that 
the bank itself had sunk at least two feet ; the 
chasm which had opened seemed to be about 
80 yards in length. A number of other shocks 
were felt during the night but they were not 
so violent as the first two. It was noticed that 
the sound which was heard at the time of 
every shock always preceded it at least a sec- 
ond and that the sound came every time from 
the same point and went off in an opposite 
direction ; the shocks seemed to travel from a 
little north of east to the westward. By day- 
light they had counted twenty-seven shocks 
but on landing they were unable to cross the 
channel, the river at that time was covered 
with foam and drift timber and had risen con- 
siderably, but the boat was still safe. 

They observed two canoes floating down 
the river, in one of which there was some 
Indian corn and some clothes. They found 
later that the men who had been in these 
canoes, as well as some others, had been 
droMTied at the time of the shock. Just as 
they loosened the boat, preparing to depart, 
there came another shock almost equal to the 
first. At intervals dwring the day there were 
other shocks, among them a very strong one 
occurred, and the river was very greatly agi- 
tated. Mr. Bridge, one of Bradbury's com- 
panions, was standing on the bank during 
one of these and the shock was so violent that 
he was almost thrown into the river. 

At 11 o'clock that morning there came an- 
other violent shock that seemed to affect the 
men in the boat as seriously as if they had 
been on the land; the trees on both sides of 
the river were violently agitated and the 



banks iu several places fell into the river, 
carrj'ing with them innumerable trees. The 
soimds were very terrifying ; the crash of fall- 
ing timber, the sound of the shock itself, and 
the screaming of the wdld fowl produced an 
idea that all nature was in a state of dissolu- 
tion. The river was greatly agitated, so much 
so, in fact, that Bradbury's companions re- 
fused to remain in the boat though he himself 
was of the opinion that it was much safer 
there than on the land. The shocks continued 
from day to day until the 17th. They found 
the people on the river to be very much 
alarmed, manj' of them having fled away, and 
those that remained were very anxious to do 
so. Bradbury was told by some of them that 
a chasm had opened on the sand bar and on 
closing had thrown water to the height of a 
tall tree and that chasms had opened in the 
earth in several places back from the river.* 
Flint, on visiting America in 1818, wrote an 
account of the New Madrid earthquake as 
reported to him at that time: "During the 
year 1812 two considerable shocks and many 
lesser vibrations w-ere observed. It appeared 
that the center from which the convulsions 
proceeded were in the vicinity of New IMadrid. 
At that place a dreadful commotion prevailed 
in December, 1812 ; the trees beat upon one 
another and were either twisted or broken, the 
site of the town subsided about eight feet, 
many acres of land sunk and were overflowed 
by the river and the water rushed in torrents 
from crevices opened in the land, boats were 
sunk and sunk logs of timber were raised from 
the bottom in such quantities that almost cov- 
ered the surface of the river, and that at slight 
intervals of a few days slight vibrations were 
felt to the present time. Many of the people 
deserted their possessions and retreated to 

* Bradbury 's Travels, p. 204. 

the Missouri where lands were granted them 
by congress.** 

Faux quotes a man who lived in Ohio and 
whom he visited in 1818, as follows: "It 
shook people out of their beds, knocked down 
brick chimneys and made old log houses crack 
and rattle. On the Mississippi, too, the con- 
vulsive motion of the water was truly awful, 
running and rising mountains high and the 
solid land on the high banks was seen in an 
imdulated agitation like the waters of the sea. 
New Madrid simk down several feet, the land, 
however, in many parts aroimd this town, is 
covered with water, f 

From the proceeds of the land granted to 
him on accoimt of the New JIadrid earth- 
quake, August Chouteau established the first 
distillery in St. Louis.J 

LeSieur says that at the time of the earth- 
quake there was living on a bayou called 
Terre Rouge, one of the tributaries of Pemis- 
cot bayou, a man by the name of Culberson. 
The bayou at that point formed a short curve 
or elbow axid on the point was Culberson's 
house; between the house and the extreme 
point was his well and smoke house. On the 
morning of the 16th of December, 1811, jast 
after a hard shock had subsided, Jlrs. Culber- 
son started to the well for water and to the 
smoke house for meat, and discovered that 
they were on the opposite side of the river; 
the shock had opened a new channel across 
the point between the house and the well.^ 

In 1871 Professor Hager asked Mr. LeSieur 
certain questions concerning this earthquake 
and these answers, which shed some light on 
the situation, are reproduced here : ' ' First — 

** Flint, Letters from America, p. 246. 
t Faux, Journal, p. i80. 
t Early Western Travel. Vol. TV. p. l.SS. 
fl LeSieur in Weekly Record, Oct. 4, 1893. 



That earthquakes in this region of country 
mentioned in my former communications were 
never known, nor are there any signs left on 
the surface of the earth as in that of 1811 and 
1812, to indicate that there had ever been any. 
And in many conversations had with the old 
men of several tribes — Shawnees, Delawares 
and Cherokees — all said they had no tradi- 
tionary account that earthquakes had ever 
visited the country before. 

' ' Second— With regard to the charcoal men- 
tioned, it may be the kind you mention (alber- 
tine, or solidified asphaltum). The peculiar 
odor of the coal induced the belief that it was 
impregnated with sulphur, yet it may have 
been the odor of petroleum. Its smell was 
unlmown to us at that period. 

"Third — The water thrown up during the 
eruption of the 'land waves' was luke warm; 
so warm, indeed, as to produce no chilly sen- 
sation while wading and swimming through 
it. Since the year 1812 the shakes have been 
of frequent occurrence, appearing at intervals 
and not periodical, and seemingly growing 
less every year. 

"Fourth — It would be difficult to say with 
any degree of certainty how high the water, 
coal and sand were thrown up. The numer- 
ous fissures opened were of different sizes, 
some twelve to fifteen feet wide, while others 
were not over four or five feet; by guess I 
would say the waters, etc., thrown up were 
from six to ten feet high. Besides these long 
and narrow fissures the water, sand and coal 
were thrown out to a considerable height in 
a circular form, leaving large and deep basins, 
some of them one hundred yards across and 
sufficiently deep to retain water during the 

driest seasons." (LeSieur, Weekly Record.) 
In order to arrive at some conclusion as to 
the general and permanent effects of the 
shocks on the level and the drainage of the 
country, a description is here inserted of the 
drainage of the section before the earthquakes. 
The account as given is condensed from the 
articles written in 1893 by Mr. Godfrey Le- 
Sieur and published in the Weekly Record 
of New Madrid. Mr. LeSieur was familiar 
with the country and understood the system 
of drainage. It should be borne in mind that 
he is describing the streams and lakes as they 
were before the shocks. 

St. James Bayou had its source ;n Scott 
county near the southern limit of the Scott 
County hills and flowed south through Scott, 
Mississippi and a part of New Madrid coun- 
ties. It received its waters from cypress 
ponds and lakes, principally those in Missis- 
sippi county. It emptied into the Mississippi 
river about ten miles northeast of New 

St. John's bayou, which was from ten to 
fifteen miles west of St. James, flowed parallel 
to it. It received its waters from lakes and 
also from connection with Little river just 
south of the present town of Benton. This 
bayou was about forty miles long and emptied 
into the river at the east side of the town of 
New Madrid. Eight miles above its mouth it 
received East bayou. At the point where 
these two join, the Spaniards, during their 
occupation of the country, built a water mill, 
and on a branch of St. John's called Little 
bayou, which connected with the river, the 
French built a mill in about 1790. This mill 
site and, indeed, the entire bayou has dis- 

The "Personal Narrative of Col. John Shaw 
of Marquette County, Wisconsin," contained 
in the second annual report and collections of 
the State Historical Society of Wisconsin, for 

the year 1855, gives an account of the New 
Madrid earthquake of 1811 and 1812: "While 
lodging about thirty miles north of New 
IMadrid, on the 14th of December, 1811, about 



appeared, having been carried away by the 
river. Both of these bayous, St. James and 
St. John's, were named by Francois and Jo- 
seph LeSieur. 

The next stream east of St. John's bayou 
was Little river, called by the French Riviere 
Petite. It was about seven miles west of New 
Madrid. About eight miles above New Mad- 
rid it flowed for a distance of a mile from a 
ledge strewn with boulders of bog ore. It 
received the following tributaries from the 
east : Otter bayou, which drained the lakes 
in the north part of the district ; the Decypri, 
a cypress swamp which leaves the Mississippi 
river at New Madrid and flows into cypress 
lakes and then into Little river. Two miles 
South of New Madrid, Bayou Fourche left the 
Mississippi river, entered Lakes St. Marie and 
St. Ann, then flowed past La Grande Cote 
or the Big Mound, and entered Little river. 
In the early days a ferry across this stream 
was maintained near this mound. Four miles 
further south. Bayou Portage flowed out from 
the Mississippi river, running to the south- 
west and entering Little river one mile south 
of Weaverville. This bayou was frequently 
used for the purposes of transportation. 

2 o'clock in the morning, occurred a heavy 
shock of an earthquake. The house where I 
was stopping was partly of wood and partly 
of brick structure ; the brick portion all fell, 
but I and the family all fortunately escaped 
unhurt. At the still greater shock, about 2 
o'clock in the morning of the 7th of February, 
1812, I was in New Madrid, when nearly two 
thousand people of all ages, fled in terror from 
their falling dwellings in that place and the 
surrounding country, and directed their 
course north about thirty miles to Tywappit.y 
Hill, on the western bank of the Mississippi, 
and about seven miles back from the river. 

Barges and keel-boats were accustomed to 
come up the St. Francois and Little rivers to 
Weaverville and then pass up through Bayou 
Portage to the Mississippi. In time of low 
water it was necessary to make a carry across 
the ridge which separated a part of the bayou 
from the Mississippi. This carry was usually 
made to a point on the river where there was 
an Indian village ; this place was afterward 
called Point Pleasant. This strip of high 
ground over which the carry was made came 
to be called the Portage also. Four miles 
south of Point Pleasant a low place in the 
banks of the river allowed the water to flow 
into a lake which, from its grassy banks, was 
called Cushion lake. The outlet from Cush- 
ion lake to Bayou Portage was called Portage 
bay. It is upon the bank of this bay that 
the present town of Portageville is situated. 
Between Cushion lake and the next large 
bayou there were a number of small tribu- 
taries which flowed from cypress lakes into 
Little river. Pemiscot bayou drained the lakes 
and swamps of Pemiscot county and also 
received water in three different places from 
the Mississippi river, and finally flowed into 
Little river. 

This was the first high groimd above New 
iladrid and here the fugitives formed an en- 
campment. It was proposed that all should 
kneel and engage in supplicating God's mercy 
and all simultaneously — Catholic and Protes- 
tant — knelt and offered solemn prayer to their 

"About twelve miles back towards New 
Madrid a young woman about seventeen years 
of age, named Betsj^ Masters, had been left 
by her parents and family, her leg having 
been broken below the knee by the falling of 
one of the weight poles of the roof of the 
cabin, and although a total stranger I was the 



The tributaries of Little river on the west 
were principally those that it received from 
the St. Francois river and will be mentioned 
in connection with the St. Francois. The 
St. Francois, for the most of its course within 
the low lands, made its way east of Crowley's 
ridge ; it entered the low lauds from the hills 
of Upper Louisiana, coming into this section 
further west and south than Little river. It 
received many tributaries from the west, but 
sent out many outlets from its western side 
to Little river. The first of these western out- 
lets was in the early times called Lac[ue Ter- 

^nly person who would consent to return and 
see whether she still survived. Receiving a 
description of the locality of the place I 
started, and foimd the poor girl upon a bed, as 
she had been left, with some water and corn 
bread within her reach. I cooked up some 
food for her and made her condition as com- 
fortable as circumstances would allow, and 
returned the same day to the grand encamp- 
ment. Miss blasters eventually recovered. 

"In abandoning their homes on this emer- 
gency the people only stopped long enough to 
get their teams and hurry in their families 
and some provisions. It was a matter of doubt 
among them whether water or fire would be 
most likelj' to burst forth and cover all the 
country. The timber land aroimd New ]\Iad- 
rid simk five or six feet, so that the lakes and 
lagoons, which seemed to have their beds 
pushed up, discharged their waters over the 
sunken lands. Through the fissures caused 
by the earthquake were forced up vast quanti- 
ties of a hard, jet black substance which ap- 
peared very smooth, as though worn by fric- 
tion. It seemed a very different substance 
from either anthracite or bituminovis coal. 

' ' This hegira, with all its attendant appall- 
ing circumstances, was a most heartrending 

rible; it is now called Taylor's slough. It 
left the St. Francois river four miles south of 
Chalk bluff, then continued southeast and con- 
nected with Little river near the mouth of 
New river. From Taylor's slough, or Laque 
Terrible, as it was formerly called, two 
branches made out on the west side; the first 
of these was called New river, and the second 
Old river. Varner's river, which was for- 
merly called Chillitecaux, makes out from the 
St. Francois, runs to the east, then south and 
then west, and joins with the St. Francois 
again. The island thus formed was the last 

scene and had the effect to constrain the most 
wicked and profane earnestly to plead to God 
in prayer for mercy. In less than three 
months most of these people returned to their 
homes and though the earthquakes continued J 
occasionally with less destructive effects, they | 
became so accustomed to the recurring vibra- 
tions that they paid little or no regard to 
them, not even interrupting or checking their 
dances, frolics and vices." 

A correspondent of the Louisiana Gazette, 
whose name is not kno'mi, wrote from Cape 
Girardeau on February 15, 1812, the follow- 
ing letter: "The concussions of the earth- 
quake still continue, the shock on the 23rd ult. 
was more severe and longer than that of 
December 16th. and the shock of the 7th inst. 
was stiU more violent than any preceding and 
lasted longer perhaps than any on record 
(from 10 to 15 minutes) — the earth was not 
at rest for an hour; the ravages of this ter- 
rible convulsion ha^dng nearly depopulated 
the district of new ]\Iadrid, but few remain 
to tell the sad tale. The inhabitants have 
fled in every direction. It has done consid- 
erable damage in this place by demolishing 
chimneys and cracking cellar walls : some 
have been driven from their houses and a 



refuge of the buffalo in this section of the 
country. This island was divided by a small 
stream which connected the St. Francois with 
Varner's river. It was on this stream that 
there was located the Indian village of Chil- 
litecaux. Five miles south of this village 
there was another permanent bayou known 
as Buffalo creek, which finally emptied into 
Little river. 

On the 17th of February, 1815, Congress 
passed an act for the relief of persons who 
had sustained losses of real property. This 

number are yet in tents. No doubt volcanoes 
in the mountains of the west which have been 
extinguished for ages are now reopened." 
(Goodspeed, History of Southeast Missouri.) 
While Long was at Cape Girardeau in 1819 
he says: "On the 9th at 4 p. m. a shock of 
earthquake was felt ; the agitation was such 
as to cause considerable motion of furniture 
and other loose articles in the room where 
we were sitting. Several others occurred dur- 
ing our stay at the Cape, but they all hap- 
pened at night and were all of short duration. 
Shakes, as these concussions are called by the 
inhabitants, are in this part of the country 
extremely frequent and are spoken of as mat- 
ters of every day occurrence. It is said of 
some passengers on a steamboat who went on 
shore at New Madrid and were in one of the 
houses of the town looking at a collection of 
books, they felt the house so violently shaken 
that they were scarce able to stand upon their 
feet. Some consternation was of course felt, 
and as several of the persons were ladies, much 
terror was expressed. ' Don 't be alarmed, ' said 
the lady of the house, 'it is nothing but an 
earthquake.' Several houses in and about 
Cape Girardeau have frequently been shaken 
down, forests have been overthrown and other 

act provided that any person owning lands 
in New Madrid county on 10th day of Novem- 
ber, 1812, and whose lands were materially in- 
jured by the earthquake, might locate a like 
quantity on any public lands of the territory, 
no location, however, to embrace more than 
640 acres. 

The provisions of this act led to the cele- 
brated New Madrid claims. Locations were 
made on some of the most fertile lands in the 
state in Boone, Howard, Saline and other 
counties. Many of the claims were filed by 
persons who had no right to them and who 

considerable changes produced by their 
agency. These concussions are felt through a 
great extent of country, from the settlements 
on Red river to the fall of the Ohio and from 
the mouth of the Missouri to New Orleans. 
Their extent and very considerable degree of 
violence with which they affect not only large 
portions of the valley of the ilississippi, but 
the adjacent hilly countrj-, appear to us to be 
caused by causes far more efficient and deep 
seated than the decomposition of beds of lig- 
nite or wood coal situated near the bed of 
the river and filled with pyrites, according 
to the suggestion of Mr. Nuttall." (Long, 
Expedition, p. 88.) 

In speaking of Point Pleasant, Nuttall says: 
"This place and several islands below were 
greatly convulsed by the earthquake and have 
in consequence been abandoned. I was shown 
a considerable chasm still far from being filled 
up. from whence the water of the river, as 
they say, rushed in an elevated column." He 
says, also: "In the evening we arrived at 
the remains of the settlement called Little 
Prairie, where there is now only a single 
house, all the rest, together with their founda- 
tions, having been swept away by the river 
soon after the convulsions of the earthquake, 



sustained their claims by perjury. This is 
evidenced by the fact that the claims located 
under this act, presumably by people owning 
land in New Madrid county, covered more 
than the entire area of the county. 

Out of these grants there arose a very fa- 
mous lawsuit. It is known in legal history 
as De Lisle vs. State of Missouri. 

The De Lisle family was one of the earliest 
in New Madrid. Eustache De Lisle and John 
Baptiste De Lisle came to New Madrid in 
1795 from Detroit. They were brothei's of 
the third wife of Francois LeSieur. It should 
be said that the family continued to reside in 
New Madrid and that many of its descend- 
ants are among the prominent and influential 
citizens of the county now. In 1808 John 
Baptiste De Lisle left New Madrid for a visit 
to his sister, Mrs. Gremar, who then lived in 
Vincennes, Indiana. This was about the be- 
ginning of the war with Great Britain, and 
De Lisle enlisted in the United States army 
and served through the war. He then settled 
in New York, where he married, but was de- 
prived of all of his family during the great 
epidemic of cholera in 1839. He returned to 
Vincennes in 1841 and found his sister yet 

Up to this time he had supposed that his 
brother, Eustache, and his sister, the wife of 
Francois LeSieur, had been killed in the earth- 
quakes; he was informed by his sister, how- 
ever, that his relatives in New Madrid were 
still living. He at once communicated with 
them, to their very great astonishment, for 

in consequence, as the inhabitants say and as 
was also affirmed in New Madrid, of the land 
having sunk 10 feet or more below its former 
level." (Nuttall Journal, pp. 78-79.) 

The force of the shocks was felt over a very 
wide area and extended as far north as the 
Missouri river. Flagg, who visited Cape Gir- 

they had considered him to be dead ; in fact, 
after his leaving New Madrid in 1808, a re- 
port had come back to the post of his death, 
and they had sold the land that had been 
granted to him, consisting of 160 arpens of 
land, for a very small sum. This land had 
then passed into the hands of the persons who 
speculated in the land grants after the time 
of the earthquake. The state of Missouri had 
given to the purchasers of the Delisle land 
the right to locate an equal amount of land at 
some other place in the state and they had 
located this claim on the Missouri river where 
the city of Jefferson City now is. This grant 
from the state included within it the capitol 
grounds. Now, when John Baptiste De Lisle 
received this information that the land which 
he had possessed had passed away from him 
in this manner and that the state had given 
to the purchasers of his land a valuable grant, 
he brought suit against the state of Missouri 
to have the title to the lands thus granted 
declared to be in him. After various trials, 
the case was finally appealed to the Supreme 
court of the United States. It continued in 
that court from 1844 to 1862. In that year 
the court rendered a decision denying the 
claim of De Lisle to the land. 

The earthquakes resulted in an immediate 
loss of population throughout all the region 
affected. Most people who could do so moved 
away at once. Those w4io remained were 
either the more determined and daring of the 
population or they were the poorest who could 
not afford to leave. The flourishing village 

ardeau in 1836, says that the great earthquake 
of 1811 agitated the site of Cape Girardeau 
very severely, many brick houses were shat- 
tered, chimneys thrown down and other dam- 
age effected, traces of the repairs of which 
are yet to be viewed. (Pla gg. Par West, 
p. 87.) 


of Little Prairie which, in 1803, had a popu- in the same way, the population showing a 

lation of 103, almost entirely disappeared, great falling off shortly after the shocks. The 

Only a few families remained. Among them same thing was true of the settlements and 

was Col. J. H. Walker, who was not frightened small villages all over the district, 
enough to leave. New Madrid suffered greatly 



Petition for Organizatiok as a State — Bill to Organize a State Government — The 
Slavery Controversy — The Tallmadge Amendment — Debate Over the Amendment — 
Deadlock op the Two Houses — The Missouri Compromise — Feeling in the State — 
The Constitutional Convention^ — Members from the Southeast — The Constitution in 
Congress — Further Opposition to Admission — The Debate — Clay 's Compromise — 
The Solemn Public Act — The President's Proclamation Admitting the State — Pe- 
culiarities of the Transaction — State Boundaries — Missouri — Arkansas — Wolf 

The territory of Missouri grew, as we have 
seen, very rapidly in wealth and population. 
The people, though living since 1816 under 
the third or highest form of territorial gov- 
ernment, desired to be organized as a state 
and to be admitted to the Union. Accord- 
ingly, we find that in 1817 a number of peti- 
tions were drawn up and circulated among 
the people of the territory asking Congress to 
authorize the organization of a state govern- 
ment. Most of these petitions were lost, but 
recently Mr. Bartholdt, a member of Congress 
from St. Louis, found one of the copies and 
had it framed and preserved. It is set out 
below : 

"Memorial of the Citizens of Missouri Ter- 
ritory — To the Honorable, the Senate and the 
House of Representatives of the United States 
of America in Congress Assembled : — The pe- 
tition of the undersigned inhabitants of the 
Territory of Missouri respectfully showeth : 
That your petitioners live within that part of 

the Territory of Llissouri which lies between 
the latitudes of 36 degrees and 30 minutes 
and 40 degrees north, and between the Missis- 
sippi river to the east and the Osage boundarj' 
to the west. They pray that they may be 
admitted into the Union of the states with 
these limits. 

"They conceive that their numbers entitle 
them to the benefits and to the rank of a state 
government. Taking the progressive increase 
during former years as the basis of the calcu- 
lation they estimate their present numbers at 
40,000 souls. Tennessee, Ohio and the Missis- 
sippi state were admitted with smaller num- 
bers, and the treaty of cession guarantees this 
great privilege to your petitioners as soon as 
it can be granted under the principles of the 
Federal Constitution. They have passed eight 
years in the first grade of territorial govern- 
ment, five in the second; they have evinced 
their attachment to the honor and integrity 
of the Union during the late war and they 
with deference urge their right to become a 




member of the great republie. They forbear 
to dilate upon the evils of the territorial gov- 
ernment but will barely name among the 
grievances of this condition : 

' ■ 1 . That they have no vote in your honor- 
able body and yet are subject to the indirect 
taxation imposed by you. 

"2. That the veto of the territorial execu- 
tive is absolute upon the acts of the territorial 

''8. That the Superior Court is constructed 
on principles unheard of in any other system 
of jurisprudence, having primary cognizance 
of almost every controversy, civil and crim- 
inal, and subject to correction by no other 

'"4. That the powers of the territorial leg- 
islature are limited to the passage of laws of 
a local nature owing to the paramount au- 
thority of Congress to legislate upon the same 

And after describing the boundaries of the 
proposed new state the memorialists say that 
the boundaries, as solicited, will include the 
country to the north and west to which the 
Indian title has been extinguished, also the 
body of the population ; that the Missouri 
river will rim through the center of the state ; 
that the boundaries are adapted to the coun- 
try ; that "the woodland districts are foimd 
towards the great rivers ; the interior is com- 
posed of vast ridges and naked and sterile 
plains stretching to the Shining mountains;" 
and that the country north and south of the 
^Missouri is necessary to each other, the former 
possessing a rich soil destitute of minerals, the 
latter abounding in mines of lead and iron 
and thinly sprinkled with spots of groimd fit 
for cultivation. In conclusion the memorial- 
ists say that they "hope that their voice may 
have some weight in the division of their 
countrv and in the formation of their state 

boimdaries ; and that .statesmen ignorant of 
its localities may not undertake to cut out 
their territory with fanciful divisions which 
may look handsome on paper, but must be 
ruinous in effect." 

This petition was signed by Jacob Petit, 
Isaac W. Jameson, Sam S. Williams and 
others, nearly all of whom were at the time 
citizens of Wa.shington county. The memorial 
was presented to Congress in January, 1818, 
but no action seems to have been taken upon 
it, nor upon other similar or perhaps identical 
petitions presented at the same time. In 
December of the same year, however, the terri- 
torial assembly of Missouri drew up a memo- 
rial on the .same subject, which was presented 
to Congress by John Scott of Ste. Genevieve, 
the territorial delegate. This memorial was 
thereupon presented to a committee for con- 
sideration and report. This committee re- 
ported in favor of the organization of a .state 
government in Missouri, and a bill was draT\Ti 
and presented to the house for that purpose. 
The consideration of this bill precipitated a 
great discussion and brought to the front for 
the first time, in an acute way, the slavery 

To imderstand the history of this bill and 
the great controversy that raged over the ad- 
mission of the state, we must recall the situa- 
tion that existed in the Union. The slavery 
question was already exciting people. It had 
not yet come to be regarded with such pas- 
sionate earnestness as a moral question as it 
was later destined to be considered, but as a 
political question it was already before the 
people. A fierce contest raged between the 
north and south for the control of Congress. 
Power in political affairs had for some years 
vacillated between slave and free states. A 
few years prior to the introduction of this 



bill the north had a preponderance in both 
houses of Congress. That preponderance still 
maintained so far as the house was concerned. 
The organization of Alabama and its pending 
admission, however, threatened to increase the 
already superior power of the south in the 
senate. It was this political situation, the de- 
sire to control Congress, rather than opposi- 
tion to slavery as an institution, that caused 
the opposition to the organization of Mis- 
souri. If Slissouri and Alabama should both 
come into the Union as slave states, as was 
very probable, then the balance of power 
would be destroyed and the south would have 
a very great preponderance in the senate. It 
was determined to prevent this if possible. 

It was considered almost certain that if the 
people of Missouri were left free to determine 
the question of slavery in the state for them- 
selves that the constitution of the state would 
permit the existence of the institution. Some 
way must be accordingly found by which the 
matter of determining the question could be 
taken out of the hands of the people and trans- 
ferred to Congress. It had been suggested, in 
the case of Alabama, that a provision in the 
act permitting the organization of the state, 
require the prohibition of slavery as a condi- 
tion precedent to its admission. It was ob- 
jected to this course, however, that when 
Georgia ceded the territory out of which Ala- 
bama was subsequently organized it was stip- 
ulated that no restriction should be placed 
upon slavery. This was regarded as standing 
in the way of any attempt to dictate to the 
people of the state their attitude toward it. 
Accordingly nothing was said concerning 
slavery in the act authorizing the admission 
of Alabama. It was felt, however, that some 
provision must be made concerning slavery in 

Accordingly, IMr. Tallmadge of New York, 

moved to amend the bill by inserting the fol- 
lowing provision : ' ' And provided that the 
further introduction of slavery or involuntarj' 
servitude be prohibited, except for pimish- 
ment of crimes, whereof the party shall have 
been duly convicted, and that all children 
born within the said state after the admission 
thereof into the Union shall be free at the age 
of twenty-five years. ' ' 

The debate over this amendment was long 
and bitter. The opponents of the amendment 
contended that such action was contrary to 
the action of Congress in the admission of 
Kentucky, Tennessee, Louisiana, Mississippi 
and Alabama, all of which had been admitted 
as slave states without such provision ; that it 
violated the treaty entered into with France 
at the time of the cession of Louisiana, one 
clause of which guaranteed to the people of 
that territory, including Missouri, the posses- 
sion of their property. It was urged that if 
Congress had respected the provision made by 
Georgia in ceding Alabama, then it should re- 
spect the treaty obligations of the government 
of the United States. It was further urged 
that such a clause, hampering the free action 
of the people of a state, was bej'ond the power 
of Congress to make, and therefore unconsti- 
tutional ; that it put a stigma upon the people 
of Missouri, in that it did not admit them upon 
equal terms with the other states ; and finally, 
that if the clause were inserted in the state 
constitution it could be repealed or amended 
at any time b^' action of the people of IMis- 

The friends of the amendment contended 
that the very fact that Congress could admit 
or reject a state was sufficient evidence that it 
possessed the power to prescribe the terms of 
admission; that the fact that slavery was 
morally wrong; that it was a political and 
economic evil existing only by virtue of local 
laws, conferred on Congress the right and 



power to supersede, if necessary, treaty obli- 
gations, and take those measures needed for 
the best interests of the country. 

After long debate the amendment passed 
the house, but the amended bill was rejected 
by the senate, and the fifteenth Congress ad- 
journed with a deadlock between the houses. 
The question was presented to the sixteenth 
Congress in December, 1819. Neither house 
seemed ready to recede from its position, but 
a new element entered into the discussion. 
Maine had applied for admission to the Union. 
It would come in, if admitted, as a free state. 
Its admission was desired by those who wished 
to place a restriction on the admission of Mis- 
souri. The senate, therefore, at the sugges- 
tion of Senator Jesse B. Thomas, of Illinois, 
united the measures for the two states into 
one bill. It was declared by those opposed to 
the restriction on Missouri that, unless that 
restriction was abandoned and Missouri ad- 
mitted on terms of equality with other states, 
Maine should not be admitted at all. The 
debate over this matter continued for several 
weeks. A deadlock again occurred between 
the two houses. Out of that disagreement 
came the measures which are collectively 
known as the I\Iissouri Compromise. 

Maine was admitted as a free state ; the 
people of Missouri were authorized to form a 
government without anj^ clause in the act re- 
ferring to slavery, and it was stipulated that 
slavery should be excluded from "all the ter- 
ritoiy ceded by France to the United States, 
under the name of Louisiana, north of thirty- 
six degrees and thirty minutes north lati- 
tude," except, of course, Missouri. 

This series of measures known as the Mis- 
souri Compromise was approved on March 6. 
1820. As we have said, this authorized the 
formation of a state government in Missouri ; 

but, contrary to the usual practice, did not 
provide for the admission of the state into the 
Union. The people had no sort of guarantee 
that they would be admitted, even after the 
formation of their government. In pursu- 
ance of the terms of the act, an election was 
held in the territory in May, 1820, to select 
members of a constitutional convention. This 
convention was empowered, by the terms lui- 
der which its members were elected, to de- 
termine by majority whether it was expedient 
for them to frame a constitution, and, if con- 
sidered expedient, to proceed to the work of 
making the constitution. If, on the other 
hand, they felt that it was not the time for this 
work, they were authorized to provide for the 
election of another convention. 

It is quite probable that a constitution 
favoring slavery would have been adopted in 
the state, no matter at what time the mem- 
bers of the convention had been elected. "What a mere probabilitj', however, became a 
certainty, owing to the feeling of irritation 
over the attempted restriction on what was 
felt to be the right of the people of the state 
to decide the slavery question for themselves 
free from the dictation of Congress. John 
Scott had declared during the discussion of 
the Tallmadge amendment that the proposed 
limitation of the power of the people was an 
insult to them, and this was the prevailing 
sentiment in the state. Under such conditions 
the members of the constitutional convention 
were chosen and they were for a slavery con- 
stitution by a large majority. 

This convention met in St. Louis, June 12, 
1820. Its sessions were held in the hotel at 
the corner of Third and Vine streets, known 
as the "Mansion House." There were fort.v- 
one members of the convention. The South- 
east ]\Iissouri members were as follows : Prom 



Cape Girardeau county, Stephen Byrd, James 
Evans, Richard S. Thomas, Alexander Buck- 
ner and Joseph McFerron; Jefferson county, 
Daniel Hammond ; Madison coimty, Nathaniel 
Cook; New Madrid coiuity, Robert D. Dawson 
and Christopher G. Houts; Ste. Genevieve 
county, John D. Cook, Henry Dodge, Jolm 
Scott and R. T. Brown ; Washington county, 
John Rice Jones, Samuel Perry and John 
Hutchings; Wayne county, Elijah Bettis. 
David Barton, of St. Louis, was made presi- 
dent of the convention and William G. Pettis, 

The convention was in session for a little 
more than a month, adjourning July 19, 
1820. It was at once agreed that a constitu- 
tion should be framed and the month the con- 
vention was in session was devoted to this 
work. The constitution thus made was in 
force in this state until superseded by the 
Drake constitution in 1865. It was compar- 
atively short, concise in statement, and was 
evidently the work of a statesman and thinker. 
It sanctioned slavery, as was almost certain 
in any ease, but doubly so after the attempted 
restriction by Congress. This constitution, 
under the terms of the election of the mem- 
bers of the convention, did not require to be 
submitted to the people of the state for their 
approval; it became effective at once, upon 
the close of the convention. 

The second session of the sixteenth Congress 
met November 13, 1820, and on the 16th of 
November Mr. Scott, the delegate from Mis- 
Bouri, presented to the house a copy of the 
constitution of the state. This constitution 
was referred to the committee which reported 
on the 23rd, reciting the fact that Congress 
had previously authorized the formation of the 
state government ; that the people of the state 
had held the convention and formed the con- 
stitution; and that said constitution "is Re- 

publican and in conformity with the provi- 
sions of said act." Accompanying this pre- 
amble was a resolution to admit the state into 
the Union on equal terms with the other 

Doubtless it was supposed by the people of 
the state that there would be no further dif- 
ficulty over its admission. They had com- 
plied with the terms of the act authorizing 
the formation of a government. That act con- 
tained no prohibition on .slavery and it would 
seem that there was no possible ground on 
which the state might be refused admission. 
In spite of these facts, the resolution to admit 
the state was very bitterly fought. The os- 
tensible ground of objection was the follow- 
ing clause in the constitution itself: "It 
shall be their duty, as soon as may be, to pass 
such laws as maj^ be necessary to prevent 
free negroes and mulattos from coming to and 
settling in this state under any pretext what- 
soever. ' ' 

The opponents of the admission of Missouri 
argued that this clause in the constitution of 
the state was in direct violation of that clause 
in the constitution of the United States which 
guarantees equal privileges in all the states 
to the citizens of each state, of which priv- 
ileges the right of emigration is one. On the 
other hand, it was pointed out that similar 
clauses controlling emigration existed m the 
constitutions of a number of states and that 
no objection had ever been raised to them; 
and it was further pointed out that if this 
clause was in reality in opposition to the con- 
t^titution of the United States, it would be de- 
clared null and void by the supreme court of 
the United States. 

It is clear, of course, that the real ground of 
objection to the admission of Missouri was not 
this paragraph. The motive of the men who 
opposed Missouri was not to protect the rights 



oi! a few negroes who might possibly wish to 
move to Missouri. In spite of the fact that 
the Missouri Compromise had been agreed to, 
there were a large number of the members of 
the house who had determined that the state 
should never be admitted as a slave state, and 
their real motive was the desire to keep the 
state from being admitted until a constitu- 
tion prohibiting slavery should be adopted. 

The debate on this resolution was one of 
the fiercest that ever took place in Congress. 
The whole country was stirred to fever heat 
by the charges and counter charges, by the 
threats of cession and the breaking up of the 
Union that were made on both sides. The 
whole institution of slavery was attacked with 
utmost vehemence and the right of the people 
of the states to decide this question for them- 
selves was defended with equal fervor. After 
several weeks of debate, and at a time when it 
seemed the very fomidations of the govern- 
ment itself would crumble; when fear was 
present everywhere that the Union could not 
long survive, Henry Clay, of Kentucky, in- 
troduced a resolution, which was adopted, pro- 
viding that a committee of twenty-three mem- 
bers should be appointed by the senate and 
the house, who should take the whole matter 
under consideration and make a report to 
Congress. After long discussion, this commit- 
tee reported to each house of Congress, Febru- 
ary 26, 1821, a resolution which provided that 
Missouri should be admitted to the Union on 
an equal footing with the original states 
upon the fimdamental condition that the 4th 
clause of the 26th section of the 3rd article of 
the constitution — the clause which forbade im- 
migration of negroes — should never be con- 
strued to authorize the passage of any law by 
which any citizen of either of the states should 
be excluded from the enjoyment of any of the 
privileges to which he is entitled under the 

constitution of the United States. The resolu- 
tion further provided that the legislature of 
i\Iissouri by a solenm public act should de- 
clare the assent of the state to this funda- 
mental condition, and should transmit to the 
president of the United States a copy of their 
actions. The president was thereupon author- 
ized to issue a proclamation reciting the fact 
that the legislature had passed such an act 
and that upon the making of this proclama- 
tion the admi.ssion to Missouri should be con- 
sidered as complete. 

The resolution so reported was adopted on 
February 28th. The reason for referring the 
matter to the president and making his proc- 
lamation the basis for the final admission of 
the state, rather than an act of Congress, was 
to avoid any further discussion or agitation of 
a question which was felt to be dangerous to 
the safety of the coimtry. All that remained 
to be done, luider the terms of this resolution 
was for the legislature of the state to publish 
the solemn public act required of it. In order 
to do this, Governor Clark convened the legis- 
lature in special session Jime 24, 1821, and 
on June 26th the legislature adopted the fol- 
lowing act: "Forasmuch as the good people 
of this state have, by the most solemn and 
public act in their power, virtually assented 
to the said fundamental condition, when, by 
their representatives in full and free conven- 
tion assembled, they adopted the constitution 
of this state, and consented to be incorporated 
into the federal Union, and governed by the 
constitution of the United States, which, 
among other things, provides that the said 
constitution and laws of the United States, 
made in pursuance thereof, and all treaties 
made or which shall be made under the 
authority of the United States, shall be the 
supreme law of the land; and the judges in 
every state shall be bound thereby, anything 



in the constitution or law of any state to the 
contrary notwithstanding. And although this 
general assembly do most solemnly declare 
that the Congress of the United States have 
no constittuional power to annex any condi- 
tion to the admission of this state into the fed- 
eral Union, and that this general assembly 
have no power to change the operation of the 
constitution of this state, except in the mode 
prescribed in the constitution itself, neverthe- 
less, as the Congress of the United States has 
desired this general assembly to declare the 
assent of this state to said fundamental condi- 
tion, and forasmuch as such declaration will 
neither restrain nor enlarge, limit nor extend, 
the operation of the constitution of the United 
States or of this state ; but the said constitu- 
tion will remain in all respects as if the said 
resolution had never passed, and the desired 
declaration was never made ; and because such 
declaration will not divest any power or 
change the duties of any of the constitutional 
authorities of this state or of the United 
States, nor impair the rights of the people of 
this state, or impose any additional obligation 
upon them, but may promote an earlier en- 
joyment of their vested federal rights, and 
this state being, moreover, determined to give 
to her sister states and to the world the most 
unequivocal proof of her desire to promote 
the peace and harmony of the Union, there- 

"Be it enacted and declared by the general 
assembly of the state of Missouri, and it is 
hereby solemnly and publicly enacted and de- 
clared, That this state has assented and does 
assent that the fourth clause of the twenty- 
sixth section of the third article of the consti- 
tution of this state shall never be constriied to 
authorize the passage of any law, and that no 
law shall be passed in conformity thereto, by 
which any citizen, of either of the United 

States, shall be excluded from the enjoyment 
of any of the privileges and immunities to 
which such citizens are entitled uader the 
constitution of the United States." 

This act was transmitted to the president 
M^ho, on August 10, 1821, made a proclama- 
tion announcing the admission of Missouri 
into the Union. 

It is evident that this is one of the most 
remarkable transactions ever made by a leg- 
islative body. The whole matter of the con- 
troversy over the admission of Missouri is a 
striking evidence of the terrible passion that 
stirred the minds of men over the question of 
slavery. Prejudices were so strong they 
seemed to have blinded men's eyes to some 
very obvious things. 

The first of these compromises which is dis- 
tinctly knoA^Ti as the Missouri Compromise, 
whose author was Honorable Jesse B. Thomas, 
provided that the people of the state should 
be left free to organize a state government, 
without any restriction as to their action con- 
cerning slavery. It was well known at the 
time that, in all human probability, the con- 
stitution so formed would permit the holding 
of slaves and in return for this permission, if ■ 
it may be so considered, the friends of slavery 
agreed to the exclusion of it from all the vast 
domain of the Louisiana Purchase north of 
the parallel of 36 degrees and 30 minutes. It 
can hardly be called a compromise, for the 
friends of slavery conceded practically every- 
thing and gained nothing. 

Under the terms of this act the people of 
the state framed a constitution which allowed 
slavery, and presented it to Congress, in the 
full expectation that the state would be ad- 
mitted. They found themselves opposed by a I 
large number of their original opponents ; this 
time on the groimd that one article in their 



proposed constitution was in opposition to the 
constitution of the United States. This oppo- 
sition to the admission of Jlissouri was strong 
enough to prevent all action upon the Inll 
for a number of weeks. Quite probably, it 
was strong enough to keep the state out of the 
Union for an indefinite period. The matter 
was settled by another compromise. It, too, 
can hardly be termed a compromise, for it 
was also one-sided. At this time, however, 
the opposition conceded practically every- 
thing. They agreed that the offending clause 
in the fundamental law of Missouri should 
remain as it was. This concession they made, 
provided the legislature of the state should 
pass a solemn public act setting aside a clause 
in the constitution of the state. The legisla- 
ture evidently had no authority or power to 
amend or in any way change the constitution 
and any solemn public act of theirs which at- 
tempted to do so was a mere farce. The word 
solemn, indeed, would hardly be applied to an 
act having the preamble that this act carries 
with it, for the legislature of the state quite 
evidently regarded the thing they were at- 
tempting to do as entirely beyond their power 
and authority. 

Out of all the contention and bitterness, out 
of the conflicting claims and so-called com- 
promises, one fact emerges with clearness and 
distinctness, and that is that ]\Iissouri was ad- 
mitted to the Union and became the twenty- 
fourth state. 

The constitutional convention which closed 
its labors July 19, 1820, in accordance with 
the terms of the act of Congress providing 
for the organization of the state government 
in Jlissouri, framed and adopted an ordinance 
which was expressly declared by its terms to 
be forever irrevocable and binding on the 
people of the state. This ordinance had in it 

five sections, which were designed to carry into 
effect five different demands made on the 
people by Congress. The first of sec- 
tions set aside the 16th section of every town- 
ship in the state for school purposes. The 
second section of the ordinance dedicated the 
.salt springs of the state, not to exceed twelve 
in number with six sections of land adjoining 
each of these springs, to the state. The third 
section set aside five per cent of the net pro- 
ceeds of the state land for the purpose of 
building roads and canals. The fourth section 
provided that four sections of land should be 
set aside at the point afterward to be selected 
for the state capitol. The fifth section pro- 
vided that one entire township should be re- 
served and forever dedicated to the purpose 
of a seminarj'^ of learning. 

The convention inserted in the ordinance, 
however, a request that Congress should so 
modify its demand that five per cent of the 
net proceeds of the land should be set aside 
for roads and canals, so as to permit the fund 
bonus arising to be used not only for roads 
and canals, but also for school purposes. 

The southern boimdary of the state, as sug- 
gested in the memorial presented to Congress 
asking for the organization of a state govern- 
ment, was fixed at the parallel of 36 degrees 
and 30 minutes north latitude. It was so 
fixed on the theory that this left 3V2 degrees 
south of the state for the territory of Ar- 

This boimdary was not at all satisfactory 
to people who lived in Little Prairie, now 
called Caruthersville. The settlements along 
Black river and White river were also dissatis- 
fied with the suggested boundary. They did 
not wish to be attached to the territory of Ar- 
kansas. Another petition was presented to 
Congress in March, 1818, asking that the ter- 



ritory south of Missouri river be formed into 
a separate state. It was to be extended further 
to the west than the proposed western boun- 
dary of jMissouri which, at that time, was fixed 
at the western limit of the Osage Purchase. 
In 1818, on November 22nd, the territorial 
legislature adopted a memorial to Congress 
for the admission of JMissouri as a state, and 
proposed new boundaries for the state. It is 
probable that the agitation over the southern 
boundary was carried on in the legislature by 
Stephen Ross of New Madrid county, in the 
house of Dr. Robert D. Dawson, also of New 
Madrid county, in the legislative council, and 
by the members from Laurence county, as it 
was then constituted, which were: Perry 
IMagness, Joseph Harden and John Davidson. 
It was their desire that the boundary should 
be moved far enough south to include the prin- 
cipal settlements on the Mississippi and also 
on White river. Owing, doubtless, to their 
influence, this memorial fixed the southern 
boundary as follows : ' ' Beginning at a point 
in the middle of the main channel of the IMis- 
sissippi river at the 36th degree of north lati- 
tude and running in a direct line to the mouth 
of Black river, a branch of White river; 
thence in the middle of the main channel of 
White river to where the parallel of 36 de- 
grees and 30 minutes north latitude crosses 
the same; thence with that parallel of lati- 
tude due west." 

This memorial, with its proposed boun- 
daries, was the subject of considerable debate 
in Congress, and after this discussion, the 
southern boundary was fixed as it now stands, 
that is to say, running west from the IMissis- 
sippi on the parallel of 36 degrees to the St. 
Francois river; thence up and in the middle 
of the main channel thereof to a parallel of 
36 degrees and 30 minutes, and thence west. 

There can be no doubt that the man most in- 
fluential in seciiring the joining of the terri-i 
tory now included in Dunklin and Pemiscot 
counties to Missouri, was J. Hardeman 
Walker. He was at that time a most influen- 
tial, energetic resident of Little Prairie and 
he carried on a vigorous agitation to secure 
the extension of the southern boundary to in- 
clude this territory. It is quite probable that 
he had the assistance of other representatives 
from Southeast Missouri, including Jolm 
Scott, the territorial delegate, Alexander ; 
Buckner, John James Evans, Judge Richard ■ 
S. Thomas and Dr. Dawson. 

Those who were interested in this extension , 
of the boundary and the inclusion of the ter- 
ritory in Missouri were actuated by a number 
of motives: one was the feeling that Little 
Prairie and the other settlements in what is 
now Pemiscot coimty were really a part of 
Missouri. They had been made about the 
same time of the Missouri settlements, they 
had practically the same population, and were ; 
engaged in the same general industries. Their 
trade and association had been very largely 
with Missouri, and for this reason they re- 
garded themselves as a part of the territory 
of Missouri. It was natural, too, for them to 
wish to be a part of a territory which was 
about to be admitted into the Union as a 
state. The advantages of state government! 
over territorial government are obvious, and 
it was felt that it might be some years before 
the territory of Arkansas would be admitted 
as a state. These reasons, along with others! 
of a similar nature, moved the men mentioned 
to vigorous efl'ort to fix the boundary of the 
state as it now stands. 

The only other boundary dispute directly 
concerning Southeast Missouri occurred at a 



later date, bwt is here given as it rounds out 
the story of the state's boundaries in this 

One of the longest boiuidary disputes in the 
history of the United States was carried on 
between Kentucky and Missouri over the 
possession of Wolf Island, which lies just be- 
low Belmont and is the largest in the Missis- 
sippi river, having an area of 15,000 acres. 
The main channel of the river lies east of the 
island and it is separated from the west bank 
by a nari'ow channel so that it seems to belong 
to Missouri. When the state boundaries were 
defined in 1820 Wolf Island was left as a 
jiart of Kentucky because at that time the 
channel of the river was west of the island. 
After a time, however, the channel shifted to 
the east and the island came to be claimed as 
a part of Missouri. Most people regard it as 
belonging to New Madrid coimty and at one 
time a man living on the island was elected 
sheriff of New Madrid county. Kentucky, 
however, claimed jurisdiction over the island 
and finally the state of Missouri, by its attor- 
ney general, brought suit in the supreme court 
of the United States for possession of the 
island. The case was tried by a number of 
distinguished lawyers on each side and was 
before the court for eleven years. Kentucky 
was represented by John J. Crittenden, Gar- 
ret Davis and Henry Stanberry. Missoiiri 
was represented by Governor Blair and F. A. 
Dick. During the course of the trial a great 

many persons were examined and a great 
many old books and maps produced in evi- 
dence in order to determine the location of 
the channel of the river in the early days. It 
was shown by most of the maps that the main 
channel was east of the island and witnesses 
said that from 1850 back to 1830 the main 
channel was east of the island and that from 
1830 to 1794 both channels were navigable. 
It was shown also that the land was surveyed 
by United States surveyor in 1821 as part of 
Missouri ; other witnesses, however, introduced 
by Kentucky, testified that the channel of the 
river was west of the island during most of 
this period and that about the year 1830 there 
was enough water for boats between the island 
and Kentucky; it was also shown that Ken- 
tucky had exercised continuous authority 
over the island since 1792 when it came into 
the possession of the title formerly held by 
Virginia. The court also heard evidence to 
show that the soil and the plant life of the 
island were similar in character to those of 
the Kentucky side and dissimilar to those on 
the IMissouri side. It was also shown that the 
level of the island was the same as that of the 
second bottom of the Kentucky side and four 
or five feet higher than the western bank. 
These considerations, together with the fact 
that Kentucky had had jurisdiction over the 
island for a great number of years, decided 
the question in favor of Kentucky. 


Period 1820-1860— Town Histories 



A-NALYsis OP Population, 1820-1830 — Comparative Census Table, 1820-1860 — French 
AND German Elements — Period of Town Growth. 

In 1820, when the state was organized, just 
before its admission to the Union, the popu- 
lation of Southeast Missouri was as follows: 

Cape Girardeau county 5,968 

Jefferson county 1,835 

^ladison county 2,047 

New Madrid county 2,296 

Ste. Genevieve county 4,962 

Washington county 2,769 

Wayne county 1,443 

Of this population, the greater part were 
white people, but there were a few free 
negroes and several hundred slaves. The pop- 
ulation grew very rapidly for a number of 
years after the admission of the state into the 
Union. Southeast Missouri still had all the 
advantages which had attracted men to it in 
the earlier days and, added to this now, was 
the fact that it was part of a regularly organ- 
ized state which had been admitted into the 
Union. The people were, as far as possible, 
under our republican form of government, 
self-governing, and from every part of the 
Union there was a movement toward the new 

In 1830 the population of the counties in 
the southeast was as follows : 

Cape Girardeau county 7, 145 

Jefferson county 2,592 

Madison county 2,371 

New iladrid county 2,350 

Perry county 3,349 

St. Francois county 2,366 

Scott county 2,136 

Washington county 6,784 

Wayne county 3,264 

Ste. Genevieve county 2,186 

Analysis of Population, 1820-1830 

It will be observed that in this decade the 
principal growth of population was in Wash- 
ington county. This was due, largely, to the 
development of the mining industry in this 
county. Some of the counties, notably Ste. 
Genevieve, decreased in population, but this 
was owing to a cutting off of some of the 
territory in order to form new counties and 
not to an actual loss of population in the 
county itself. 

The population of Southeast Jlissouri in- 
creased steadily during this period of its his- 
tory. This is especially true of the counties 
along the Mississippi river and the settlements 
in adjoining counties. Those which lay fur- 



ther back and were, consequently, more diffi- Comparative Census Table, 18201860 

cult of access, as was the case in Carter, Rip- Counties. Population 

ley, Butler and Dunklin counties, grew in 1320 1330 1840 1850 1860 

population much more slowly. They were Bollinger 7 371 

separated too far from river transportation, Butler 1.616 2,891 

and they were unprovided with either rail- Cape Girar- 

roads or ordinary roads over which traveling deau ....5,968 7,445 9,359 13,912 15,547 

could be easily made and were, therefore, al- Carter 1,235 

most cut off from any easy or regular com- Dunklin 1,229 5,026 

munieation with the different parts of the Iron 5,842 

country. It is true that even in these coun- Jefferson . . . 1,835 2,592 4,296 6,928 10,344 

ties settlements were made during this period Madison ... 2,047 2,371 3,395 6,003 5,664 

and that by the close of it there were consid- ^Mississippi 3,123 4,859 

erable numbers of people to be found in their New Madrid2,296 2,350 4,554 5,541 5,654 

limits, but their growth was nothing like Pemiscot 2,962 

,^ ' ., ,, „ ^, ,. , „ ,. „ Perry 3,349 5,760 7,215 9,128 

the rapid growth of the counties along the ^^ ' ' ^' ^ 

river. The same causes which operated to ^.^^^^ 2,856 2,830 3,747 

increase rapidly the population of the section g^ Francois .... 2,366 3,211 4,964 7,249 

after the purchase of Louisiana operated with g^^ G e n e - 

even more force to increase the population ^-^^g ....4,962 2,186 3,148 5,313 8,029 

after the admission of the state into the Union, gcott 2 136 5 974 3 182 5 247 

More and more people were attracted by the Stoddard 3,153 4,277 7,877 

richness of the soil, the advantages of the cli- Washington.2,769 6,784 7,213 8,811 9,023 

mate and the possibility of earning a living Wayne 1,443 3,264 3,403 4,518 5,629 

and a competence which was offered to rich — — ■ — 

and poor alike. Most of the settlers who came Total. . . . 21,320 34,843 56,322 81,311 130,497 
were farmers who scattered themselves over 

the territory, opening up new farms and French and German Elements. 
clearing away the wilderness. The section rpj^^^g ^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ increase in popula- 
was distinctly agricultural in its life, with ^^0^ jj^d been both steady and rapid. The 
the exception of the mining region, and even greater numbers of those who came to the ter- 
there, as we have noted, most of the people ritory came from other states, so that the pop- 
depended in part at least upon farming for ulation of Southeast Missouri, outside of the 
a living. A table is here inserted showing older settlements, was largely American. In 
the population of each of the counties in the a few counties there was a considerable 
southeast at each of the census periods from sprinkling of other settlers. The greater 
1820 to 1860, and also the total population at number of French were to be found in Ste. 
each date : Genevieve county, though there were consid- 



erable ni;mbers of them in New Madrid 

German settlers were found in Cape Girar- 
deau county in large numbers, and in some- 
what smaller niuubers in Scott, Bollinger and 
Perry counties. Of course, there was a sprink- 
ling of foreigners in other counties, but the 
population, with the exception of the counties 
noted, was very largely American in char- 
acter. It is to be noted that the presence of 
large numbers of Germans and other foreign 
settlers in Cape Girardeau and surrounding 
counties was one of the things which deter- 
mined the action of Missouri at the outbreak 
of the Civil War. If it had not been for the 
presence of these people who were loyal to the 
Union, it is highly probable that the movement 
for secession in the state would have been suc- 
cessful, and Missouri would have aligned 
herself with the Confederate States govern- 

The German element in the population of 
Southeast Missouri is found largely in Perry 
and Cape Girardeau counties. There were a 
few German families in Ste. Genevieve in its 
early years ; the most prominent German fam- 
ily in Ste. Genevieve coimty was a family 
named Ziegler; there were three brothers of 
this name, Martin, Francis and Sebastian, who 
settled in the vicinity of Ste. Genevieve quite 
early in its history. About 1840 the German 
settlers came to New Offenburg and Zell ; 
these German families were mostly Catholics. 

In 1839 a colony of Germans made their 
home in Perry comity. These were Luther- 
ans and came to America largely on account 
of dissatisfaction with religious teachings at 
home. Their leader was Martin Stephan. 
They came from a number of places in Ger- 
many and numbered more than seven hiuidred 
at the time of their sailing from Bremen. 
One of the five ships on which the party 

sailed was lost at .sea. The others arrived at 
New Orleans in January, 1839, and continued 
their travels until they reached St. Louis on 
February 19th of the same year and remained 
there until the following June. Before sail- 
ing from Germany the colonists had collected 
a common fund of more than $100,000, and 
after reaching St. Louis they purchased 
lands in the southeastern part of Perry 
coimty out of this fund; they .secured 4,400 
acres for the sum of $10,000, and most of the 
colonists removed to this place from St. Louis. 
They suffered very great liardships for a num- 
ber of years, as the land had to be cleared 
and some of it was of very little value. Be- 
fore they succeeded in building hou-ses they 
lived in tents and log cabins and the exposure 
resulted in sickness and death. Stephan, who 
as their leader, had control of affairs, proved 
to be incapable and had to be deposed. Some- 
what later the land which had been held in 
common was distributed among the colonists 
and this lead to very great improvements in 
their condition. 

About 1840 another lot of colonists to the 
number of 75, under the leadership of Rev. 
Maximilian Oertel, established themselves at 
Wittenberg. They were Lutherans, also, but 
their leader, Oertel, soon afterward returned 
to New York and there became a Catholic 

The German settlers of Cape Girardeau 
county began to come to the county in 1834 ; 
the first of these were Otto Buehrman, Will- 
iam Cramer and Rev. Frederick Picker. They 
located on farms in the Big Bend. The 
Cramers and Picker came from Hanover and 
Buehrman from Brunswick. Shortly after 
his arrival, Rev. Mr. Picker removed to the 
settlement on Whitewater and Cramer and 
John Anthony removed to Cape Girardeau 
and engaged in the manufacture of cigars. 



George H. Cramer, who was the son of Will- 
iam Cramer, lived in Cape Girardeau for a 
number of years and was a very highly re- 
spected citizen, holding the office of mayor on 
several occasions. Hon. Wilson Cramer of 
Jackson, is a son of George H. Cramer. Of 
the family of Otto Buehrman there are still 
descendants living within the county and 
until within a few years one of his grandsons 
was a merchant in Cape Girardeavi. In 1835 
William Bierwirth, with his family, Daniel 
Bertling, Henry Friese and Chris Sehatte 
came to Cape Girardeau eoimty from Ger- 
many and since that time there has been a 
stream of German immigration. The settle- 
ment in the neighborhood of Dutchtown was 
made about 1835-36 by families from Switz- 
erland. It was among these families that the 
German Evangelical church was organized in 

Growth of Tovtns 
We have said that the period was prin- 

cipally one in which the population of the 
coimtry increased and farms were opened, but 
there was also a 2ro^^i;h of the towns. With 
the coming of larger nmnbers of people, trade 
increased and therefore the trading centers 
grew rapidly in population. More and more 
men became interested in buying and selling 
goods, in the establishment of banks, and in 
a few eases, the establishment of factories of 
various kinds. These things were concen- 
trated in the to\\'ns of the section and, accord- 
ingly, we find all of these towns having a 
prosperous historj% and the new towns con- 
stantly springing up in every part of the dis- 
trict. We have previously referred to the his- 
tory of more important towns in the section, 
and it will be the purpose in this to continue 
the story of these towns, and to trace the 
founding, and history of those whose story 
begins within the period we are now dis- 



Shipping Cexter of AIixeral Region — Ste. Genevieve-Iron Mountain Plank Road — 
150th Anniversary Celebrated — U. S. Senators from Ste. Genevieve — Ste. Gene- 
vieve op Today — St. Marys. 

Ste. Genevieve, the oldest town in the state, 
continued its period of prosperity during the 
greater part of these years — 1820 to 1860. 
The successful application of steam to the 
propulsion of boats on the Mississippi river 
added very greatly to the river commerce and 
all the to\\Tis situated on the river reaped the 
benefit of this increase. Ste. Genevieve in 
particular was fortunate in this matter. 

Shipping Center of Miner.\l Region. 

Until the construction of the Iron Mountain 
railroad, Ste. Genevieve was the shipping 
point for almost all the mineral region. The 
lead from Washington and Jefferson coun- 
ties, and the iron from Iron county was all 
brought to Ste. Genevieve to be reshipped 
upon boats. From 1846, when the iron indus- 
try became very important, imtil the year 
1858, when the Iron Mountain Railroad 
reached that region the quantities of iron 
which went by Ste. Genevieve were very 
large, indeed. The town became one of the 
greatest commercial centers of the state. The 
lead and iron traffic was like a living stream 
cf prosperity that poured by the town. The 
building of the railroad, however, and the 
consequent change in the shipping point from 
St. Genevieve to St. Louis marked the begin- 

ning of the tov\Ti's decline. It is hardly too 
much to say that had the railroad been built 
from Ste. Genevieve to the mining region, 
rather than from St. Louis, the probabilities 
are that Ste. Genevieve, rather than the latter 
town, might have become the great commer- 
cial city of the state. 

As is set out in the chapter on schools and 
education, one of the principal things which 
marks the history of the town during these 
years was the establishment and conduct of 
schools. The Ste. Genevieve academy, which 
was established by a corporation in 1808, was 
for many years a flourishing institution. The 
public schools were not neglected either, the 
first board of directors being chosen in 1846 
and a public school conducted from that time 
until the present. 

The first telegraph line in Missouri was the 
line which connected Nashville with St. Louis. 
It passed through Ste. Genevieve and was con- 
structed in the year 1820. Its use, however, 
was abandoned after a short time. 


Genevieve-Iron Mountain Plank 

One of the most important improvements 
of the early period was the plank road built 
in 1851 between Ste. Genevieve and Iron 




Mountain. This road was 42 miles in length ; 
it was considered a very great enterprise and 
a number of good engineers were employed in 
its building, among them being James P. 
Kirkwood, chief engineer of the IMissouri Pa- 
cific Railroad, William R. Singleton, one Sul- 
livan and Joseph A. Miller. The road was 
for many years the scene of a great traffic, as 
most of the ore from the lead country was car- 
ried over it to Ste. Genevieve. 

150th Anniversary Celebrated. 

In 1885, on the 21st of July, there was held 
in the city of Ste. Genevieve the 150th anni- 
versary of the founding of the old to^^•n and 
the 100th anniversary of the settlement of the 
new town of Ste. Genevieve. It was made a 
very great occasion. Maxwell Hill was se- 
lected as the site for the exercises of the day, 
which consisted of drills by soldiers that were 
present and a sermon, a long procession con- 
sisting of bands, city officers and most of the 
inhabitants of the town, and addresses. There 
were more than 5,000 persons present at the 
celebration, which was a most delightful event, 
except for the coming up of a great storm 
near the close of the day which scattered the 
people to their homes. The addresses were 
delivered by Firmin A. Rozier, Hon. Alex- 
ander J. P. Garesche, Col. F. T. Laderberger, 
Major William Cozzens and Lyndon A. Smith. 

This tovm more than any other in South- 
east jMissouri retains something of its original 
aspect ; this is due to several facts, one of 
which is that it is the oldest town in the state 
and the buildings which were erected here in 
the early days were of a somewhat better class 
of architecture than the usual ones. They 
have been preserved, many of them, up to this 
time ; the oldest of these is the house of Louis 
Bolduc which was erected in 1785 and is still 

standing in a good state of preservation ; there 
are other houses which were built about the 
beginning of the nineteenth century. The 
town is strictly French in appearance, the 
streets are clean and well kept, and there are 
beautiful la\\Tis about the houses. The old 
houses give an air of distinction to the town, 
as many of them are in a good state of pres- 
ervation. Many descendants of the old famil- 
ies still reside here. There is much to remind 
a visitor of the past. 

U. S. Senators Prom Ste. Genevieve 

It is the peculiar good fortune of Ste. 
Genevieve to have reared four men who after- 
wards became members of the United States 
senate. Besides these men one other citizen 
of the southeast became a senator. This was 
George W. Jones, the son of John Rice Jones, 
for many years famous as a lawyer in this 
part of the state. John Rice Jones came to 
Missouri in 1810, and immediately became 
prominent in political circles. He was a 
member of the territorial legislature and also 
the constitutional convention, and later a 
member of the supreme court of the state. 
His son, George W. Jones, was born in Indi- 
ana, but came to Ste. Genevieve in 1809. He 
married a daughter of one of the early French 
families, received a good education, graduat- 
ing in law at Transylvania University in 
Kentuclcy. On returning to Missouri he be- 
gan the practice of his profession at Ste. 
Genevieve, and while living there was ap- 
pointed clerk of the United States district 

From Ste. Genevieve he removed to Iowa, 
and here he once more entered political life, 
becoming first postmaster, then delegate to 
Congress, and was then appointed surveyor- 
eeneral of Wisconsin and Iowa. In 1841 he 



became t-lerk of the supreme court of the 
.United States and was hiter reappointed sur- 
veyor-general in 1845. 

On the admission of Iowa to the Union in 
1848, he was selected to represent the state in 
the senate, and was later re-elected, sei'ving 
out two terms. After the close of his second 
term he was appointed minister to Bogota, 
serving luitil the outbreak of the Civil war. 
Senator Jones was one of the most respected 
and influential citizens of the city of Du- 
buque, where he made his home during the 
latter part of his life. 

His brother, Augustus Jones, himself be- 
came a famous man. He took part in the In- 
dian wars and later removed to Texas, where 
he soon became famous and influential. He 
was made a general in the armj- of the United 
States and served with distinction. 

The third one of the men who became sen- 
p.tors from Ste. Genevieve was Augustus C. 
Dodge, the son of Henry Dodge. He was 
born in Ste. Genevieve January 12, 1812, and 
when twenty-seven years old, after consider- 
able experience in both peace and war, re- 
moved to the territory of Wisconsin. Before 
his removal he married Miss Clara Hertich. 
the daughter of the famous teacher. Joseph 
Hertich. After removing to Wisconsin ilr. 
Dodge then made his home in Iowa. He en- 
listed in the army and served in the Black 
Hawk war under his father. Governor Henry 
Dodge, of Iowa. 

In 1838 he was appointed registrar of the 
land office at Burlington. Iowa. In 1841 he 
became delegate to Congress, and in 1847 was 
elected United Senator, serving to 1855. Both 
he and his father were influential men and 
voted and worked for every measure having 
to do with the upbuilding of the west. Gen- 
eral Dodge was a particularly strong advo- 
cate of the homestead bill, of the bills for the 

estal)lishmeut of military forts in the west, 
and worked for the admission of California 
as a state, and the establishment of territorial 
governments in New ^Mexico and Utah. 

It was rather an unusual scene in the sen- 
ate at this time when a father and son rep- 
resented two states, Wisconsin and Iowa. It 
is one of the few instances in the history of 
our coimtry. 

After the close of his term in the senate, 
Senator Dodge was appointed as minister to 
Spain, and he discharged the duties of this 
position with great credit to himself. He 
died at Burlington, Iowa, November 20, 1883, 
but until the time of his death was an influ- 
ential man, well known throughout this part 
of the country. 

Tlie fifth native of Ste. Genevieve who be- 
came a senator of the United States was 
Lewis V. Bogy. His father, Joseph Bogy, 
was a native of Kaskaskia. He became a citi- 
zen of Ste. Genevieve in the early history of 
the state, and himself filled several places of 
trust under the Spanish and American gov- 
ernments. He was private secretary of Gov- 
ernor Morales, then a member of the terri- 
torial legislature, and afterwards a state sen- 
ator of Missouri. His wife was a member of 
the famil.v of Beauvais, one of the pioneer 
families of the state. 

Lewis V. Bogy was born in Ste. Genevieve 
in 1813. He received a good education, stud- 
ied law in Kentuckj^ and taught for a short 
time in Wayne coimty, Kentuckj'. He was a 
volunteer in the Black Hawk war of 1832. 
and established himself as a lawyer in Ste. 
Genevieve in 1835. He became a member of 
the legislature from St. Louis, to which place 
he removed in 1840. He was a Whig and a 
very strong supporter of Mr. Clay. In 1849 
he returned to Ste. Genevieve, taking part 
in all the political disputes of that time, and 



was very stronglj- opposed to Senator Benton. 
He opposed Benton as a candidate for Con- 
gress in 1852, but was defeated. Later he 
was a candidate for the legislature from Ste. 
Genevieve coimty, but was defeated. A little 
later he annoimced himself as a candidate for 
the legislature on an anti-Benton ticket. His 
opponent was another of the famous citizens 
of Ste. Genevieve, Hon. Firman A. Rozier. 
The contest between these two men, both rep- 
resentatives of old French families, was a 
very bitter one. Bogy was successful and 
served a term in the legislature. 

At the conclusion of his term he again re- 
moved to St. Louis, and ran for Congress in 
1863 against Frank P. Blair. Blair defeated 
him. He was appointed commissioner of In- 
dian affairs in 1867 by President Johnson, 
but retired from the position after six months 
of service, because the senate refused to con- 
firm his appointment. 

Soon after his retirement he became a can- 
didate for the United States senate, and was 
elected in 1873, serving one term with great 
credit to himself and his constituents. He 
had become a Democrat by this time and was 
chosen as the representative of his party. He 
died in the city of St. Louis. 

Ste. Genevieve op Today 

The present town is a prosperous and flour- 
ishing commiuiity of 2,000 inhabitants. It is 
supported chiefly by the farming country 
about it, though there are some manufactur- 
ing plants, among them two large flouriag 
mills, an ice plant, electric light plant, cigar 
factories, and a lime kiln. There are about 
fifty other business establishments. The 
transportation facilities are good. iluch 
freight is handled by the river, which is only 
half a mile from the town, and two railroads 

afford ample facilities for travel by rail. The 
main line of the Frisco passes through Ste. 
Genevieve, and it is on the Illinois Southern 
which crosses the ilississippi at this place and 
extends to Bismarck in St. Francois county 
to the west. 

The banking interests are cared for by the 
Bank of Ste. Genevieve, organized in 1902, 
with a capital of $10,000, and Henry L. 
Rozier, organized in 1891, with a capital of 
$10,000. The Catholic church building is one 
of the largest structures of its kind in this 
part of the state. 

Elsewhere an account of the schools has 
been given. There is a well-conducted public 
school employing six teachers, and the Cath- 
olic church maintains a large parochial school 
with an enrollment of more than 300. 

There are two weekly papers published in 
the town : The Fai7- Play is owned and edited 
by Jules J. Janis, himself a descendant of one 
of the pioneer families, and is Democratic in 
politics ; and the Herald, published by Joseph 
A. Ernst, is Republican. 

St. Maeys 

St. Marj's, on the ]\Iississippi river not far 
from the mouth of Saline creek, has been a 
town for a number of years. It was first 
known as Camp Rowdy. Its most prominent 
citizen in the early days was General Henry 
Dodge. For some years it was important as 
the shipping place for Perryville and Mine 
La Motte. The first store in the town was 
opened by two men from the east under the 
firm name of Kent & Sparrow. Owing to the 
fact of their eastern origin, the settlement 
came to be known as Yankeetown. They were 
succeeded by Miles A. Gilbert. Another one 
of the merchants in the early history of the 
town was Richard Bledsoe. John F. Schaaf 
built a flouring mill about 1857 or '58. This 



mill was rebuilt after its destruction by fire 
and is still in operation. 

The town has grown recently since the 
building of the St. Louis & San Francisco 
Railroad. It is the shipping point for a con- 
siderable area of farming country and the 
town is supported principally by the farming 

interests. There is a large flouring mill and 
other business interests of the usual charac- 
ter ; the town supports several church organi- 
zations, the largest and most flourishing being 
the Catholic church, and a public school. The 
population at present is 702. 



Cape Girardeau a Steamboat Town' — Incorporated as a City — Prosperity After the War 
— State Norm.yl School Located — Stage of Stagnation — Really Remarkable Progress 
— Founding of Jackson — First Institutions and Persons — Civil Go\"ernment — Pres- 
ent County Seat — Burfordville — Appleton — Pocahontas and Oak Ridge. 

Cape Girardeau is described in 1817 as a 
village containing two stores and about fifty 
houses. Within a short time a tan yard was 
established by Moses IMcLain, near the cor- 
ner of Spanish and Independence streets. 
Another tan yard on the Painter place was 
established by William Scripps and his son, 
John. This tan yard was afterward pur- 
chased by the Painter brothers, who conducted 
it and also a saddler shop. A still was oper- 
ated just north of the town by Levy L. 

In 1818 the estate of Louis Lorim.ier was 
divided and the commissioners made an addi- 
tion to the town. These lots were sold at 
public auction, November 22, 1818. The 
prices paid for the lots were very high. 
Ninety-three lots brought $34,733.00 and 
twenty-one out lots brought $26,523.00. These 
prices indicate the fact that Cape Girardeau 
was coming to occupy a more important po- 
sition and that its advantages were coming 
to be known. 

A Steamboat Town 

Just as in the case of Ste. Genevieve, how- 
ever, it was the steamboat which made Cape 

Girardeau prosperous. The steamboat traffic 
assumed large proportion in the decade lying 
between 1830 and 1840, and during these 
years Cape Girardeau experienced a remark- 
able expansion in its business. Some of the 
men who were in business here during these 
years were : Andrew Gibonej', James P. Ful- 
kerson, Alfred P. Ellis, I. R. Wathen, H. L. 
Sloan, Robert Sturdivant, Thomas J. Rodnej', 
A. D. Leech, T. and W. Johnson, Joseph Phil- 
lipson, J. and S. Albert, Eugene Garaghty 
and C. F. Gale. The first bank in the town 
was established in 1853. This was a branch 
of the state bank, and had formerly been in 
operation at Jackson. The first president 
here was I. R. Wathen, with A. F. Lacy as 
cashier. Lacy being succeeded in 1857 by Rob- 
ert Sturdivant. A steam flouring mill, the 
first of the town's manufacturing establish- 
ments of much importance, was built by 
James Reynolds and B. M. Horrell. The 
Marble City mill was erected a few years 
later by I. R. Wathen. Attention was paid 
during these years in the town to education, 
the first schools being taught in the log house 
not far from the site of the St. Charles hotel. 
The schools were of a purely elementary char- 




acter, and there seems reason to believe that 
the instruction was not always the best at the 
time, for children were sometimes sent to Mt. 
Tabor school. Cape Girardeau Academy was 
established in 1843, and in 1849 the Washing- 
ton Female Seminary was incorporated. Both 
of these institutions were conducted until the 
time of the war. In 1843, too, St. Vincent's 
College was established and is still in oper- 

Tlie Southeast District Agricultural Society 
was organized and incorporated in 1855; it 
was to include all the counties in the con- 
gressional district. General N. W. Watkins 
was the president and the first meeting was 
held at Cape Girardeau and a fair was held 
during the first year, which was on a small 
scale but fairly successful. The next presi- 
dent of the society was Judge W. C. Ranney, 
who was elected in 1856 and served until 
1860. The society secured grounds and 
erected buildings and held fairs each year 
until the beginning of the war. During the 
war the society was disbanded and the grounds 
taken possession of by troops. It was later 
reorganized and is still in existence. 

Incorporated as a City 

We have seen that the first incorporation 
of the village of Cape Girardeau was in the 
year 1808. In 1843 the legislature of the 
state incorporated Cape Girardeau as a city 
with a special charter. It was provided in 
the charter that a mayor and seven council- 
men should have charge of the affairs of the 
city. E. Mason was the first mayor and the 
members of the first council were : W. S. 
Watson, Thomas J. Rodney, J. Rigby, John 
Ivers, J. Ritton, E. P. Evans and E. V. 
Cassilly. The mayors of the city since the 
administration of Mason have been as fol- 
lows: G. W. Juden, 1844 to 1845 ; E. Alason 

1845 to 1846 ; Thomas Johnson, 1846 to 1849 ; 
P. H. Davis, 1849 to 1851; Alfred T. Lacy, 
1851 to 1852 ; Thomas Baldwin, 1852 to 1853 ; 
John C. Watson, 1853 to 1854; Amasa Alton, 
1854 to 1855 ; C. T. Gale, 1855 to 1857 ; John 
Ivers, Jr., 1857 to